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Motivation
The set of processes that arouse, direct, and
maintain human behavior toward attaining a goal.
Key Elements

Arousal: The drive/energy behind our actions.


I want to meet my sales Quota.
Direction: Way towards goal .
Work Late, Make extra calls,Study Product Line.
Maintenance: Persistence, how long a person tries.
One week, a month and so on, not giving up easily.

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Motivation refers to the way in which
urges, drives, desires, aspirations,
striving or needs direct, control or explain
the behavior of human being
McFarland.

Motivation is the process that account


for an individuals intensity, direction and
persistence of effort toward attaining a
goal-Stephen P. Robbins.
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Importance of Motivation
Motivation is important to organizations
because in conjunction with ability and
environment it determines performance.
P=f(M, A, and E).
P-Performance.
A-Ability.
M-Motivation.
E-Environment/Opportunity( favourable).

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MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE

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Theories of
Motivation

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7
8
Theory
Theory XX Theory
Theory YY

Avoid
Avoid Work
Workis
isNatural
Natural
Work
Work

Must
Mustbe
be Self-
Self-
Controlled
Controlled Direction
Direction

Avoid
Avoid Seek
Seek
Responsibility
Responsibility Responsibility
Responsibility

Good
GoodDecisions
Decisions
Seek
SeekSecurity
Security Widely
WidelyDispersed
Dispersed
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Concepts:
Concepts:
More
Morethan
thanone
oneneedneedcan
can
Core
CoreNeeds
Needs be operative at the same
be operative at the same
Existence: time.
time.
Existence:provision
provisionof of
basic
basicmaterial IfIfaahigher-level
material
requirements. higher-levelneed
need
requirements. cannot
cannotbe befulfilled,
fulfilled,the
the
Relatedness: desire
desiretotosatisfy
satisfyaalower-
lower-
Relatedness:desire
desirefor
for level
relationships.
relationships. levelneed
needincreases.
increases.
Growth:
Growth:desire
desirefor
for
personal development.
personal development.
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McClellands
Needs Theory

Affiliation
Achievement
Power

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Acquired Needs Theory
Emphasizes importance of three needs
acquired through experiences:
Need for achievement (nAch)
Need for power (nPower)
Need for affiliation (nAff)
McClelland encourages managers to identify
the presence of these needs through
observation and create appropriate work
environments.

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Perception
The process by which we become aware of, and
give meaning to, events around us.
Perception helps define reality.
Objective realitywhat truly exists in the physical world
to the best abilities of science to measure it.
Perceived realitywhat individuals experience through

one or more of the human senses, and the meaning


they ascribe to those experiences.
Behavioral problems arise when an individuals
perceived reality does not match objective
reality.
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SITUATIONAL FACTORS
Work setting
Social setting
Time

CHARACTERISTICS CHARACTERISTICS
OF PERCEIVER OF PERCEIVED/TARGET
Motion
Expectations
Size
Experience INDIVIDUALS Appearance
Values PERCEPTION Proximity
Attitudes
Sound
Personality
Background

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BARRIERS/ERRORS/BIASES
IN PERCEPTION

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Projection
Projection = assigning ones
personal attributes to another
individual.
Happens at interpreting stage of perception.
E.g., when manager assumes subordinate
reacts to a work opportunity the same way as
the manager.

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Projection
Controlled through:
self-awareness (realizing ones
own needs) and
strong empathy (being able to
put oneself in the others position
and understand their perspective)

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Halo Effects
Halo effect = one attribute of a person or situation is
used to develop an overall impression of that
individual or situation. (positive aspect)
if negative aspect is given more weightage it
leads to horn effect.
Happens at organizing stage of perception.
Common e.g., when we meet a new person who
smiles at us, we have immediate first impression
that the person is friendly.
Can create distortion in performance appraisals,
e.g., good attendance = intelligent, responsible
Need to ensure appraisal based on facts, not biased
impressions.
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Selective
Selective perception = tendency to notice those
Perception
aspects of a person or situation that are
consistent with or reinforce the perceivers
existing attitudes, beliefs or needs.
Influences attention stage what we notice.
Most easily overcome by gathering perceptual
info from others to see if one has only picked up
on part of the picture.

