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CHAPTER 20

The Government and


Fiscal Policy

Prepared by: Fernando


Quijano and Yvonn Quijano

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Government in the Economy

Nothing arouses as much controversy as


the role of government in the economy.
Government can affect the macroeconomy
through two policy channels: fiscal policy
and monetary policy.
Fiscal policy is the manipulation of
government spending and taxation.
Monetary policy refers to the behavior of the
Federal Reserve regarding the nations money
supply.
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Government in the Economy

Tax rates are controlled by the


government, but tax revenue depends on
changes in household income and the size
of corporate profits, which the government
cannot control.
Discretionary fiscal policy refers to
changes in taxes or spending that are the
result of deliberate changes in government
policy.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Net Taxes (T), and Disposable Income (Yd)

Net taxes are taxes paid by firms and


households to the government minus
transfer payments made to households by
the government.
Disposable, or after-tax, income (Yd)
equals total income minus taxes.

Yd Y T

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Adding Net Taxes (T) and Government Purchases
(G) to the Circular Flow of Income

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Adding Net Taxes (T) and Government Purchases
(G) to the Circular Flow of Income

When government enters the picture, the


aggregate income identity gets cut into
three pieces:
Yd Y T
Yd C S
Y T C S
Y C S T
And aggregate expenditure (AE) equals:
AE C I G
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Budget Deficit

A governments budget deficit is the


difference between what it spends (G) and
what it collects in taxes (T) in a given
period:
B u d g e t d e fic it G T
If G exceeds T, the government must
borrow from the public to finance the deficit.
It does so by selling Treasury bonds and
bills. In this case, a part of household
saving (S) goes to the government.
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Adding Taxes to the
Consumption Function
C a bY
C a b Yd
Yd Y T
C a b(Y T )
With taxes a part of the picture, the
aggregate consumption function is a
function of disposable, or after-tax,
income.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Equilibrium Output: Y = C + I + G
C 1 0 0 .7 5 Y d C 1 0 0 .7 5 ( Y T )
Finding Equilibrium for I = 100, G = 100, and T = 100
(All Figures in Billions of Dollars)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
PLANNED PLANNED UNPLANNED
OUTPUT NET DISPOSABLE CONSUMPTION SAVING INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT AGGREGATE INVENTORY ADJUSTMENT
(INCOME) TAXES INCOME SPENDING S SPENDING PURCHASES EXPENDITURE CHANGE TO
Y T Yd Y T (C = 100 + .75 Yd) (Yd C) I G C+I+G Y (C
(C + I + G) DISEQUILIBRIUM

300 100 200 250 50 100 100 450 50 Output

500 100 400 400 0 100 100 600 100 Output

700 100 600 550 50 100 100 750 50 Output

900 100 800 700 100 100 100 900 0 Equilibrium

1,100 100 1,000 850 150 100 100 1,050 + 50 Output

1,300 100 1,200 1,000 200 100 100 1,200 + 100 Output

1,500 100 1,400 1,150 250 100 100 1,350 + 150 Output

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Finding Equilibrium
Output/Income Graphically

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Leakages/Injections Approach

Taxes (T) are a leakage from the flow of


income. Saving (S) is also a leakage.
In equilibrium, aggregate output (income)
(Y) equals planned aggregate expenditure
(AE), and leakages (S + T) must equal
planned injections (I + G). Algebraically,
AE C I G
Y C S T
C S T C I G
S T I G
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Government Spending Multiplier

The government spending multiplier is the


ratio of the change in the equilibrium level
of output to a change in government
spending.
1
G o v e r n m e n t s p e n d in g m u ltip lie r
M PS

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Government Spending Multiplier

Finding Equilibrium After a $50 Billion Government Spending Increase


(All Figures in Billions of Dollars; G Has Increased From 100 in Table 25.1 to 150 Here)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
PLANNED PLANNED UNPLANNED
OUTPUT NET DISPOSABLE CONSUMPTION SAVING INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT AGGREGATE INVENTORY ADJUSTMENT
(INCOME) TAXES INCOME SPENDING S SPENDING PURCHASES EXPENDITURE CHANGE TO
Y T Yd Y T (C = 100 + .75 Yd) (Yd C) I G C+I+G Y (C
(C + I + G ) DISEQUILIBRIUM

300 100 200 250 50 100 150 500 200 Output

500 100 400 400 0 100 150 650 150 Output

700 100 600 550 50 100 150 800 100 Output

900 100 800 700 100 100 150 950 50 Output

1,100 100 1,000 850 150 100 150 1,100 0 Equilibrium

1,300 100 1,200 1,000 200 100 150 1,250 + 50 Output

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Government Spending Multiplier

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Tax Multiplier

A tax cut increases disposable income,


which is likely to lead to added
consumption spending. Income will
increase by a multiple of the decrease in
taxes.
However, a tax cut has no direct impact on
spending. The tax multiplier for a change
in taxes is smaller than the multiplier for a
change in government spending.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Tax Multiplier

1
Y (in itia l in c re a s e in a g g re g a te e x p e n d itu re )
M PS

1 M PC
Y (T M PC ) T
M PS M PS

M PC
T a x m u ltip lie r
M PS

However, a tax cut has no direct impact on


spending. The tax multiplier for a change
in taxes is smaller than the multiplier for a
change in government spending.
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Balanced-Budget Multiplier

