2.0K vues

Transféré par electrica3

Evento 6

- Siemens Power Engineering Guide
- Short Circuit Calculation
- IEC60909_ICC
- IEEE
- 06 - Short Circuit_IEC
- According to Iec60909
- Calculation of Short-circuit IEC 60909
- IEC 61363-1 ShortCircuit Calcs
- Short Circuit Analyse IEC 60909
- IEC 60909-0.pdf
- ABB Trf. Protection
- 3 Phase Short Circuit
- 03 - Load Flow and Panel
- 23 - Battery Sizing Discharge
- Short-Circuit Current Calculations
- Short-Circuit Protective Device Coordination & Arc Flash Analysis
- CT & Relay Setting-Differential Protection
- Etap PowerStation® 4.0-User Guide-Dr Tarek Nagla
- 08 - Device Coordination
- 11 - Transient Stability

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 454

IEC Standard

CORTO CIRCUITO

Características principales:

Análisis de fallas transitorias

(IEC 61363).

Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E-

2000)

Integrado con coordinación de

dispositivos de protección.

Evaluación automática de

dispositivos.

Purpose of Short-Circuit

Studies

• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine

any or all of the following:

– Verify protective device close and latch capability

(maximum fault kA)

Types of Short-Circuit Faults

Types of Short-Circuit Faults

Types of SC Faults

•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault

•Three-Phase Grounded Fault

•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault

•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault

•Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current

•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to

possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all faults).

•In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.

Typically IL-G ≅ .87 * I3-phase

•In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition

is frequently the only one considered, since this type of

fault generally results in Maximum current.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 5

Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)

v(t)= Vm∗ Sin(ω t + θ )

v(t)

i(t)

di

v(t)= Ri + L = Vm× Sin( ωt + θ ) (1)

dt

Solving equation 1 yields the following expression

- t

R

Vm Vm

i(t)= ωt + θ - φ ) +

× sin( θ - φ )×e L

× sin(

Z Z

Steady

State Transient

(DCOffset)

AC Current (Symmetrical) with

No AC Decay

DC Current

AC Fault Current Including the

DC Offset (No AC Decay)

Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

IEC Short-Circuit

Calculation (IEC 909)

• Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current (I"k)

(Ib)

IEC Short-Circuit

Calculation Method

• Ik” = Equivalent V @ fault location divided by

equivalent Z

factor

cmax, component Z & operating conditions

Transformer Z Adjustment

• KT -- Network XFMR

system, not between Gen & XFMR

XFMR

Syn Machine Z Adjustment

• KG – Synchronous machine w/o unit XFMR

side

auxiliary system, including points between

Gen & XFMR

Types of Short-Circuits

• Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit

– This is a short-circuit condition to which at least

one synchronous machine contributes a

prospective initial short-circuit current which is

more than twice the generator’s rated current, or

a short-circuit condition to which synchronous

and asynchronous motors contribute more than

5% of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current

( I"k) without motors.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 16

Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit

Types of Short-Circuits

• Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit

– This is a short-circuit condition during which the

magnitude of the symmetrical ac component of

available short-circuit current remains essentially

constant.

Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit

Factors Used in If Calc

• κ – calc ip based on Ik”

meshed network

near-to-gen & meshed network

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 20

IEC Short-Circuit Study Case

Types of Short-Circuits

are selected

• Maximum voltage factor is used

tolerances are applied and minimum

resistance temperature is considered)

Types of Short-Circuits

selected

• Minimum voltage factor is used

tolerances are applied and maximum

resistance temperature is considered)

Voltage Factor (c)

• Ratio between equivalent voltage &

nominal voltage

• Transformer taps

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 24

Calculation Method

• Breaking kA is more

conservative if the option

No Motor Decay is

selected

IEC SC 909 Calculation

Device Duty Comparison

Mesh & Non-Mesh If

• ETAP automatically determines mesh &

non-meshed contributions according to

individual contributions

Method – 0, 1, or 2 (default)

L-G Faults

L-G Faults

Symmetrical Components

Sequence Networks

L-G Fault Sequence

Network Connections

If = 3 × Ia 0

3 × VPr efault

If =

Z1 + Z 2 + Z0

if Zg = 0

L-L Fault Sequence Network

Connections

I a 2 = − I a1

3 × VPr efault

If =

Z1 + Z 2

L-L-G Fault Sequence

Network Connections

I a 2 + I a1 + I a 0 = 0 = I a

VPr efault

If =

Z0 Z 2

Z1 +

Z0 + Z2

if Zg = 0

Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

Solid Grounded Devices

and L-G Faults

Generally a 3 - phase fault is the

most severe case. L - G faults can be

greater if :

Z1 = Z 2 & Z 0 < Z 1

If this conditions are true then :

I f3φ < I f 1φ

This may be the case if Generators or

Y/∆ Connected transformer are solidly

grounded.

Zero Sequence Model

• Branch susceptances and static

loads including capacitors will be

considered when this option is

checked

• Recommended by IEC for

systems with isolated neutral,

resonant earthed neutrals &

earthed neutrals with earth fault

factor > 1.4

Unbalanced Faults Display

& Reports

Complete reports that include individual

branch contributions for:

•L-G Faults

•L-L-G Faults

•L-L Faults

include:

•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current

contributions

•Sequence voltage and currents

•Phase Voltages

Transient Fault Current

Calculation (IEC 61363)

Total Fault Current Waveform

Transient Fault Current

Calculation (IEC 61363)

Percent DC Current Waveform

Transient Fault Current

Calculation (IEC 61363)

AC Component of Fault Current Waveform

Transient Fault Current

Calculation (IEC 61363)

Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

Transient Fault Current

Calculation (IEC 61363)

Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

IEC Transient Fault Current

Calculation

Unbalanced Faults Display

& Reports

Complete reports that include individual

branch contributions for:

•L-G Faults

•L-L-G Faults

•L-L Faults

include:

•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current

contributions

•Sequence voltage and currents

•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 46

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 47

TEMA 2

Protective Device Coordination

ETAP Star

ETAP START PROTECCION Y COORDINACION

Características principales:

dispositivos.

Actualización automática de

Corriente de Corto Circuito.

Coordinación tiempo-corriente de

dispositivos.

Auto-coordinación de dispositivos.

Integrados a los diagramas

unifilares.

Rastreo o cálculos en diferentes

tiempos.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 51

Agenda

• Concepts & Applications

• Star Overview

• Features & Capabilities

• Protective Device Type

• TCC Curves

• STAR Short-circuit

• PD Sequence of Operation

• Normalized TCC curves

• Device Libraries

Definition

• Overcurrent Coordination

– A systematic study of current responsive

devices in an electrical power system.

Objective

• To determine the ratings and settings of

fuses, breakers, relay, etc.

