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Renewable Energy Sources

FEB 19 , 2005
Topics :

Why Bio diesel ? & World Scenario

What is Bio diesel ?

Indian Initiatives (Farm to Forecourt)

Reliance on Bio-diesel & Road map

Why Bio-Diesel

Depletion of Fossil fuel.

Regulated production by OPEC, upward swings in
world price.
Increased demand on energy for Economic
development & need for energy security.
Focus on Environment, Green House Impacts,
Kyoto protocol.
Other Socio economic gains.
Eco friendly Bio-diesel

Average Bio-diesel emissions compared to conventional


Regulated B 100 B 20

Total Unburned Hydrocarbons -67 % -20 %

Carbon Monoxide -48 % -12 %

Particulate Matter +10 % +2 %

- Source EPA
Total Carbon credit with Bio-diesel
Socio-economic Advantage of Bio
Energy security

Economic and social cohesion

Upliftment of Rural Communities

Employment generation

Transformation of Wasteland

Our national goal is to create wealth return of Rs 25000 per acre of waste land
World Scenario
Biodiesel is in focus globally owing to:
Kyoto protocol mandates GHG reduction.
Bio diesel improves agricultural incomes.
Blend up to 20% biodiesel in diesel (B20) is already in use
without any engine modifications.
3 % bio-diesel in blend is mandated in France from 2007.
Bio diesel production in Europe is 1.43MMTPA in 2003. Germany is the
leader with 0.72MMTPA followed by France with 0.36MMTPA.
Life cycle studies shown that bio diesel produced from lingo-cellulosic
materials (biomass) can virtually eliminate net greenhouse gas
Bio diesel produced from biomass being developed by Mercedes,
Volkswagen and Choren Energy in Germany.
World Scenario Contd..
Biodiesel is in focus globally owing to:
Thailand is pursuing 2% palm oil blending in diesel.

Slovenia introduced B5 and 20 ROs supplying bio diesel blend.

Toronto Transit Commission (TTC), Canada to combat urban smog, 180

buses on bio diesel. BioMer Company operating 11 boats on B100.

British company Argent Energy setting up bio diesel plant in North

Island of New Zealand with a capacity 65000Tonnes per annum &
another plant in Scotland, which is to be ready by end 2004.
Gujarat Oleo Chem. Ltd. Has handed over first consignment of bio
diesel produced from castor oil to Indian Oil Corporation.
Biodiesel from Vegitable oil ( USA 1Jan 05) tax incentive of $ 208 =/M3
and biodiesel from recycled oils - $ 104 =/M3.
World Scenario Contd..
Biodiesel is in focus globally owing to:
Pure Energy Corporation, another bio diesel producer has handed over
the second batch to HPCL, BBY for use in BSET buses in Mumbai. The
first batch from this company was handed over to IOC for use in
Railways and Haryana roadways.

Vegetable Oil Country

Rape seed France, US

Sunflower Italy, Southern France
Soyabean USA
Palm Malaysia
Linseed, Olive Spain
Cotton Greece
Jatropha curcas Nicaragua, India
Used Frying Oils Australia
Other Waste oils & fats. USA
Natural, Renewable fuel Produced from Biomass

FAME {Vegetable Oil + Alcohol = Esters [BD] + Glycerin}

// HC no sulfur ring molecules or Aromatics


catalyst 3RCOOCH3 + CH OH

CH2 OCOR Methanol Biodiesel CH2OH

(Triglyceride) Glycerin
It is environment friendly, bio- degradable, non
toxic & exhibits high flash point.
Safe to handle and performs like petro diesel.
Attributes Bio Diesel
Specific Gravity 0.87 to 0.89
Kinematic viscosity @40C 3.7 to 5.8
Cetane Number 51 to 70
Sulfur, wt ppm 0 to 15
Cloud point C -11 to 16
Iodine number 60 to 135
Gross Calorific value 9560 Kcal/kg
Flash point ~ 130 deg C
BIODIESEL BIS/EU specs comparison
Technical Advantages of Bio diesel

Ultra low sulphur content

No Aromatics
No net carbon dioxide addition to environment
99.6% bio-degradability within 21 days
Renewable Source.
High Cetane
Excellent Lubricity
High Flash & Better Safety
Excellent means to reduce green house
HFRR, WSD microns
Percent Biodiesel
Number 2 Number 1

0.0 536 671

0.4 481 649
1.0 321 500
2.0 322 355
20.0 314 318
100.0 314 314

For No. 2 diesel 1% biodiesel was sufficient. For No.