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Stereotypes
Judging someone on the basis of ones
perception of the group to which that
person belongs and thus cause problems in
accurate retrieval of information.
Can be misleading in case of employment
interviews and one can lose a very
deserving candidate too. Basically the
person is having closed windows and
doesnt let fresh, new ideas to pop-in.

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STEREOTYPING PROCESS

Develop social categories


And assign traits
To them.

Person is identified with a


Social category based on
Observable information

Assign social categorys


Cluster of traits
In the person

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Self-fulfilling prophecy = the tendency to
create or find in a situation or individual what
one expects to find.
Because one believes something, one acts in a
way that makes the outcome more likely.
Negative example: assume individual has no ambition
so gives no challenging work; individual is bored and
does not work well, confirming managers initial belief
Positive example: believe exceptional potential in
employee so give challenge, support, praise;
employee thrives in this attention and support,
performing well, thus confirming managers
expectations.

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Contrast effect = when an individuals
characteristics are contrasted with those of
people recently encountered who rank higher
or lower on those characteristics.
Person in job interview appears stronger when
immediately following a weak candidate.
Awareness of potential distortion from
contrast effect needed.

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Recency effect

The disproportionately high weight given to


the last information obtained about a
stimulus.

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Self-serving Bias

This is a tendency for individuals


to attribute their own success to
internal factors and place blame
for failures on external factors.
Their approach is self-serving.

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WHAT IS
STRESS
Stress is your mind? and bodys response or
reaction to a real or imagined threat, event or
change.
The threat, event or change are commonly called
stressors. Stressors can be internal (thoughts,
beliefs, attitudes) or external (loss, tragedy,
change).
What Is Stress
Stress is the bodys automatic response to
any physical or mental demand placed on it.

Adrenaline is a chemical naturally produced in


our body as a response to stress .

Fight or Flight response is illicited.


Is All Stress Bad?
Moderate levels of stress may actually
improve performance and efficiency

Too little stress may result in boredom

Too much stress may cause an unproductive


anxiety level
TYPE OF
STRESS
EUSTRESS

DISTRESS
Eustress or positive stress occurs when your
level of stress is high enough to motivate you to
move into action to get things accomplished.
Distress or negative stress occurs when your level of
stress is either too high or too low and your body
and/or mind begin to respond negatively to the
stressors.
STAGES OF STRESS
ALARM STAGE
RESISTANCE STAGE
EXAUSTION STAGE
As you begin to experience a stressful event or
perceive something to be stressful psychological
changes occur in your body. This experience or
perception disrupts your bodys normal balance
and immediately your body begins to respond to
the stressor(s) as effectively as possible.
EXAMPLE
Cardiac - increased heart rate
Respiratory - increased respiration
Skin - decreased temperature
Hormonal - increased stimulation of
adrenal genes which produce an adrenal
rush.
During this stage your body tries to cope or
adapt to the stressors by beginning a process of
repairing any damage the stressor has caused.
Your friends, family or co-workers may notice
changes in you before you do so it is important
to examine their feedback to make sure you do
not reach overload.
EXAMPLE
Behavior indicators include: lack of
enthusiasm for family, school, work or life in
general, withdrawal, change in eating habits,
insomnia, hypersomnia, anger, fatigue.