Criteria

• Economics

• Operating Practices

• Previous Experience

Design

• Open only PD nearest (upstream) of the fault

or overload

• Provide satisfactory protection for overloads

• Interrupt SC as rapidly (instantaneously) as

possible

• Comply with all applicable standards and

codes

• Plot the Time Current Characteristics of

different PDs

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 56

Analysis

When:

Spectrum Of Currents

• Load Current

– Up to 100% of full-load

– 115-125% (mild overload)

• Overcurrent

– Abnormal loading condition (Locked-Rotor)

• Fault Current

– Fault condition

– Ten times the full-load current and higher

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 58

Protection

• Prevent injury to personnel

Coordination

• Limit the extent and duration of service

interruption

Coordination

C D B A

t

C D B

Protection vs. Coordination

• Coordination is not an exact science

• Compromise between protection and

coordination

– Reliability

– Speed

– Performance

– Economics

– Simplicity

Required Data

• One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams)

• Power Grid Settings

• Generator Data

• Transformer Data

– Transformer kVA, impedance, and connection

Motor Data

• Load Data

• Fault Currents

• Cable / Conductor Data

• Bus / Switchgear Data

• Instrument Transformer Data (CT, PT)

• Protective Device (PD) Data

– Manufacturer and type of protective devices (PDs)

– One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams)

Study Procedure

• Prepare an accurate one-line diagram (relay diagrams)

• Obtain the available system current spectrum (operating

load, overloads, fault kA)

• Determine the equipment protection guidelines

• Select the appropriate devices / settings

• Plot the fixed points (damage curves, …)

• Obtain / plot the device characteristics curves

• Analyze the results

Time Current Characteristics

• TCC Curve / Plot / Graphs

• 4.5 x 5-cycle log-log graph

• X-axis: Current (0.5 – 10,000 amperes)

• Y-axis: Time (.01 – 1000 seconds)

• Current Scaling (…x1, x10, x100, x100…)

• Voltage Scaling (plot kV reference)

• Use ETAP Star Auto-Scale

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 66

TCC Scaling Example

• Situation:

– A scaling factor of 10 @ 4.16 kV is selected for

TCC curve plots.

• Question

– What are the scaling factors to plot the 0.48 kV

and 13.8 kV TCC curves?

TCC Scaling Example

• Solution

Fixed Points

of protective device settings:

• Cable damage curves

• Cable ampacities

• Transformer damage curves & inrush points

• Motor starting curves

• Generator damage curve / Decrement curve

• SC maximum fault points

Capability / Damage Curves

It2 I2 t I2 t

t

I 2t

2

Motor

Xfmr Cable

Gen

Cable Protection

• Standards & References

– IEEE Std 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity

Tables

– IEEE Std 848-1996 IEEE Standard Procedure for the

Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected

Cables

– IEEE Std 738-1993 IEEE Standard for Calculating the

Current- Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead

Conductors

– The Okonite Company Engineering Data for Copper and

Aluminum Conductor Electrical Cables, Bulletin EHB-98

Cable Protection

a short circuit current for a known time is calculated by:

Ι2 t

A=

T2 + 234

0.0297log

T1 + 234

Where:

A= Conductor area in circular-mils

I = Short circuit current in amps

t = Time of short circuit in seconds

T1= Initial operation temperature (750C)

T2=Maximum short circuit temperature

(1500C)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 72

Cable Short-Circuit Heating Limits

Recommended

temperature rise:

B) CU 75-200C

Shielded

Cable

width is 1½

inches

NEC Section 110‑14 C

• (c) Temperature limitations. The temperature rating associated with the

ampacity of a conductor shall be so selected and coordinated as to not exceed

the lowest temperature rating of any connected termination,

termination conductor, or

device. Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for

terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction,

or both.

• (1) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less,

or marked for Nos. 14 through 1 conductors, shall be used only for conductors

rated 600C (1400F).

• Exception No. 1: Conductors with higher temperature ratings shall be permitted

to be used, provided the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on

the 6O0C (1400F) ampacity of the conductor size used.

• Exception No. 2: Equipment termination provisions shall be permitted to be

used with higher rated conductors at the ampacity of the higher rated

conductors, provided the equipment is listed and identified for use with the

higher rated conductors.

• (2) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or

marked for conductors larger than No. 1, shall be used only with conductors

rated 750C (1670F).

Transformer Protection

• Standards & References

– National Electric Code 2002 Edition

– C37.91-2000; IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power

Transformers

– C57.12.59; IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current

Duration.

– C57.109-1985; IEEE Guide for Liquid-Immersed Transformer Through-

Fault-Current Duration

– APPLIED PROCTIVE RELAYING; J.L. Blackburn; Westinghouse Electric

Corp; 1976

– PROTECTIVE RELAYING, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS; J.L.

Blackburn; Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1987

– IEEE Std 242-1986; IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and

Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems

–

Transformer Category

ANSI/IEEE C-57.109

Transformer Categories I, II

Transformer Categories III

Transformer

FLA

200

Thermal

t I2t = 1250

(D-D LL) 0.87

(sec)

Infrequent Fault

(D-R LG) 0.58

2

K=(1/Z)2t

Inrush

Isc

2.5 25 I (pu)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 81

Transformer Protection

M

Any Location – Non-Supervised

Transformer Protection

• Turn on or inrush current • Oil Level

• Internal transformer faults • Fans

• Oil Pumps

• External or through faults of major

magnitude • Pilot wire – Device 85

• Repeated large motor starts on the • Fault withstand

transformer. The motor represents a • Thermal protection – hot spot, top of oil

major portion or the transformers KVA temperature, winding temperature

rating. • Devices 26 & 49

• Harmonics • Reverse over current – Device 67

• Over current protection – Device 50/51 • Gas accumulation – Buckholz relay

• Over voltage –Device 59

• Ground current protection – Device

50/51G • Voltage or current balance – Device 60

• Differential – Device 87 • Tertiary Winding Protection if supplied

• Relay Failure Scheme

• Over or under excitation – volts/ Hz –

Device 24 • Breaker Failure Scheme

• Dissolved gas detection

Recommended Minimum

Transformer Protection

Protective system Winding and/or power system Winding and/or power system

grounded neutral grounded neutral ungrounded

Above 10 MVA 10 MVA

Differential -

√ -

√

Instantaneous restricted √ √ - -

ground fault

fault

√ -

√

Gas detection

Over excitation -

√ √ √

Overheating -

√ -

√

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 84

Question

Answer

• For delta-delta connected transformers, with

line-to-line faults on the secondary side, the

curve must be reduced to 87% (shift to the

left by a factor of 0.87)

ground faults on the secondary side, the

curve values must be reduced to 58% (shift

to the left by a factor of 0.58)

Question

Infrequent for transformers?

Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers

Source

(fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) may be

selected by reference to the infrequent -fault -

incidence protection curve

Infrequent -Fault

Incidence Zone* Category II or III Transformer

primary -side protective device

Optional main secondary –side protective device.

May be selected by reference to the infrequent -fault-

incidence protection curve

protective device or by optional main secondary -

side protection device

Inciden ce Zone* feeder protective device

Feeders

* Should be selected by reference to the frequent -fault -incidence protection curve or for

transformers serving industrial, commercial and institutional power systems with secondary -side

conductors enclosed in conduit, bus duct, etc., the feeder protective device may be selected by

reference to the infrequent -fault -incidence protection curve.

Motor Protection

– IEEE Std 620-1996 IEEE Guide for the Presentation of

Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction

Machines.