The balanced-budget multiplier is


the ratio of change in the equilibrium
level of output to a change in
government spending where the
change in government spending is
balanced by a change in taxes so as
not to create any deficit.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Balanced-Budget Multiplier

Finding Equilibrium After a $200 Billion Balanced Budget Increase in G and T


(All Figures in Billions of Dollars; G and T Have Increased From 100 in Table 25.1 to 300 Here)
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
PLANNED PLANNED UNPLANNED
OUTPUT NET DISPOSABLE CONSUMPTION INVESTMENT GOVERNMENT AGGREGATE INVENTORY ADJUSTMENT
(INCOME) TAXES INCOME SPENDING SPENDING PURCHASES EXPENDITURE CHANGE TO
Y T Y T
Yd Y (C = 100 + .75 Yd) I G C+I+G Y (C
(C + I + G) DISEQUILIBRIUM

500 300 200 250 100 300 650 150 Output

700 300 400 400 100 300 800 100 Output

900 300 600 550 100 300 950 50 Output

1,100 300 800 700 100 300 1,100 0 Equilibrium

1,300 300 1,000 850 100 300 1,250 + 50 Output

1,500 300 1,200 1,000 100 300 1,400 + 100 Output

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Fiscal Policy Multipliers

Summary of Fiscal Policy Multipliers


FINAL IMPACT ON
POLICY STIMULUS MULTIPLIER EQUILIBRIUM Y
Government- Increase or decrease in the
spending level of government 1 1
G
multiplier purchases: M PS M PS

Tax multiplier Increase or decrease in the M PC M PC


level of net taxes: T
M PS M PS

Balanced- Simultaneous balanced-budget


budget increase or decrease in the
multiplier level of government purchases 1 G
and net taxes:

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Adding the International Sector

We can think of imports (IM) as a leakage


from the circular flow and exports (EX) as
an injection into the circular flow.
With imports and exports, the equilibrium
condition for the economy is:
O p e n -e c o n o m y e q u ilib r iu m : Y C I G ( X M )
The quantity (EX IM) is referred to as net
exports. Increases or decreases in net
exports can throw the economy out of
equilibrium and cause national income to
change.
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Federal Budget

Federal Government Receipts and Expenditures, 2000 (Billions of Dollars)


PERCENTAGE
AMOUNT
OF TOTAL
Receipts
Personal taxes 774.4 44.9
Corporate taxes 211.9 12.3
Indirect business taxes 91.3 5.3
Contributions for social insurance 645.9 37.5
Total 1,723.4 100.0
Current Expenditures
Consumption 463.8 26.5
Transfer payments 795.5 45.4
Grants-in-aid to state and local governments 224.2 12.8
Net interest payments 230.3 13.1
Net subsidies of government enterprises 38.4 2.2
Total 1,752.2 100.0
Current Surplus (+) or deficit () (Receipts Current Expenditures) 28.8
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Federal Government Surplus/Deficit as
a Percentage of GDP, 1970 I2000 IV

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Federal Government Debt as a
Percentage of GDP, 1970 I2000 IV

The percentage began to fall in the mid 1990s.


2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Economys Influence on the
Government Budget
Tax revenues depend on the state of
the economy.
Some government expenditures
depend on the state of the economy.
Automatic stabilizers are revenue
and expenditure items in the federal
budget that automatically change
with the state of the economy in such
a way as to stabilize GDP.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Economys Influence on the
Government Budget
Fiscal drag is the negative effect on
the economy that occurs when
average tax rates increase because
taxpayers have moved into higher
income brackets during an
expansion.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Economys Influence on the
Government Budget
The full-employment budget is a
benchmark for evaluating fiscal
policy.
The full-employment budget is what
the federal budget would be if the
economy were producing at a full-
employment level of output.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
The Economys Influence on the
Government Budget

The cyclical deficit is the


deficit that occurs because of
a downturn in the business
cycle.
The structural deficit is the
deficit that remains at full
employment.

2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Appendix A:
The government spending and tax multipliers

The government spending and tax multipliers when


taxes are a function of income are derived as follows:
Y C I G Y a b Y b T 0 b tY I G

C a b ( Y T ) Y b Y b tY a b T 0 I G
Yd Y T Y (1 b b t ) a b T 0 I G

T T 0 tY 1
Y (a b T0 I G )
1 b bt
I I0 multiplier value of autonomous
expenditures
G G 0
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Appendix A: The Balanced-Budget Multiplier

If we combine the effects of the government


spending multiplier and the tax multiplier, we
obtain:
Multiplier of Y 1 Y M PC Tax
government = and
G M PS T M PS multiplier
spending
1 M PC M PS
then: 1
M PS M PS M PS
In words, a simultaneous increase in government
spending by $1 and lump-sum taxes by $1 will
increase equilibrium income by $1.
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair
Appendix B:
The government spending and tax multipliers

The government spending and tax multipliers are


derived algebraically as follows:
Y C I G Y a b (Y T ) I G
C a b (Y T ) Y a b Y b T I G
Yd Y T Y bY a bT I G
Y (1 b ) a b T I G
T T0
1
I I0 Y *
(a b T I G )
1 b
G G 0
multiplier value of autonomous
expenditures
2002 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Principles of Economics, 6/e Karl Case, Ray Fair