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Modern Research

Paradigm
Future trends in
Technical & Managerial
Research
Paradigm

o Originated from the Greek


word Paradeigma which means
Pattern
Paradigm Shift

A significant change in the


way most people see the
world and its meanings.
Rational World Paradigm

A system of logic employed by


many researchers and
professionals.
Dimensions Of The
Research Process
o Ontology,
o Epistemology and
o Methodology.
A research paradigm is an all-encompassing system
of interrelated practice and thinking that define
the nature of enquiry along these three dimensions.
Dimensions Of The
Research Process
o Ontology: being, existence ,
reality
o Epistemology: knowledge (nature
and limits)
o Methodology: approach adopted
Process
oInductive
oDeductive
(Note: sometimes Positivism is
called hypothetico-deductive )
Method

Qualitative
Quantitative
Positivism
Concerned with experience and empirical knowledge
Personal knowledge backed up by scientific
verification - objective.
Named by in the 19th Century by Auguste Comte
(French Mathematician and Philosopher) - though
its origins date back to the Enlightenment.

Think of an idea Test Report result


How to identify Positivism
Has an interest in cause and effect (this is caused
by that) and generalisability (the findings are true
for all)

Uses the testing of hypotheses,

Seeks objectivity and believes that an external


object truth exists,

Will emphasise correlation,

Will probably be quantitative (numerical) but may


also include qualitative work (interview, etc.)
Hypotheses
A hypothesis is a "statement that can be falsified

Coates (1996) gives us 5 'virtues' that make up a


hypothesis:
Simplicity
Generality
Refutability
Modesty
Conservatism

It is possible to see from this list why


hypotheses are used by positivists, or, inversely,
why phenomenologists have no use for them.
Hypotheses
H1 Team working improves productivity in
medium sized, labour intensive, manufacturing
companies.

H0 Null - Team working has no measurable effect


on productivity in medium sized, labour
intensive, manufacturing companies.
BUT..........
If you hit a tuning fork twice as hard it will ring
twice as loud but still at the same frequency.
That's a linear response. If you hit a person twice
as hard they're unlikely just to shout twice as
loud. That property lets you learn more about the
person than the tuning fork.

-Neil Gershenfeld
Phenomenology
Interested in events as they appear to the
consciousness, without reference to theory,
deduction or assumptions

Named by Edmund Husserl (1913) - the study of


structures of consciousness that enable
consciousness to refer to objects outside of it.

Adapted by sociologists (Schutz) and emphasises


peoples' experiences rather than scientific
deduction - subjective.

Criticised for its habit of producing: Descriptions


and uncontrolled hypotheses rather than explanation
How to identify Phenomenology

Very unlikely to have any quantitative work.

Will use interviews, case studies, logs or focus


groups.

May even use ethnography (living/working


amongst subjects).

Seeks interpretation - not cause and effect.

May use action-research or grounded theory


Post Modernism
Towards the middle of the last century a shift
began away from the importance of personal
interpretation to the importance of discourse.
Positivists believed in an external objective world,
phenomenologist's in an internal subjective one and
post-modernist in a world created by discourses.
Thus to understand the world we have to
understand the discourse we operate within.
These discourses (conversations) can be actual
conversations (creating cultural discourses), the
media, academic disciplines, religions, professional
discourses, etc
The world is not made of molecules, the world is
made of stories.
Deductive & Inductive Process
Deductive & Inductive Process
Triangulation
You believe staff are not happy.

Qualitative interviews with staff: Pay is too low,


more pay needed.

Quantitative research shows: Pay is better than


equivalent firms, there are no problems.
Triangulation
BOTH TOGETHER Whilst pay is better than could
be expected the staff still have a feeling of being
hard done by.

This may indicate a problem with management style


or morale, more research is clearly required.

On their own neither approach would have produced


the right 'answer'.
Validity & Reliability
Validity
The research must lead to the collection of valid
data. How valid will depend on the method used
and the type of information elicited. Research is
valid if it is what it claims to be - truly
representative
Reliability
Replicability and measurability are of prime
importance. It is this requirement of replicability
that encourages positivists to use quantitative
methods. The 'rule' is - you must be confident
that another researcher would match your
findings.
Validity & Reliability
Hypothesis
deductive
Positivist or
Scientific Mostly
Problem or lack of quantitative
understanding
phenomenolog inductive
Methodology ical
Choice qualitative
Post
Modern

Discourse
analysis ?
Dr. Sudhir Rana