– IEEE Std 1255-2000 IEEE Guide for Evaluation of

Torque Pulsations During Starting of Synchronous Motors

– ANSI/ IEEE C37.96-2000 Guide for AC Motor Protection

– The Art of Protective Relaying – General Electric

Motor Protection

• Motor Starting Curve

• Thermal Protection

• Fault Protection

Motor Overload Protection

(NEC Art 430-32 – Continuous-Duty Motors)

• Motors with SF not less than 1.15

– 125% of FLA

• Motors with temp. rise not over 40°C

– 125% of FLA

• All other motors

– 115% of FLA

Motor Protection – Inst. Pickup

1

I LOCKED =

ROTOR XS + X d "

I

RELAY PICK UP = PICK UP

∗ 1.6 TO 2

I LOCKED ROTOR

protection is desired, the in-stantaneous relay (or a second relay) can be set more

sensitively if delayed by a timer. This permits the asymmetrical starting component

to decay out. A typical setting for this is:

I

RELAY PICK UP = PICK UP

∗ 1.2 TO 1.2

I LOCKED ROTOR

Locked Rotor Protection

• Thermal Locked Rotor (Device 51)

• Starting Time (TS < TLR)

• LRA

– LRA sym

– LRA asym (1.5-1.6 x LRA sym) + 10% margin

Fault Protection

(NEC Art / Table 430-52)

• Non-Time Delay Fuses

– 300% of FLA

• Dual Element (Time-Delay Fuses)

– 175% of FLA

• Instantaneous Trip Breaker

– 800% - 1300% of FLA*

• Inverse Time Breakers

– 250% of FLA

*can be set up to 1700% for Design B (energy efficient) Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 94

Low Voltage Motor Protection

Catalogs)

• Typically, motors larger than 2 Hp are

protected by combination starters

• Overload / Short-circuit protection

Low-voltage Motor

Ratings Range of ratings

Continuous amperes 9-250 —

Nominal voltage (V) 240-600 —

Horsepower 1.5-1000 —

Starter size (NEMA) — 00-9

Types of protection Quantity NEMA designation

elements

Short circuit: 3 CB

circuit breaker current

trip elements

Fuses 3 FU

Undervoltage: inherent — —

with integral control

supply and three-wire

control circuit

speci-fied): ground relay

with toroidal CT

Minimum Required Sizes of a NEMA

Combination Motor Starter System

C FLC

R HP

TER

UM

E

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 97

Required Data - Protection of a

Medium Voltage Motor

• Rated full load current

• Service factor

• Locked rotor current

• Maximum locked rotor time (thermal limit curve) with the motor at ambient and/or

operating temperature

• Minimum no load current

• Starting power factor

• Running power factor

• Motor and connected load accelerating time

• System phase rotation and nominal frequency

• Type and location of resistance temperature devices (RTDs), if used

• Expected fault current magnitudes

• First ½ cycle current

• Maximum motor starts per hour

Medium-Voltage Class E Motor Controller

Ratings Class El Class E2 (with

(without fuses)

fuses)

Horsepower 0-8000 0-8000

Symmetrical MVA interrupting 25-75 160-570

capacity at nominal

system voltage

Phase Balance

Overload, or locked Rotor, or

both:

Thermal overload relay 3 OL OC TR/O NEMA Class E1

Current balance relay 1 BC

TOC relay 3

IOC relay plus time delay 3 Negative-sequence voltage 1 — medium voltage starter

relay (per bus), or both

Thermal overload relay 3 OL

Undervoltage: — UV

TOC relay 3 OC Inherent with integral

IOC relay plus time delay 3 TR/OC control supply and three-

wire control circuit, when

Short Circuit: voltage falls suffi-ciently to

permit the contractor to

open and break the seal-in

Fuses, Class E2 3 FU circuit

IOC relay, Class E1 3 OC

Temperature: — OL

Ground Fault Temperature relay,

operating from resistance

sensor or ther-mocouple in

TOC residual relay 1 GP stator winding NEMA Class E2 medium

Overcurrent relay with 1 GP voltage starter

toroidal CT

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 99

Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,

1800 rpm Motor

current offset.

showing load torque pulsations.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 100

Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,

1800 rpm Motor - Oscillographs

reaching synchronous speed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 101

Thermal Limit Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 102

Thermal Limit Curve

Typical

Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 103

(49)

I2 T

O/L

tLR MCP

(51) 200 HP

ts

Starting Curve

MCP (50)

LRAs LRAasym

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 104

Protective Devices

• Fuse

• Overload Heater

• Thermal Magnetic

• Electro-Mechanical

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 105

Fuse (Power Fuse)

• Non Adjustable Device (unless electronic)

• Continuous and Interrupting Rating

• Voltage Levels (Max kV)

• Interrupting Rating (sym, asym)

• Characteristic Curves

– Min. Melting

– Total Clearing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 106

Fuse Types

• Expulsion Fuse (Non-CLF)

• Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)

• Electronic Fuse (S&C Fault Fiter)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 107

Total Clearing

Time Curve

Minimum Melting

Time Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 108

Current Limiting Fuse

(CLF)

• Limits the peak current of short-circuit

damage)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 109

Current Limiting Action

Ip

Current (peak amps)

t a = tc – t m

Ip’

ta = Arcing Time

tm = Melting Time

tc = Clearing Time

tm ta Time (cycles)

tc Ip = Peak Current

Ip’ = Peak Let-thru Current Slide 110

© 1996-2009

©1996-2009 Operation OperationInc.

Technology, Technology, Inc. Notes:

– Workshop – Workshop Notes: Protective

Short-Circuit IEC Device Coordination Slide 111

Let-Through Chart

7% PF (X/R = 14.3)

Peak Let-Through Amperes

230,000

300 A

12,500 100 A

60 A

5,200 100,000

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 112

Fuse

Generally:

• Non-CLF (expulsion fuse) is a better

Overload protection

• Electronic fuses are typically easier to

coordinate due to the electronic control

adjustments

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 113

Selectivity Criteria

Typically:

• Non-CLF: 140% of full load

• CLF: 150% of full load

• Safety Margin: 10% applied to Min

Melting (consult the fuse manufacturer)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 114

Molded Case CB

• Thermal-Magnetic Types

• Magnetic Only • Frame Size

• Motor Circuit Protector • Poles

(MCP)

• Integrally Fused (Limiters) • Trip Rating

• High Interrupting Capacity • Voltage

• Non-Interchangeable Parts

• Insulated Case (Interchange

Parts)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 115

MCCB

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 116

MCCB with SST Device

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 117

Thermal Maximum

Thermal Minimum

Magnetic

(instantaneous)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 118

LVPCB

• Voltage and Frequency Ratings

• Continuous Current / Frame Size / Sensor

• Interrupting Rating

• Short-Time Rating (30 cycle)

• Fairly Simple to Coordinate

• Phase / Ground Settings

• Inst. Override

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 119

LT PU

CB 2

CB 1

LT Band

CB 2

ST PU 480 kV

CB 1

IT

ST Band

If =30 kA

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 120

Inst. Override

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 121

Overload Relay / Heater

• Motor overload protection is provided by a

device that models the temperature rise of

the winding

• When the temperature rise reaches a point

that will damage the motor, the motor is de-

energized

• Overload relays are either bimetallic, melting

alloy or electronic

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 122

Overload Heater (Mfr. Data)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 123

Question

What is Class 10 and Class 20 Thermal

OLR curves?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 124

Answer

• At 600% Current Rating:

– Class 10 for fast trip, 10

seconds or less

– Class 20 for, 20 seconds or

less (commonly used) 20

for long trip time (typically

provided with electronic

overload relays)

6

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 125

Answer

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 126

Overload Relay / Heater

• When the temperature at the combination motor starter is more than

±10 °C (±18 °F) different than the temperature at the motor, ambient

temperature correction of the motor current is required.

• An adjustment is required because the output that a motor can safely

deliver varies with temperature.

• The motor can deliver its full rated horsepower at an ambient

temperature specified by the motor manufacturers, normally + 40 °C.

At high temperatures (higher than + 40 °C) less than 100% of the

normal rated current can be drawn from the motor without shortening

the insulation life.