Cognitive Indicators include: poor problem


solving, confusion, nightmares, hyper-
vigilance.
During this stage the stressor is not
being managed effectively and the body
and mind are not able to repair the
damage.
EXAMPLE
Digestive disorders, withdrawal, headaches,
tension, insomnia, loss of temper.
SYMPTOMS OF STRESS
Frequent headaches, jaw clenching or pain
Gritting, grinding teeth
Difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts
Difficulty in making decisions.
Frequent crying spells or suicidal thoughts
Frequent blushing, sweating
Feelings of loneliness or worthlessness
Cold or sweaty hands, feet
Little interest in appearance, punctuality
DEFINITION
Stress management refers to a wide
spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies
aimed at controlling a person's levels of stress
, usually for the purpose of improving
everyday functioning.
NEED OF STRESS
MANAGEMENT

health
happiness
work performance
team spirit and co-operation
relationships
personal development
BENEFITS OF STRESS
MANAGEMENT
Better immune function
Less illnesses and physical complaints
More energy
Feeling more relaxed
Sleeping better
Better digestion
Calmer mood
More focused, more positive
DISTRESS RELIEF
STRATEGIES
Relax neck and shoulders
Take a stretch
Get a massage
Exercise and meditate
Count to 10
Control your thoughts
Fantasize
Congratulate yourself
Ignore the problem if appropriate, after
evaluation
Perform self maintenance
Talk to a counselor
Practice a hobby
Pray
Remember your purpose
Take a break
Get hug therapy
Learn something
Try aroma therapy
Laugh
Prioritize daily tasks
Identifying Stressors

Situations, activities, and


relationships that cause
trauma to ones physical,
emotional, or psychological self
Stressors
School
Work
Family
Relationships
Legal
Finances
Health/illness
Environment
Living Situation
Managing Stress
Stress Relief Strategies
1. Body relaxation excercises
- breathing techniques
- guided imagery
2. Physical exercise
-yoga
-work out routine
3. Meditation
4. Counseling
-talk therapy
-life coaching
Other Helpful tips
Changing perceptions and expectations
Break jobs/tasks into manageable parts
Set reasonable/realistic goals
Avoid procrastination
Set boundaries
Dont compromise your values/beliefs
Schedule me time
Maintain balance
Benefits of Stress
Management
Physical health gets better
-more energy and stamina
Emotions stabilized
-positive attitude
-hopeful/happier
Ability to focus improved
-able to learn and achieve
What is
Time Management?
Time management refers to the development of
processes and tools that increase efficiency
and productivity (for a student, for a business,
for an organization)

Time management doesnt just happen for


anyone it is a skill that must be worked on, and
that most people find to be a life-long challenge

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What Do Students Have to
Juggle
School work Nowadays?
Jobs
Volunteer work
Co-curricular activities
Community activities
Family responsibilities
Social life

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Time Management Is Critical
to Your Success In

getting your college work done and


achieving good grades
keeping a job (and being able to support
yourself)
maintaining your mental and physical
health
investing in and keeping good relationships
with other people

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The Benefits of Having
Good TM Skills
Time management helps you get the most
out of your education
Allows you to be better prepared for the
demands of your lifetherefore decreases
anxiety
Helps you to assign time to tasks in
proportion to their importance (prioritizing)
Helps you achieve a more balanced life
Makes you a more productive, successful
person
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Early Warning Signs of
TM Problems
Handing in work late
Submitting work that is not up to your usual
standard
Forgetting commitments
Finding that you often dont have enough time
to complete a task
Making excuses for why work is not done
Having to let go of activities you enjoy
because of a lack of time or low grades

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Early Warning Signs of
TM Problems
Asking teachers for extensions regularly on
submitting your work
Your grades dont reflect your ability

Take a minute to complete the Time


Management Quiz to determine how much
you need to work on this important skill

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Why Dont We Use Our
Time More
Planning out Effectively?
your time seems like more work
Adds more structure to your day we have
enough of this at school or work
Forces you to look at what needs to be
completed can be overwhelming
Its not fun
You are lazy or just dont care enough

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Crisis vs. Time
Management
Lots of people use more crisis management
than time management:
Crisis vs. Time
I wish I had more My mark reflected
time the time I spent
I know Ill get a bad Ill get a good mark
mark
I dont want to see my I can hardly wait to
grade see my mark!
Everyone will do I feel good about
better than I will myself and my work
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Three Key Steps to
Good Management
Developing a Weekly Schedule
to provide an overview of free and committed
time
Writing a Daily To-Do List
to provide daily reminders to assure key tasks
are not forgotten
Preparing a Long-Term Plan
to promote overall organization and
future planning