1 diesel 2% biodiesel was sufficient. For still low
sulfur diesel bodiesel dozes can be increased to
meet lubricity requirement.
Number 1 &2 diesel gradeD 975 (500 ppm max S)
Biodiesel production process
There are 4 basic routes to biodiesel production from
oils and fats:

Base catalyzed transesterification of the oil.

Direct acid catalyzed transesterification of
the oil.
Conversion of the oil to its fatty acids and
then to bio diesel.
Conversion of oil to Biodiesel under high
Bio-diesel Production Technologies
Reaction conditions
Company P T Catalyst Mode of
(atm) (C) operation

Comprimo/Vogel and Noot 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Idaho University 1 Ambient KOH Batch
Novamont / Technimont 1 >Ambient Organic Batch
Conneman/Field and Hahn 1 60-70 NaOH Continuous
Lurgi 1 60-70 Alkaline Continuous
IFP/sofiproteal 1 50-130 Alkaline/acid Batch
Gratech 3.5 95 ? Continuous
Desmet 50 200 Nonalkaline Continuous
Others: Olefina, Procter &
Gamble, ME KFT

Hydrogenation Cobalt /
Cammit Abrokern 40-100 360-380 molybdenum Continuous
Trans esterification
Jatropha Oil or other veg oil

Methanol + NaOH Transesterification

Methanol Crude Glycerin

Wash Water Refining
Glycerin refining
Glycerin/Soap/Spent catalyst/Water/Methyl esters/Triglycerides
Process variables Trans esterification

Oil temperature

Reaction temperature
Ratio of alcohol to oil
Type of catalyst and concentration
Intensity of mixing
Purity of reactants
Possible raw materials for biodiesel

Ratanjyot Jatropha curcas

Karanja Pongamia glabra
Mahua Madhuca indica
Pilu Salvadora oleoides
Sal Shorea robusta
Nahor Mesua ferra linn
Kamala Mallotus phillipines
Kokam Garcinia indica
Rubber Seed Hevea Brasilensis
Yield from non edible Oil seeds
Type Oil % wt
Ratanjyot ( Jatropha ) 30-40
Karanja ( Pongamia ) 27-39
Neem 30
Pilu 33
Kusum 34
Jaoba 50
Bhikal 37
Wild Walnut 60-70
Undi 50-73
Thumba 21
Jatropha Curcas as a Potential Oil

Jatropha Curcas Fruits wonderful gift of nature to mankind

Why Jatropha Plantation ?

Benefit like fixation of up to 10 t /ha/year CO2 that

could be internationally traded.
Grown as a quick yielding plant even in adverse land
situatiions viz degraded and barren lands under forest
and non forest use, dry and drought prone areas,
marginal lands and as agroforestry crop.
It can be planted on fallow lands and along farmers
field boundaries as hedge because it does not grow
too tall as well as on vacant lands alongside
railways,highways,irrigation canals and unused lands
in townships etc. under Public/Private sector

Rain as low as 300mm per yr is adequate to grow Jatropha

Why Jatropha Plantation Contd.?

The cost of plantation is largely incurred in the first

years and improved planting material can make a huge
difference in yield.
Raising Jatropha plant and its maintenance creates
jobs for the rural poor, particularly the landless, in
plantation plantation and primary processing through

It has multiple uses and after the extraction of oil

from Jatropha seeds, the oil cake left behind is an
excellent organic manure, the bio-mass of Jatropha
curcas enriches the soil and it can also be put to other
Why Jatropha Plantation Contd.?
The seeds of Jatropha are available during the non-rainy
season, which facilitates better collection and processing.

Retains soil moisture and improve land capability and

1000 trees per acre produces

Seed - 5 Tonnes
Seed cake - 3 Tonnes
Bio diesel - 2 Tonnes
Glycerol - 0.2 Tonne

Estimated Bio diesel production per acre is 2200


Potential Yields of 6 tonnes per acre and 30 42

% oil extraction are attainable.
Biodiesel production cost
Indian Initiatives
Bio diesel Pilot Plant

IIP Dehradun 5-20 lit /batch

CSMCRI Bhavnagar 100 lit / day
( Mercedez benz vehicles being run on 100 %
bio diesel )
IOC ( R& D ) Faridabad ( 60 Kg/day )
Mahindra & Mahindra Mumbai
Excel Industries 125 kg /day ( Running
irrigation pumps/diesel vehicles with 100%
biodiesel )
Field Trial on Bio-diesel

IOCL with Haryana Roadways buses.