• At lower temperatures (less than + 40 °C) more than 100% of the

normal rated current could be drawn from the motor without shortening

the insulation life.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 127

Overcurrent Relay

• Time-Delay (51 – I>)

• Short-Time Instantaneous ( I>>)

• Instantaneous (50 – I>>>)

• Electromagnetic (induction Disc)

• Solid State (Multi Function / Multi Level)

• Application

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 128

© 1996-2009

©1996-2009 Operation OperationInc.

Technology, Technology, Inc. Notes:

– Workshop – Workshop Notes: Protective

Short-Circuit IEC Device Coordination Slide 129

Time-Overcurrent Unit

• Ampere Tap Calculation

– Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x A.T. Setting

– Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT

Ratio

– Multiples of A.T. = IR/A.T. Setting

CT IL

= IL/(CT Ratio x A.T.

Setting)

I R

51

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 130

Instantaneous Unit

• Instantaneous Calculation

– Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x IT Setting

– Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT

Ratio

– Multiples of IT = IR/IT Setting

CT IL

= IL/(CT Ratio x IT Setting)

IR

50

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 131

Relay Coordination

• Time margins should be maintained between T/C

curves

• Adjustment should be made for CB opening time

• Shorter time intervals may be used for solid state

relays

• Upstream relay should have the same inverse T/C

characteristic as the downstream relay (CO-8 to

CO-8) or be less inverse (CO-8 upstream to CO-6

downstream)

• Extremely inverse relays coordinates very well with

CLFs

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 132

Situation

4.16 kV

CB

Cable

CU - EPR

1-3/C 500 kcmil

Isc = 30,000 A

5 MVA

DS

6%

For This System

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 133

Solution

5,000kVA

Transformer: IL = = 694 A

3 × 4.16kV

5 IL

IR = IL × = 4.338 A

800

IR

I Inrsuh = 12 × 694 = 8,328 A R CT

Set Relay:

125% × 4.338 = 5.4 A

TAP = 6.0 A (6/4.338 = 1.38)

TD = 1

5

Inst (50) = 8,328 × = 52.1A = >55 A

800

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 134

Question

What T/C Coordination interval should be maintained between relays?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 135

Answer

B

A

t CB Opening Time

+

Induction Disc Overtravel (0.1 sec)

+

Safety margin (0.2 sec w/o Inst. & 0.1 sec w/ Inst.)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 136

Recloser

• Recloser protects electrical transmission systems from temporary

voltage surges and other unfavorable conditions.

• Reclosers can automatically "reclose" the circuit and restore normal

power transmission once the problem is cleared.

• Reclosers are usually designed with failsafe mechanisms that prevent

them from reclosing if the same fault occurs several times in

succession over a short period. This insures that repetitive line faults

don't cause power to switch on and off repeatedly, since this could

cause damage or accelerated wear to electrical equipment.

• It also insures that temporary faults such as lightning strikes or

transmission switching don't cause lengthy interruptions in service.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 137

Recloser Types

• Hydraulic

• Electronic

– Static Controller

– Microprocessor Controller

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 138

Recloser Curves

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 139

TEMA 3

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 140

Transient Stability

Topics

• What is Transient Stability (TS)

• What Causes System Unstable

• Effects When System Is Instable

• Transient Stability Definition

• Modeling and Data Preparation

• ETAP TS Study Outputs

• Power System TS Studies

• Solutions to Stability Problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 142

What is Transient Stability

• TS is also called Rotor Angle Stability

Something between mechanical system and

electrical system – energy conversion

• It is a Electromechanical Phenomenon

Time frame in milliseconds

• All Synchronous Machines Must Remain in

Synchronism with One Another

Synchronous generators and motors

This is what system stable or unstable means

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 143

What is Transient Stability

• Torque Equation (generator case)

T = mechanical torque

P = number of poles

φ air = air-gap flux

Fr = rotor field MMF

δ = rotor angle

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 144

What is Transient Stability

• Swing Equation

M = inertia constant

D = damping constant

Pmech = input mechanical power

Pelec = output electrical power

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 145

What Causes System Unstable

T (prime mover)

Rotor MMF (field winding)

Air-Gap Flux (electrical system)

• From Swing Equation

Pmech

Pelec

Different time constants in mechanical and

electrical systems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 146

What Causes System Unstable

• In real operation

Short-circuit

Loss of excitation

Prime mover failure

Loss of utility connections

Loss of a portion of in-plant generation

Starting of a large motor

Switching operations

Impact loading on motors

Sudden large change in load and generation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 147

Effects When System Is Instable

Q and f)

Case 2: Transient stable

Case 3: Small-signal unstable

Case 4: First swing unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 148

Effects When System Is Instable

• A 2-Machine

Example

• At δ = -180º

(Out-of-Step,

Slip the Pole)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 149

Effects When System Is Instable

generator tripping

• Power swing

• Misoperation of protective devices

• Interruption of critical loads

• Low-voltage conditions – motor drop-offs

• Damage to equipment

• Area wide blackout

• …

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 150

Transient Stability Definition

∀ δ is limited to 180º

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 151

Transient Stability Definition

• Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit

After a severe disturbance, the synchronous

generator reaches a steady-state operating

condition without a prolonged loss of

synchronism

Limit: δ < 180° during swing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 152

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Synchronous Machine

Machine

Exciter and AVR

Prime Mover and Governor / Load Torque

Power System Stabilizer (PSS) (Generator)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 153

Modeling and Data Preparation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 154

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Typical synchronous machine data

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 155

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Induction Machine

Machine

Load Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 156

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Power Grid

Short-Circuit Capability

Fixed internal voltage and infinite inertia

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 157

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Load

Voltage dependency

Frequency dependency

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 158

Modeling and Data Preparation

• Load

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 159

Modeling and Data Preparation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 160

Modeling and Data Preparation

Device Type Action

Bus 3-P Fault L-G Fault Clear Fault

Branch Fraction Fault Clear Fault

PD Trip Close

Generator Droop / Isoch Start Loss Exc. P Change V Change Delete

Motor Accelerate Load Delete

Change

Lumped Load Load Change Delete

MOV Start

Wind Turbine Disturbance Gust Ramp

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 161

Power System TS Studies

• Fault

3-phase and single phase fault

Clear fault

Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)

Critical System Separation Time (CSST)

• Bus Transfer

Fast load transferring

• Load Shedding

Under-frequency

Under-voltage

• Motor Dynamic Acceleration

Induction motor

Synchronous motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 162

Power System TS Studies

• Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)

Fault Clear fault Clear fault Clear fault Clear fault

1 cycle 1 cycle

unstable

unstable

unstable

stable

Cycle

CFCT

Fault Separation Separation Separation Separation

1 cycle 1 cycle

unstable

unstable

unstable

stable

Cycle

CSST

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 163

Power System TS Studies

• Fast Bus Transfer

1

0.8

Vmotor

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

s

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 164

Power System TS Studies

• Fast Bus Transfer

ES = System equivalent per unit

δ volts per hertz

EM = Motor residual per unit per

hertz

ER = Resultant vectorial voltage

in per unit volts per hertz

Ttransfer ≤ 10 cycles

δ ≤ 90 degrees

ER ≤ 1.33 per unit (133%)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 165

Power System TS Studies

• Load Shedding

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 166

Power System TS Studies

• Motor Dynamic Acceleration

Important for islanded system operation

Motor starting impact

Generator AVR action

Reacceleration

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 167

Solution to Stability Problems

Increase synchronizing power

• Design and Selection of Rotating

Equipment

Use of induction machines

Increase moment of inertia

Reduce transient reactance

Improve voltage regulator and exciter

characteristics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 168

Solution to Stability Problems

(PSS)

• Add System Protections

Fast fault clearance

Load shedding

System separation

Out-Of-Step relay

…

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 169

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC

TEMA 4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 171

Harmonic Analysis

ARMONICAS

Características principales:

Exploración de frecuencia.

