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Circuit breaker testing New Approach

Thomas Renaudin

SEEEI conference
*
Circuit Breaker Testing

>

Circuit Breakers Design and standards


Tests on Circuit Breakers
CIBANO 500

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OMICRO
Definition of Circuit Breaker

Basically a circuit breaker is an automatically


operated electrical switch designed to protect an
electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or
short circuit. Its basic function is to immediately
discontinue electrical flow.
Ideal switch:

closed open
R=0 R =

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OMICRO
Purpose of Circuit Breakers in Power Systems
Network
>

Minimize losses in closed position


Circuit Breaker

x
>

Open and close on command


Busbar
Open or close a circuit to connect
>

the power to/from the transmission


Disconnector
line
(O - break, C - make)
Open a circuit for planned
>

Circuit Breaker

x
maintenance (O - break)
Open a circuit at system fault to
>

Power
protect the system behind the Transformer

circuit breaker (O break, O-C


reclose, O-CO, auto-reclose)
Isolate between poles, open
>

contacts and earth


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OMICRO
Circuit Breaker Components

Source: ABB, [RUS07]

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Circuit Breaker Components

A: interrupter chamber
B: insulated support column
C: support structure
D: central cubical
E: wiring
F: operating mechanism

Source: Siemens

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OMICRO
Standards ANSI

> C37.04-1999
> Standard ratings defined

> C37.06-2000
> Schedule of preferred ratings

> C37.09-1999
> Type tests
> Routine tests

> C37.081, C37.082,


IEEE 693

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OMICRO
Standards IEC
> IEC 62271-100, 2001
> Type, routine & field tests
> Timing definitions
> Guide for selection and
specification

> IEC 60694, 2001


> Normal service
conditions
> Schedule of preferred
ratings
> Altitude correction

> IEC 60427, IEC 60815,


IEC 60529, IEC 61166,
IEC 61233

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OMICRO
IEC - timing definition

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OMICRO
Circuit Breaker Testing

Circuit Breakers Design and standards


>

Tests on Circuit Breakers


CIBANO 500

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OMICRO
What is usually needed to test breakers

Timing - Meter CB Supply


Analyzer

> Rewiring for each test


> Individual -Measurement for each interrupter
> Collect data for test report

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OMICRO
Typical tests on circuit breakers

1. Minimum pick-up test


2. Static resistance or contact resistance test (Ohm)
3. Timing of main and auxiliary contacts
a. different operations (O, C, OC, CO, OCO, COCO, OCOCO,...)
b. undervoltage test
c. coil currents

4. Motor current
5. Contact travel (motion) of main contacts
6. Dynamic contact resistance (DRM)

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1. Minimum Pick-up Test

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1. Minimum Pick-up Test

>

Indicates the lowest voltage to operate the trip or


close coil
>

Start at a certain voltage level


>

Try to operate
>

If not working increase voltage and try again


>

Ramp the voltage pulse until minimum voltage is


reached with which the circuit breaker switches
>

Everybody has a selfmade solution for this test

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OMICRO
2. Contact Resistance Test

Conventional Setup

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OMICRO
2. Contact Resistance Test

>

Test is performed with a Ohm-Meter


>

A lot of different test devices on the market (weight,


handling, output current and accuracy)
>

Inject a high current


>

Measurement of a small voltage in a noisy


environment
>

Use 4-wire technique to connect

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OMICRO
3a. Timing Test
>

Connect to all main contacts


>

Connect to trip & close coil


>

Voltage supply required


Conventional Setup

Time-consuming and
error-prone

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OMICRO
3a. Timing Test - Measured Values

Open Time, Close Time, Contact Spread, Phase Spread, Trip-Free Time, Reclose Time
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OMICRO
3b. Timing undervoltage condition
>

Coils are normally driven by station battery


>

What happens if battery condition is not the best


>

Perform a test with reduced supply voltage (e.g. 80


%)
>

Check times for under voltage


>

does it work anyhow


>

are there any delays compared to nominal voltage?