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Step 1:
Creating a Weekly Schedule
Can use a weekly schedule template, a
student agenda, or a computer program
Will allow you to:
Organize your regular activities
Determine your available free time
Look at hours spent on extra-curricular
activities
See how much time you study
Know how and where you tend to waste time

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Step 1:
Creating
Fill a Weekly Schedule
in the weekly schedule in this sequence:
Personal Maintenance (i.e. eating, sleeping,
getting ready, travel)
Your classes
Your work commitments
Other Commitments (volunteer, extra-curricular
etc.)
THEN fill in other OPTIONAL commitments

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The Typical Student
Week
Things I Must Do +

Things I Want to Do +

Wasted Time =

168 hours

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Where Does the Time
Go?
Approx. 110 hours of time is consumed by
personal maintenance and class time
Work and other commitments may take up to
another 14+ hours
That leaves approximately 44 hours
remaining - this is YOUR time to spend how
you see fit!

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A Good Exercise
If you cant figure out where that 44 hours
goes every week, keep track of how you
spend your time for the next 7 days youll
be amazed at how it gets used!

No one expects that a student will use every


minute of their free time to do work but it
seems reasonable that at least half of it will
be devoted to academics (and even more at
very busy times)

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Step 2:
Daily
Its helpfulTo-Do
to createLists
a list with the following
headings as a way to organize your time:
Wednesday, March 26

Task Time Req. Importance Other Notes


Math homework 1 hour Important
Play rehearsal 2 hours Very important Drama Room
Science Quiz hour Very important Cell structures
Geography mapping hour Important Extra help from
Mrs. Belford

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Step 2:
Daily
Its To-Do
even more Lists
effective to actually create a
daily schedule and block out the time when
events will happen (see sample)
Its important to tick things off on your daily to-
do list as you complete them gives you a
sense of accomplishment
Try to put down a little more on your list than
you think you can realistically accomplish
Breaking down large projects into smaller tasks
that you can accomplish in small chunks of
time is one of the most effective TM strategies
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Step 3:
Long-Term
Best Plans
to use a monthly calendar
Important to be able to look ahead by at
least 4 weeks
As soon as you are informed of deadlines
for assignments, test dates etc. put them on
the calendar so you can ensure that youre
able to do some long-range planning
A very important step in preventing last
minute cramming or rushed assignments

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Procrastination:
Enemy of Time
WhileManagement
procrastinating may give immediate
gratification because it delays working on an
important (but sometimes undesirable) task, it
also brings:
Anxiety
Reduced sleep
Illness
Lower grades
Poorer quality of work
Less learning as a result of being rushed
A personal sense of disappointment

In the end, it hurts you more than it helps you!

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The Importance of
Setting Priorities
At any one time, you may have 10 tasks
that ideally you should be working on it will
be impossible to do them all!
Setting priorities means making a value
judgment on each task you need to
complete based on its worth and when it
must be completed
In short: the tasks that are worth the most
and due the soonest should be your #1
priority!
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How Much Time
Should I Be
If you dont know Spending?
how much time a
particular task should be taking up, here
are some helpful suggestions:
Ask your teacher for some guidance
Speak to other successful students in the class
Break the task down into various stages and
consider an appropriate amount of time for
each step
Consider the value of and deadline for the task
and weigh it against other priorities

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What If I Get Off
Schedule?
Its important to prepare for the unexpected
things will always come up that you didnt
plan foreven after great planning!

When your plan is thrown into chaos:


List each necessary activity you need to complete
Define time limits for each activity
Set priorities within the list
Tackle assignments in that order

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What If I Just Have Too
Much Going
If you find that On?
you have very few hours left in
your day, week or month to relax, spend time
with friends or family, or pursue your own
interests, its time to re-evaluate your
commitments!
If you spread yourself too thin, you wont fulfill
any of the commitments in your life to your
level of satisfaction
Again, be sure to prioritize and dont feel guilty
if you need to drop an activity or two your
health and well-being is always your #1 priority!