Flujo Armónico de Carga.

Dimensionamiento y Diseño de

Filtros.

Evaluación Automática del límite

de distorsión.

Factores de la influencia del

teléfono (TIF & I*T)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 173

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 174

Types of Power Quality

Problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 175

Waveform Distortion

• Primary Types of Waveform Distortion

– DC Offset

– Harmonics

– Interharmonics

– Notching

– Noise

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 176

Harmonics

• One special category of power quality

problems

present in an electrical system at some

multiple of the fundamental frequency.”

(IEEE Std 399, Brown Book)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 177

Nonlinear Loads

• Sinusoidal voltage

applied to a simple

nonlinear resistor

• Increasing the

voltage by a few

percent may cause

current to double

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 178

Fourier Representation

• Any periodic waveform

can be expressed as a

sum of sinusoids

• The sum of the sinusoids

is referred to as Fourier

Series (6-pulse)

2 3 1 1 1 1

I ac = I d (cosωt − cos 3ωt + cos 7ωt − cos11ωt + cos13ωt

π 5 7 11 13

∞

⇒ ∑ I h cos(hωt + Φ h )

h =1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 179

Harmonic Sources

• Utilities (Power Grid)

– Known as “Background Harmonic”

– Pollution from other irresponsible customers

– SVC, HVDC, FACTS, …

– Usually a voltage source

• Synchronous Generators

– Due to Pitch (can be eliminated by fractional-

pitch winding) and Saturation

– Usually a voltage source

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 180

Harmonic Sources (cont’d)

• Transformers

– Due to magnetizing branch saturation

– Only at lightly loaded condition

– Usually a current source

• Power Electronic Devices

– Charger, Converter, Inverter, UPS, VFD, SVC, HVDC,

FACTS (Flexible alternating current transmission systems) …

– Due to switching actions

– Either a voltage source or a current source

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 181

Harmonic Sources (cont’d)

• Other Non-Linear Loads

– Arc furnaces, discharge lighting, …

– Due to unstable and non-linear process

– Either a voltage source or a current source

• In general, any load that is applied to a power

system that requires other than a sinusoidal

current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 182

Harmonic I and V

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 183

Classification of Harmonics

– Characteristic Harmonics

– Non-Characteristic Harmonics

lighting (from non-periodical waveforms)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 184

Phase Angle Relationship

• Fundamental Frequency

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 185

Phase Angle Relationship

• Third Order

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 186

Phase Angle Relationship

• Fifth Order

• Seventh Order

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 187

Order vs. Sequence

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 188

Characteristic Harmonics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 189

Characteristic Harmonics

(cont’d)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 190

Harmonic Spectrum

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 191

Harmonic-Related Problems

• Motors and Generators

– Cogging or crawling

– Mechanical oscillations

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 192

Harmonic-Related Problems

(cont’d)

• Transformers

– Parasitic heating

– Increased copper, stray flux and iron losses

– Possibility of system resonance

– Increased heating and voltage stress

– Shortened capacitor life

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 193

Harmonic-Related Problems

(cont’d)

• Power Cables

– Involved in system resonance

– Voltage stress and corona leading to dielectric

failure

– Heating and derating

• Neutrals of four-wire systems (480/277V; 120/208V)

– Overheating

• Fuses

– Blowing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 194

Harmonic-Related Problems

(cont’d)

• Switchgears

– Increased heating and losses

– Reduced steady-state current carrying capability

– Shortened insulation components life

• Relays

– Possibility of misoperation

• Metering

– Affected readings

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 195

Harmonic-Related Problems

(cont’d)

• Communication Systems

– Interference by higher frequency electromagnetic field

• Electronic Equipment (computers, PLC)

– Misoperation

• System

– Resonance (serial and parallel)

– Poor power factor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 196

Parallel Resonance

• Total impedance at resonance frequency

increases

• High circulating current will flow in the

capacitance-inductance loop

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 197

Parallel Resonance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 198

Capacitor Banks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 199

Capacitor Banks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 200

Capacitor Banks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 201

Capacitor Banks

CAF = X/R = 7*0.0069/0.0012 =40.25

Resonant Current = 55*40.25 = 2214 A

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 202

Parallel Resonance (cont’d)

Cause: Source inductance resonates with

capacitor bank at a frequency

excited by the facilities harmonic

sources

Impacts: 1. Excessive capacitor fuse

operation

2. Capacitor failures

3. Incorrect relay tripping

4. Telephone interference

5. Overheating of equipment

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 203

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements

• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

– Also known as Harmonic Distortion Factor (HDF), is

the most popular index to measure the level of

harmonic distortion to voltage and current

– Ratio of the RMS of all harmonics to the fundamental

component

– For an ideal system THD = 0%

– Potential heating value of the harmonics relative to

the fundamental

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 204

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements (cont’d)

– Good indicator of additional losses due to

current flowing through a conductor

– Not a good indicator of voltage stress in a

capacitor (related to peak value of voltage

waveform, not its heating value)

∞

∑ i

F 2

THD = 2

F1

and F1 is that for the fundamental component.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 205

Harmonic Distortion

Example

Find THD for this waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 206

Harmonic Example

• Find THD for this Harmonic Spectrum

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 207

Adjustable Speed Drive –

Current Distortion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 208

Adjustable Speed Drive –

Voltage Distortion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 209

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements (cont’d)

• Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)

- Ratio of a given harmonic to fundamental

- To track magnitude of individual harmonic

Fi

IHD =

F1

• Root Mean Square (RMS) - Total

- Root Mean Square of fundamental plus all

harmonics

- Equal to fundamental RMS if Harmonics are

zero ∞

2

RMS = ∑F

1

i

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 210

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements (cont’d)

• Arithmetic Summation (ASUM)

– Arithmetic summation of magnitudes of all

components (fundamental and all harmonics)

– Directly adds magnitudes of all components to

estimate crest value of voltage and current

– Evaluation of the maximum withstanding ratings

of a device

∞

ASUM = ∑ Fi

1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 211

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements (cont’d)

• Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)

– Weighted THD

– Weights based on interference to an audio

signal in the same frequency range

– Current TIF shows impact on adjacent

communication systems

∞ 2

∑ (W F )i i

TIF = 1

∞ 2

∑F

1

i

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 212

Harmonic Distortion

Measurements (cont’d)

• I*T Product (I*T)

– A product current components (fundamental

and harmonics) and weighting factors

H

I •T = ∑ h h

( I

h =1

⋅ T ) 2

Th= weighting factor

h = harmonic order (h=1 for fundamental)

H = maximum harmonic order to account

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 213

Triplen Harmonics

• Odd multiples of the

third harmonic

(h = 3, 9, 15, 21, …)

• Important issue for

grounded-wye systems

with neutral current

• Overloading and TIF problems

• Misoperation of devices due to presence of

harmonics on the neutral

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 214

Triplen Harmonics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 215

Winding Connections

• Delta winding provides ampere turn balance

• Triplen Harmonics cannot flow

• When currents are balanced Triplens

behave as Zero Sequence currents

• Used in Utility Distribution Substations

• Delta winding connected to Transmission

• Present in equal proportions on both sides

• Many loads are served in this fashion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 216