>

Measure the overall times and compare to


manufacturer values

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OMICRO
3c. Coil Current
>

Important tool in circuit breaker analysis


>

Detect potential problems in actuating coils


>

Reveal information on power supply


>

Comparison is best method of analysis

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OMICRO
4. Motor Current

>

Connect source
to charging motor
or use current
clamp
>

Check charging
times and
charging currents
>

Compare with
previous
measurements

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OMICRO
5. Contact Travel

Functional Breaker Model


OMICRON Page 22 Page 22
5. Contact Travel - Travel Measurement to find out:

> Mechanical defects of the cinematic chain


> Overall mechanical performance
> Slow operation due to jammed mechanism
> Deterioration of mechanical damping

> Contact wear


> Arcing contact length (in combination with DRM)

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OMICRO
6. Dynamic Resistance Measurement (DRM)

> Recording the contact resistance during breaker


operation (resistance over time)
> Combination of contact resistance, timing and
travel measurements

1.Inject high current


2.Start recording A & V
3.Operate Circuit Breaker
4.Calculate Resistance

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OMICRO
6. Dynamic Resistance Measurement (DRM)
Use DRM to find out
>

Problems with contact fingers


>

Lubrication problems
>

The arcing contact length

OMICRON Page
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6. DRM Diagnosis: arcing contact length
main contact

motion

arcing contact length

dynamic resistance

coil current

ms

OMICRON Page
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Circuit Breaker Testing

Circuit Breakers Design and standards


Tests on Circuit Breakers
>

CIBANO 500

Page 27
OMICRO
Conventional Setup for Circuit Breaker Testing

>

Rewiring between micro-


ohm measurement and
timing tests
>

Lots of cables
>

Time-consuming and
error-prone Mirco-ohm measurement

>

Long test cables create


inductive loops which
catch interferences
>

External supply or
station battery required
Timing Tests

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OMICRO
CIBANO 500 3-in-1 Test System
>

Timing analyzer
>

Possible operations: O, C, CO, OC, O-CO, CO-CO, O-CO-CO


>

Motion measurement is possible in parrallel


>

Micro-ohm meter
>

Static AND dynamic contact resistance test


>

Powerful coil and motor stabilized supply


>

Coil/motor current analysis


>

Undervoltage condition test


>

Minimum pick-up test


>

Tests are possible without station battery

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OMICRO
CIBANO 500 one system for all types of breakers

>

Medium-voltage circuit breakers


>

High-voltage circuit breakers (Live Tank)


>

High-voltage circuit breakers (Dead Tank)

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OMICRO
Unique connection concept

CB MC2

CIBANO 500 CB TN3

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OMICRO
Modular concept for simplified testing
Main Contact Module CB MC2
>

2 high-current outputs and 2 sensitive voltage


measurement channels
>

Keeps high-current cables as short as possible


>

minimizing the weight of the necessary cables


>

A digitized measuring signal is produced directly


at the interrupter keeping analog cables as short
as possible
>

very low noise interference


>

Only one connection cable to the main unit


>

fast set-up and reduced risk of wiring errors


>

Both sides grounded test possible

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OMICRO
Unique connection concept

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OMICRO
Unique connection concept

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OMICRO
Modular concept for simplified testing
Transducer Node CB TN3
>

Accessory for motion/contact travel test


>

3 analog and digital channels for data


acquisition of linear or rotational motion
sensors
>

Interference-free digital transmission of


results via one cable

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OMICRO
Powerful software support

>

Primary Test Manager software supports all tests


>

One combined test report for all tests

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OMICRO
Benefits of all-in-one OMICRON approach

>

3-in-1 system combines:


>

timing analyzer
>

micro-ohmmeter
>

powerful AC/DC supply


>

One wiring for all test: all-in-one / all-in-once


>

One system for medium- and high-voltage circuit


breakers
>

Immunity to interference due to short test cables


>

One combined report for all tests


>

Light-weight test system for on-site testing (20 kg / 44.1


lbs)
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OMICRO