Indian railways - Amritsar shatabdi Express

Mahindra & Mahindra Tractors ( Power,torque,fuel

consumption,emissions etc. found satisfactory )
For planting 1 hectare 5-6 kg seed is enough.

The distance between two rows should be 2 M & dist.

Between 2 plants should be 2 M.

This spacing will accommodate 2500 plant/hectare under

irrigated or partially irrigated conditions .

On rain fed wastelands , high density plantations at 2 M X

1M or 1.5 M X 1.5 M accommodating 5000 or 4444 plants
per hectare respectively, shall be desirable.

Germplasm is critical for ensuring high yield

Inter crop
Goal is to produce bio diesel meeting standards
[ASTM / European / BIS].

QA / QC issues involve removal of contaminants

viz. alcohol, catalyst, water, soaps, glycerine,
unreacted or partially reacted triglycerides and

Failure to remove these contaminates causes

concern in end use.
Technology Contd..
Technology to be robust to handle varying degree
of feed quality
Fatty acid Soyabean Cottonseed Palm Lard Tallow Coconut

Lauric 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 46.5

Myristic 0.1 0.7 1.0 1.4 2.8 19.2
Palmitic 10.2 20.1 42.8 23.6 23.3 9.8
Stearic 3.7 2.6 4.5 14.2 19.4 3.0
Oleic 22.8 19.2 40.5 44.2 42.4 6.9
Linoleic 53.7 55.2 10.1 10.7 2.9 2.2
Linolenic 8.6 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.9 0.0
Non-edible oils in India contains high FFA (2-12%)
QA / QC issues
Free fatty acids interfere with transesterification deactivate
the basic catalysts loss of catalyst and biodiesel yield.

Water deactivates both basic and acidic catalysts. Drying

of oil may be required.

Soaps formed with basic catalyst form emulsion and foam

resulting difficult to remove.

When processing feedstocks with high free fatty acids

additional steps must be taken.

After basic transesterification, the purification and

adequate testing during processing is required to produce
fuel grade esters.
Comparison of Bio diesel Quality
Issues in end application
Lower energy content Modification in FI system for
(5-7%less than distillate more/optimized fuel air
fuel) mixture

More deposit on engine Use of additives

components(olefins, traces
of glycerides)

Na, Metal Use of performance additive

Engine oil degradation Use of improved engine oil

Marginal NOx increase Use of after treatment devices
Reliance on Bio-diesel And road map
Demand of Diesel (2005-2006 )

All India Demand = 40.2 MMTPA

Retail Demand = 30.2 MMTPA
Bulk Demand = 10.0 MMTPA
Grade wise Demand

Bharat Stage III = 9 MMTPA

Bharat Stage II = 32.0 MMTPA

With B5, the bio diesel demand is as high as 2MMTPA

This Bio-Diesel initiative comprises of two phases :

Pilot Phase :

Demonstration of the overall Bio-diesel value

chain concept on 750 acre land at the CIPL
facility at Samalkote , Kakinada owned by
Reliance group

Full Initiative:

Scale up Bio-diesel plantation to approximately

100,000 hectares , in AP with an estimated
output of 200 KTPA of Bio-diesel for blending in
and marketing of diesel in AP
Key Steps
Proof of concept

Cultivation ( Best Yield of oil /hectare


Scale up and commercial production

( best value addition including by
product utilization).

Value chain imperatives.

Proof of Concept :

Setting up Germplasm at Jamnagar

Set-up Pilot plant facilities at Kakinada

Bio-diesel testing from potential

Technology suppliers done.

RFQ for Technology selection circulated

to IIP and CSMCRI .
Cultivation :
a) Interacted with

Tamilnadu Agricultural University



b) Land survey with AP government

Value chain imperatives
Expectation from AP Government
Declare as National essential project
Tax Restructuring
Power availability
Single Window project

Make available Contiguous Land

Min 300 mm rain fed area (0r Desalination plant
Co-operative farming

Absorption of Bio-diesel and Oil cake within the State.

Crop/Business insurance cover polices formulation

Plantation Forward Path

Develop a details proposal, for the pilot Plantation project for

Samalkote, Kakinada.

Preliminary crop selection for the pilot phase.

required for sourcing of the germplasm material,including clonal

slection and crop grafting from various Indian
agencies,including IISc, CSMCRI ,etc.
Continue to develop skill for cultivation practices and
harvest handling of Bio-diesel seeds.

Set up a pilot facility to manufacture 2 Tonnes per Day of