Implications

• Neutral connections are susceptible to overheating

when serving single-phase loads on the Y side that

have high 3rd Harmonic

• Measuring current on delta side will not show the

triplens and therefore do not give a true idea of the

heating the transformer is subjected to

• The flow of triplens can be interrupted by appropriate

isolation transformer connection

• Removing the neutral connection in one or both Y

windings blocks the flow of Triplen harmonic current

• Three legged core transformers behave as if they have

a “phantom” delta tertiary winding

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 217

Modeling in Harmonic

Analysis

• Motors and Machines

– Represented by their equivalent negative

sequence reactance

• Lines and Cables

– Series impedance for low frequencies

– Long line correction including transposition and

distributed capacitance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 218

Modeling in Harmonic

Analysis (cont’d)

• Transformers

– Leakage impedance

– Magnetizing impedance

• Loads

– Static loads reduce peak resonant impedance

– Motor loads shift resonant frequency due to

motor inductance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 219

Reducing System

Harmonics

• Add Passive Filters

– Shunt or Single Tuned Filters

– Broadband Filters or Band Pass Filters

– Provide low impedance path for harmonic

current

– Least expensive

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 220

Reducing System

Harmonics (cont’d)

• Increase Pulse Numbers

– Increasing pulse number of convert circuits

– Limited by practical control problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 221

Reducing System

Harmonics (cont’d)

• Apply Transformer Phase Shifting

– Using Phase Shifting Transformers

– Achieve higher pulse operation of the total

converter installation

• In ETAP

– Phase shift is specified in the tab page of the

transformer editor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 222

Reducing System

Harmonics (cont’d)

• Either standard phase shift or special phase

shift can be used

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 223

Reducing System

Harmonics (cont’d)

• Add Active Filters

conditions

– Costly

– MVA Limitation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 224

Voltage Distortion Limits

Recommended Practices for Utilities (IEEE

519): Bus Voltage Individual

Distortion

Total Voltage

Distortion

At

(%) THD (%)

PCC

69 kV and below 3.0 5.0

69.001 kV through 161kV 1.5 2.5

161.001 and above 1.0 1.5

In ETAP:

Specify Harmonic Distortion Limits in Harmonic

Page of Bus Editor:

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 225

Current Distortion Limits

Recommended Practices for General

Distribution Systems (IEEE 519):

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 226

TEMA 5

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 227

Motor Starting

Dynamic Acceleration

ARRANQUE DE MOTORES

Características principales:

Aceleración dinámica de

motores.

Parpadeo (Flicker) de tensión.

Modelos dinámicos de motores.

Arranque estático de motores.

Varios dispositivos de arranque.

Transición de carga.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 229

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 230

Why to Do MS Studies?

• Ensure that motor will start with voltage drop

• If Tst <Tload at s=1, then motor will not start

• If Tm=Tload at s<sr, motor can not reach rated speed

• Torque varies as (voltage)^2

• Utility bus voltage >95%

• 3% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes visible

• 5% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes irritating

• MCC bus voltage >80%

• Generation bus voltage > 93%

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 231

Why to Do MS Studies?

• Ensure motor feeders sized adequately

(Assuming 100% voltage at Switchboard or MCC)

• LV cable voltage drop at starting < 20%

• LV cable voltage drop when running at full-load < 5%

• HV cable voltage drop at starting < 15%

• HV cable voltage drop when running at full-load < 3%

• Motor kW < 1/6 kW rating of generator (islanded)

• For 6 MW of islanded generation, largest motor size < 1 MW

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 232

Motor Sizing

• Positive Displacement Pumps / Rotary Pumps

• p = Pressure in psi

• Q = fluid flow in gpm

• n = efficiency

• Centrifugal Pumps

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 233

Motor Types

• Synchronous

• Salient Pole

• Round Rotor

• Induction

• Wound Rotor (slip-ring)

• Single Cage CKT Model

• Squirrel Cage (brushless)

• Double Cage CKT Model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 234

Induction Motor Advantages

• Squirrel Cage

• Slightly higher efficiency and power factor

• Explosive proof

• Wound Rotor

• Higher starting torque

• Lower starting current

• Speed varied by using external resistances

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 235

Typical Rotor Construction

skewed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 236

Wound Rotor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 237

Operation of Induction

Motor

• AC applied to stator winding

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 238

Slip Frequency

• Slip represents the inability of the rotor to

keep up with the stator magnetic field

• Slip frequency

S = (ωs-ωn)/ωs where ωs = 120f/P

ωn = mech speed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 239

Static Start - Example

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 240

Static Start - Example

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 241

Service Factor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 242

Inrush Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 243

Resistance / Reactance

• Torque Slip Curve is changed by altering

resistance / reactance of rotor bars.

• Resistance ↑ by ↓cross sectional area or

using higher resistivity material like brass.

• Reactance ↑ by placing conductor deeper in

the rotor cylinder or by closing the slot at the

air gap.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 244

Rotor Bar Resistance ↑

• Increase Starting Torque

• Lower Starting Current

• Lower Full Load Speed

• Lower Efficiency

• No Effect on Breakdown Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 245

Rotor Bar Reactance ↑

• Lower Starting Torque

• Lower Starting Current

• Lower Breakdown Torque

• No effect on Full Load Conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 246

Motor Torque Curves

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 247

Rotor Bar Design

• Cross section Large (low

resistance) and positioned deep in

the rotor (high reactance).

(Starting Torque is normal and

starting current is low).

• Double Deck with small conductor

of high resistance. During starting,

most current flows through the

upper deck due to high reactance

of lower deck. (Starting Torque is

high and starting current is low).

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 248

Rotor Bar Design

• Bars are made of Brass or

similar high resistance

material. Bars are close to

surface to reduce leakage

reactance. (Starting torque is

high and starting current is

low).

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 249

Load Torque – ID Fan

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 250

Load Torque – FD Fan

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 251

Load Torque – C. Pump

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 252

Motor Torque – Speed Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 253

Double Cage Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 254

Motor Full Load Torque

• For example, 30 HP 1765 RPM Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 255

Motor Efficiency

• kW Saved = HP * 0.746 (1/Old – 1/New)

• $ Savings = kW Saved * Hrs /Year * $/kWh

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 256

Acceleration Torque

• Greater

Acceleration

Torque means

higher inertia

that can be

handled by the

motor without

approaching

thermal limits

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 257

Acceleration Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 258

Operating Range

• Motor, Generator, or Brake

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 259

Rated Conditions

• Constant Power

Load(kva)

Ir

L1

Terminal Current

kvar

0.8 1.0

Terminal Voltage 0.8 Terminal Voltage 1.0

changes by a very small amount. There fore, P is approx constant since

Tm (α w²m) is approx. constant

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 260

Starting Conditions

• Constant Impedance

Starting Conditions Constant Impedance

P

It

Kva

LR

I LR

.8 kva .9 I LR

LR

0.9 1.0

Terminal Voltage Vt (pu) 0.9 Terminal Voltage 1.0

Vt (pu)

Z st = ______

KVA B ____

KVR ² Pu, Rst = Zst cos θ st , Xst= Zst sin θ st

KVA LR KVB

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 261

Voltage Variation

• Torque is proportional to V^2

• Current is proportional to V

I

v1 100% voltage

80% voltage

p

R

ws wm 0 ws wm

0

Load

I

100% V

_____________

Rated voltage

80% V

Ist α ( _____________

operating voltage)

Rated voltage

T st T’ T

st

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 262

Frequency Variation

• As frequency decreases, peak torque shifts toward lower

speed as synchronous speed decreases.

• As frequency decrease, current increases due reduced

impedance.