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In Summary
Time management is a skill that EVERYONE
must work on in all areas of their life
(personal, academic, work)
Successful time management requires self-
evaluation and the desire to improve
Effective time management will require you
to do things you dont want to do when you
dont want to do them you have to push
yourself!
The pay-off of good time management is
ALWAYS worth the effort
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If you think you could
use
Talk to more help
your teachers about their suggestions
in how to manage the workload in the class
Let your parents, friends, coaches etc. know
how you are feeling their support is
important
Book an appointment with your counsellor in
Student Services to actually practice some of
the time management techniques
If your mental or physical health is impeding
your ability to manage your time effectively,
see your family doctor
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Attitudes
Persistent tendency to
feel and behave in a
particular way towards
some object or in any
situation.
Nature of Attitude
Attitude are learned

It is the feeling ,beliefs of individual and


groups.

These feelings and beliefs are defined as


ones Pre-dispositions towards given
aspects of the world.

It is not permanent ,it changes


TYPES OF
ATTITUDES
ATTITUDES

POSITIVE NEUTRAL NEGATIVE


Components of
Attitude

Emotional
Cogniti Compone
ve nts

Behaviora
l
Compone
nts
Cognitive Components- The Belief , Information&
Knowledge.
Eg-If a Person does not like or has a negative
attitude about the nuclear bomb ,In interview if
he asked about the nuclear bomb he will give
negative points only means he does not like the
nuclear bomb that means his belief and
information is negative for that.

Emotional Components- Feelings, Sentiments


and moods of emotions towards a particular
object

Eg-Wanted to go for a night shift job rather that a


General Shift Job
Behavioral Components-Way of thinking
,Behaving and feelings

Eg-If some one like the Principal of the college


his attitude is made by feelings and
behavioral aspects
Functions of attitude
1.Attitude is a determine function-Attitude determine
the meaning of what is seen in the environment may
be good or bad means favorable attitude has good
meaning and unfavorable attitudes are bad meaning.

2.Attitude is a contradictions means some time they


give two meaning words and diplomatic opinions
about the same things.

3.Attitude is a adjustment function-Attitude is


provides a function to adjust in the proper
environment to adjust themselves in that
environment. Treated them badly negative attitude
and treated them good a positive attitude.

4.Ego Defense Function- Employees in organization


want to protect their own image and some negative
5.Expressive Function-
It provides someone values and self identity of
a person
A Manager is belief in ethics so his attitude
shows the voice of a quality of work.

6.Attitude is a knowledge function- Maintain


stable ,Organized and meaningful structure of
a person not bluff anything.
Channing attitude of self
1.Employee has to make positive attitude (Belief,
Proper Information and Ego)
2.Think about yourself and develop your own
attitude.
3.Listen others and develop the positive attitude.
4.Get in to continuous development and
communication program
5.Build a self esteem and prestige
6.Stay away from negative influences.
Changing the attitude of
Employees

Give feedback-Employees are told about their


negative attitude and if it is harmful and manager
needs to offer alternative attitude.

Good Working Condition to work in the culture.

Positive Role Model means if the Manager is the


positive attitude and the role model the workers
provides the positive attitude.
Providing new information's means updated
information and do not ignore the information's.

Use of fear to change some unethical negative attitude.

Providing coopering some situations to change their


attitude .

Degree of commitment on target means morale


development.
FORMATION OF
ATTITUDE
How attitudes are formed? How do you develop
your attitude? Essentially attitudes are the outward
manifestation of your inner values and beliefs.
These develop over time. As you grow you watch
the significant people around you behaving in a
particular way; you are being told to cherish certain
things over others and you learn from your teachers
and peers and come to value certain thins over
other, thus forming your value system. These in
turn give rise to development of your attitudes.
DIFFERENT ATTITUDES