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The Industrial Revolution began in England
about 1760
radical changes at every level of civilization
throughout the world
growth of heavy industry brought a flood of
new building materials cast iron, steel,
and glass
architects and engineers devised structures
hitherto undreamed of in function, size, and
Age of enlightment
to reform society using reason, to challenge ideas
grounded in tradition and faith, and to advance
knowledge through the scientific method.
promoted scientific thought, skepticism, and
intellectual interchange.
The Enlightenment was a revolution in human thought.
This new way of thinking was that rational thought
begins with clearly stated principles, uses correct logic
to arrive at conclusions, tests the conclusions against
evidence, and then revises the principles in the light of
the evidence.
Disenchantment with baroque, with rococo, and even with neo-
Palladianism turned late 18th-century designers and patrons
toward the original Greek and Roman prototypes.

Selective borrowing from another time and place became


Greek aspect was particularly strong in the young United

States from the early years of the 19th century until about 1850.

New settlements were given Greek namesSyracuse, Ithaca,

Troyand Doric and Ionic columns, entablatures, and
pediments, mostly transmuted into white-painted wood, were
applied to public buildings and important town houses in the
style called GREEK REVIVAL.
produced by the neoclassical movement t began in
the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as
a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic
ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an
outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late
its purest is a style principally derived from the
architecture of Classical Greece and Rome and the
architecture of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. In
form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall
and maintains separate identities to each of its parts.
Intellectually Neoclassicism was
symptomatic of a desire to return to the
perceived "purity" of the arts of Rome,
Greek,and renaissance classicism

architects, however, felt free to select

whatever elements from past cultures best
fitted their programsGothic for Protestant
churches, baroque for Roman Catholic
churches, early Greek for banks, Palladian
for institutions, early Renaissance for
libraries, and Egyptian for cemeteries.
Background of emergence of neo classical
Architecture of baroque and rococo
Two forces
Technological change
Social change
Architects were Compel to look for new and true
Expedition to greek and roman cities
Books on ancient monuments
Le roy, piranesi and adams works
Hallucination of ancient forms in new work
Royal Scottish academy Edinburgh by William
Henry playfair
Greek Doric style portico

Putteney bridge bath by Robert

Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Elisabethkirche in Berlin
Altes museum Berlin
Prado museum in Madrid by Juan de

Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas

In the second half of the 19th century
dislocations brought about by the Industrial
Revolution became overwhelming.
Many were shocked by the hideous new
urban districts of factories and workers
housing and by the deterioration of public
taste among the newly rich.
For the new modes of transportation,
canals, tunnels, bridges, and railroad
stations, architects were employed only to
provide a cultural veneer.