I

T W3 = 120

em

___f RPM

F1 P

F1

F2 › F1

F 2 › F1

0 WS1 WS2 Wm

0 WS1 WS2 Wm

Adjustable speed drive : Typical speed range for variable torque loads such as pumps and fans is 3/1,maximun is 8/1 ( 1.5 to 60 Hz)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 263

Number of Poles Variation

• As Pole number increases, peak torque shifts toward lower

speed as synchronous speed decreases.

T

em

2 P - poles W′S = WS

___

P - poles 2

R

Load

Wm

0 W′S WS

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 264

Rotor Z Variation

• Increasing rotor Z will shift peak torque towards lower

speed.

Rotor – Resistance Variation

r2 r3 r4

r1

Q

R

S

r1 › r2 › r3 › r4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 265

Modeling of Elements

• Switching motors – Zlr, circuit model, or

characteristic model

• Synch generator - constant voltage behind

X’d

• Utility - constant voltage behind X”d

• Branches – Same as in Load Flow

• Non-switching Load – Same as Load flow

• All elements must be initially energized,

including motors to start

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 266

Motor Modeling

1. Operating Motor

– Constant KVA Load

1. Starting Motor

– During Acceleration – Constant Impedance

– Locked-Rotor Impedance

– Circuit Models

Characteristic Curves

After Acceleration – Constant KVA Load

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 267

Locked-Rotor Impedance

• ZLR = RLR +j XLR (10 – 25 %)

• PFLR is much lower than operating PD. Approximate

starting PF of typical squirrel cage induction motor:

POWER FACTOR

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 268

Circuit Model I

• Single Cage Rotor

– “Single1” – constant rotor resistance and

reactance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 269

Circuit Model II

• Single Cage Rotor

– “Single2” - deep bar effect, rotor resistance and

reactance vary with speed [Xm is removed]

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 270

Circuit Model III

• Double Cage Rotor

– “DB1” – integrated rotor cages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 271

Circuit Model IV

• Double Cage Rotor

– “DB2” – independent rotor cages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 272

Characteristic Model

• Motor Torque, I, and PF as function of Slip

– Static Model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 273

Calculation Methods I

• Static Motor Starting

– Time domain using static model

– Switching motors modeled as Zlr during starting and

constant kVA load after starting

– Run load flow when any change in system

– Time domain using dynamic model and inertia model

– Dynamic model used for the entire simulation

– Requires motor and load dynamic (characteristic) model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 274

Calculation Methods II

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 275

Static versus Dynamic

• Use Static Model When

– Concerned with effect of motor starting on other

loads

– Missing dynamic motor information

– Concerned with actual acceleration time

– Concerned if motor will actually start

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 276

MS Simulation Features

• Start/Stop induction/synchronous motors

• Switching on/off static load at specified loading category

• Simulate MOV opening/closing operations

• Change grid or generator operating category

• Simulate transformer LTC operation

• Simulate global load transition

• Simulate various types of starting devices

• Simulate load ramping after motor acceleration

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 277

Automatic Alert

• Starting motor terminal V

• Motor acceleration failure

• Motor thermal damage

• Generator rating

• Generator engine continuous

& peak rating

• Generator exciter peak rating

• Bus voltage

• Starting motor bus

• Grid/generator bus

• HV, MV, and LV bus

• User definable minimum time

span

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 278

Starting Devices Types

• Auto-Transformer • Y/D Winding

• Stator Resistor • Partial Wing

• Stator Reactor • Soft Starter

• Capacitor at Bus • Stator Current Limit

• Capacitor at Motor – Stator Current Control

Terminal – Voltage Control

• Rotor External Resistor – Torque Control

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 279

Starting Device

• Comparison of starting conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 280

Starting Device – AutoXFMR

• C4 opened, C2 is closed with C3 still closed. Finally C3 is open

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 281

Starting Device – AutoXFMR

• Autotransformer starting

EX. 50% Tap

Vmcc

3IST

line

MCC 5VMCC IST VM

M 50%

VMCC tap

Autotransformer starter

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 282

Starting Device – YD Start

• During Y connection Vs = VL / √3

• Phase current Iy = Id / √3 and 3 to 1 reduction in torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 283

Starting Device – Rotor R

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 284

Starting Device – Stator R

• Resistor

RL XL

RLR

5VMCC VM

VMCC

50%

tap XLR

= 1- (0.5)² * [1-(PFST)²]

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 285

Starting Device Stator X

• Reactor

RL XL

RLR

5VMCC VM

VMCC

50%

tap XLR

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 286

Transformer LTC Modeling

• LTC operations can be simulated in motor

starting studies

• Use global or individual Tit and Tot

V limit

Tit Tot

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 287

MOV Modeling I

• Represented as an impedance load during

operation

– Each stage has own impedance based on I, pf, Vr

– User specifies duration and load current for each stage

– Open statusclosing operation

– Close statusopening operation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 288

MOV Modeling II

• Five stages of operation

Opening Closing

Acceleration Acceleration

No load No load

Unseating Travel

Travel Seating

Stall Stall

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 289

MOV Closing

• With Hammer Blow- MOV Closing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 290

MOV Opening

• With Hammer Blow- MOV Opening

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 291

MOV Voltage Limit

• Effect of Voltage Limit Violation

I

ACCL STALL

UNSETTING

TRAVEL

Travel Tstl

Tacc Tpos

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 292

TEMA 6

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 293

Short-Circuit

ANSI Standard

CORTO CIRCUITO

Características principales:

Análisis de fallas transitorias

(IEC 61363).

Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E-

2000)

Integrado con coordinación de

dispositivos de protección.

Evaluación automática de

dispositivos.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 295

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 296

Short-Circuit Analysis

Types of SC Faults

•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault

•Three-Phase Grounded Fault

•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault

•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault

•Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current

•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to

possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all faults).

•In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.

Typically IL-G ≅ .87 * I3-phase

•In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition

is frequently the only one considered, since this type of

fault generally results in Maximum current.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 297

Purpose of Short-Circuit

Studies

• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine

any or all of the following:

– Verify protective device close and latch capability

(maximum fault kA)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 298

System Components

Involved in SC Calculations

• Power Company Supply

• In-Plant Generators

lower temperature limits)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 299

System Components

Involved in SC Calculations

• Overhead Lines (at lower temperature limit)

• Synchronous Motors

• Induction Motors

• Protective Devices

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 300

Elements That Contribute

Current to a Short-Circuit

• Generator

• Power Grid

• Synchronous Motors

• Induction Machines

• Lumped Loads

(with some % motor load)

• Inverters

• I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 301

Elements Do Not Contribute

Current in PowerStation

• Static Loads

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 302

Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)

v(t)= Vm∗ Sin(ω t + θ )

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 303

v(t)

i(t)

di

v(t)= Ri + L = Vm× Sin( ωt + θ ) (1)

dt

Solving equation 1 yields the following expression

- t

R

Vm Vm

i(t)= ωt + θ - φ ) +

× sin( θ - φ )×e L

× sin(

Z Z

Steady

State Transient

(DCOffset)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 304

AC Current (Symmetrical) with

No AC Decay

DC Current

© 1996-2009Operation

©1996-2009 OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 305

AC Fault Current Including the

DC Offset (No AC Decay)

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 306

Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 307

Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 308

ANSI Calculation Methods

1) The ANSI standards handle the AC Decay by varying

machine impedance during a fault.

ANSI

offset by applying multiplying factors. The

ANSI Terms for this current are:

•Momentary Current

•Close and Latch Current

•First Cycle Asymmetrical Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 309

Sources and Models of Fault

Currents in ANSI Standards

Sources

•Synchronous Generators

•Synchronous Motors & Condensers

•Induction Machines

•Electric Utility Systems (Power Grids)

Models

All sources are modeled by an internal

voltage behind its impedance.

