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Crime Victims: An Introduction to

Victimology

Sixth Edition
By Andrew Karmen

Chapter Eleven:
Additional Groups of Victims
with Special Problems
Date Rapes on Campuses
Maximalist Position vs. Minimalist Position
Epidemic occurrences
Least reported of all crimes
Not counting accurately
Difference between sexual assault and
consensual sex
Need for more workshops for incoming
freshmen on dating and intimacy
Campus Rape Surveys
3,000 female students32 colleges, 1987
17% attempted or completed acquaintance rape
per year
Less than 5% reported to police
5% sought assistance from rape crisis center
50% of cases told no one
84% knew the victim
57% were on a date
Most incidents occurred off-campus
Drug-Facilitated Date Rape
Males surreptitiously administer club
drugspopular during early 90s
RohypnolRoofies
GHBLiquid ecstasy
MDMAEcstasy
KetamineSpecial K
Large doses induce sedation and temporary amnesia
more so when used with alcohol
Can result in loss of consciousness
Drug-Facilitated Date Rape
Maximalists define date rape drug as any
substance that renders the user incapable
of saying no or asserting herself
Drug-Induced Rape Prevention Act of 1996
imposed stiff penalties for sale or
possession
Education programs for awareness
Drug-Facilitated Date Rape
Minimalists question the scourge
Study in Great Britain reflected most date rapes
were about binge drinking alone or combined
with recreational drug use
Women playing the victim to avoid
responsibility
Even minimalists agree males should not take
advantage of women when under the influence
Campus Violence
College campuses are relatively safe
Property crimes far more prevalent than violent
crimes

See Table 11.1, page 282: Crimes


Committed on Campus
Victims of Crimes Committed at
Schools
See Table 11.2, page 284
Non-reporting continues to be a problem
Murders most accurately counted
See Figure 11.1, page 285
Youngsters slain at school=1% of total youth killings
200217 school aged children slain on school
grounds while 2,036 murdered other locations
Victims of Workplace Violence
Workplace Violence terms coined in 89
Going Postal became common term
Four Different threat assessment strategies
Reduce odds intruder can come into workplace
Prevent outside disputes from coming into workplace
Protect employees who deal with irate customers,
unruly students, disturbed patients and inmates
Safeguard employees from disgruntled current or
former employees
Victims of Workplace Violence
Most dangerous jobsFigure 11.2, page 287
Being Killed on the Job
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs
Police/Detectives
Being Injured on the Job
Law enforcement jobs
Workers in mental health field
College Professorsafest job
Individuals Menaced by Stalkers
The term stalker was coined in the 80s
California established first anti-stalking legislation in
1990
Two Types of Stalking
Celebrity stalkingrelatively rare
Prior relationship stalkingmore common
Very few stalking charges nationally each year
Most victims are women and offenders are ex-husbands
and ex-boyfriends who are jealous and possessive
Targets of non-sensual stalking likely harassed by mentally
ill person
Individuals Menaced by Stalkers
Elements of Stalking Crime

1. Victim has reasonable fear of death or great


bodily injury

2. Credible threat of violence

By 1994, all states had criminalized stalking


practices.
Individuals Menaced by Stalkers
Nationwide SurveyStalking during lifetime

1 out of every 12 women

1 out of every 45 men

Most targets were female78%


Most perpetrators were male87%
Individuals Menaced by Stalkers
Self Protective Measures:
Report crime
Keep corroborating evidence
Get restraining order
Unlisted phone
Trap incoming calls
Change locks
Vary daily routine
Move if necessary
Cyberstalking
Online harassmentonline abusecyber
harassment
Use of internet or electronic communications
to pass along threats
Police often lack resources to investigate
Multi-jurisdictional task forces work cases
Prosecutors lack resources to prosecute
Only 16% of prosecutor offices nationwide
charged someone in 2001
Officers Injured/Killed in Line of Duty
As the first line of defense for the social
order, law enforcement agents serve as a
lightning rod, attracting and absorbing the
bolts of discontent emanating from alienated
individuals and hostile groups within
society.Author
Often considered to be the most heinous of
all crimes and usually punishable by death
in most states
Officers Injured/Killed in Line of Duty
Number of deaths peaked in 1979, dropped
in the 80s, and then became fairly stable
See Trends Graph, Figure 11.3, page 292
(covers 1973-2004)
Most Likely to be Killed
Easy going and good natured
Less inclined to use force in situations involving
mentally ill or armed person
Involved in some kind or procedural miscue
Officers Injured/Killed in Line of Duty
Statistical Portrait of Murdered Officers:
95% were males
84% were white
70% less than 40 years old
54% working in Southern U.S.
96% killed by gunfire
55% were wearing protective body armor
Victims of Bias/Hate Crimes
Crimes motivated by hate for a particular group
1990 enacted Hate Crimes Statistics Act
FBI to gather data annually on bias crimes
2004 FBI reported 7,650 hate crimes (16% of law
enforcement agencies reported a hate crime)
53% racial motivationmainly against blacks
13% ethnic motivationmainly Jewish
18% religious intolerance
16% sexual preference
75% of law enforcement agencies report
hate/bias crimes nationally
Criminal Justice Reforms:
Hate/Bias Crimes
Since 80s there are stiffer penalties
By 2000, most agencies had specially trained units
to investigate hate/bias crimes
Not all states protect homosexuals
Recent legislation provides for civil remedies
States hesitant to protect homosexuals to give
appearance of endorsement of lifestyle
Hate crimes on college campus virtually non-
existent
Terrorism
Violence taking form of bombing,
assassination, kidnapping for ransom,
hostage taking, and skyjacking
FBI reports 1980-1999
327 incidents in U.S. suspected
239 verified
73% by domestic terrorists
27% by international terrorists
Terrorism
1993 Trade Tower attack was the worst until
9/11
2001 Trade TowerAl Qaeda killed 2,838 in
Towers, 189 at Pentagon, and 44 in
Pennsylvania plane crash
See Figure 11.5, page 303: Casualties of
Terrorism Compensation of 9/11 Victims
Set precedent for future and past terrorist
victims?
Key Terms
Stalking Cyberstalking

Bias crimes Vandalism

Bias incidents Suspected terrorist


attacks
Confirmed terrorist Domestic terrorism
attacks
International terrorism