E = Prefault Voltage

R = Machine Armature Resistance

X = Machine Reactance (X”d, X’d, Xd)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 310

Synchronous Generators

Synchronous Generators are modeled

in three stages.

Condensers

Act as a generator to supply fault

current. This current diminishes as the

magnetic field in the machine decays.

Induction Machines

Treated the same as synchronous

Synchronous Reactance

motors except they do not contribute to

Transient Reactance the fault after 2 sec.

The fault current contribution tends to

remain constant.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 311

½ Cycle Network

and protective device duties at the ½ cycle after the fault.

1 ½ to 4 Cycle Network

and protective device duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault.

30-Cycle Network

current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 312

Reactance Representation for

Utility and Synchronous Machine

½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4 Cycle 30 Cycle

Utility

Turbo Generator

Amortisseur winding

Amortisseur winding

α

X”d X”d

Condenser

X”d 1.5*X”d α

Synchronous Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 313

Reactance Representation for Induction

Machine

½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4

Cycle

rpm

< 50 hp 1.67*X”d

α

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 314

Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents

from Different Networks

½ Cycle Currents 1 ½ to 4 Cycle Currents

(Subtransient Network) (Transient Network)

HV Circuit Breaker

Capability Capability

---

Fuse Interrupting Capability

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 315

Momentary Multiplying

Factor

• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)

• Location of fault (Remote / Local generation)

Comparisons of Momentary capability (1/2 Cycle)

SC Current Duty Device Rating

Crest C&L RMS

Crest Crest

Asymmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 316

Interrupting Multiplying

Factor

• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)

• Location of Fault (Remote / Local

generation)

• Type and Rating of CB

Comparisons of Interrupting Capability (1 ½ to 4 Cycle)

HV CB

LV CB & Fuse

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 317

HV CB Closing and

Latching Duty

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 318

HV CB Interrupting Duty

fed predominantly from generators through no more than one

transformation or with external reactances in series that is less than

1.5 times generator subtransient reactance. Otherwise the

contribution is defined as “remote”).

ITotal = ILocal + IRemote

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 319

HV CB Interrupting

Capability

• CB Interrupting kA varies between Max kA and Rated kA as

applied kV changes – MVAsc capability.

and CB capability of Adjusted Int. kA verifies both symmetrical

and asymmetrical rating.

CPT.

against maximum through SC kA.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 320

LV CB Interrupting Duty

network.

Irms, Symm

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 321

Fuse Interrupting Duty

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 322

L-G Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 323

L-G Faults

Symmetrical Components

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 324

Sequence Networks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 325

L-G Fault Sequence

Network Connections

If = 3 × Ia 0

3 × VPr efault

If =

Z1 + Z 2 + Z0

if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 326

L-L Fault Sequence Network

Connections

I a 2 = − I a1

3 × VPr efault

If =

Z1 + Z 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 327

L-L-G Fault Sequence

Network Connections

I a 2 + I a1 + I a 0 = 0 = I a

VPr efault

If =

Z0 Z 2

Z1 +

Z0 + Z2

if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 328

Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 329

Solid Grounded Devices

and L-G Faults

Generally a 3 - phase fault is the

most severe case. L - G faults can be

greater if :

Z1 = Z 2 & Z 0 < Z 1

If this conditions are true then :

I f3φ < I f 1φ

This may be the case if Generators or

Y/∆ Connected transformer are solidly

grounded.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 330

Unbalanced Faults Display

& Reports

Complete reports that include individual

branch contributions for:

•L-G Faults

•L-L-G Faults

•L-L Faults

include:

•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current

contributions

•Sequence voltage and currents

•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 331

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 332

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 333

SC Study Case Info Page

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 334

SC Study Case Standard

Page

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 335

SC Study Case Adjustments

Page

Tolerance

Adjustments Length

Adjustments

•Transformer

Impedance •Cable Length

•Reactor •Transmission

Resistance Line Length

•Overload

Heater

Resistance

Temperature

Corrections

Adjust Fault •Transmission Line

Impedance Resistance

•L-G fault •Cable Resistance

Impedance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 336

Tolerance Adjustments

Length 'Cable = LengthCable * (1 ± Tolerance )

Length 'Transmissi onLine = LengthTransmissi onLine * (1 ± Tolerance )

Negative tolerance value is used for all other calculations.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 337

Temperature Correction

(234.5 + Tc )

R'Copper ' = RBASE *

(234.5 + Tb )

( 228.1 + Tc )

R' Alumi = RBASE *

( 228.1 + Tb )

R' = Resistance at operating temperatur e

Tb = Conductor base temperatur e in C

Tc = Conductor temperatur e limit in C

Individually or Globally

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 338

System for SC Study

Power Grid U1

X/R = 55

Gen1

Voltage Control

Design Setting:

%Pf = 85

MW = 4

Transformers Max Q = 9

T1 X/R Min Q = -3

PS =12

PT =12

ST =12

T2 X/R = 12

Lump1

Y open grounded

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 339

System for SC Study

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 340

System for SC Study

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 341

Short-Circuit Alerts

• Bus Alert

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 342

Bus SC Rating

Type of Device Monitored Parameter Condition Reported

Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical

MV Bus (> 1000 Volts)

Momentary Asymmetrical. crest kA Bracing Crest

Momentary Symmetrical. rms kA Bracing Symmetrical

LV Bus (<1000Volts)

Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical

Device Type ANSI Monitored Parameters IEC Monitored Parameters

Momentary C&L Crest kA N/A

HV CB

Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

SPST Switches Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 343

3-Phase Duty SC Results

Run a 3-phase Duty SC calculation for a

fault on Bus4. The display shows the

Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current.

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 344

Unbalance Fault Calculation

©1996-2009

© 1996-2009Operation

OperationTechnology,

Technology,Inc.

Inc.––Workshop

WorkshopNotes:

Notes:Short-Circuit

Short-CircuitIEC

ANSI Slide 345

TEMA 7

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 346

Transient Stability

Time Frame of Power System

Dynamic Phenomena

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 348

Introduction

• TS is also called Rotor Stability, Dynamic

Stability

• Electromechanical Phenomenon

• All synchronous machines must remain in

synchronism with one another

• TS is no longer only the utility’s concern

• Co-generation plants face TS problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 349

Analogy

• How much energy gained by each vehicle?

• Which direction will they move?

• Height of the hill must they climb to go over?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 350

Introduction (cont’d)

• System protection requires consideration of:

Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)

Critical Separation Time (CST)

Fast load transferring

Load Shedding

…

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 351

Causes of Instability

• Short-circuits

• Loss of utility connections

• Loss of a portion of in-plant generation

• Starting of a large motor

• Switching operations (lines or capacitors)

• Impact loading on motors

• Sudden large change in load and

generation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 352

Consequences of Instability

• Synchronous machine slip poles –

generator tripping

• Power swing

• Misoperation of protective devices

• Interruption of critical loads

• Low-voltage conditions – motor drop-offs

• Damage to equipment

• Area wide blackout

• …

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 353

Synchronous Machines

• Torque Equation (generator case)

T = mechanical torque

P = number of poles

φ air = air-gap flux

Fr = rotor field MMF

δ = rotor angle

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 354

Swing Equation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 355

Synchronous Machines

(cont’d)

• Swing Equation

M = inertia constant

D = damping constant

Pmech = input mechanical power

Pelec = output electrical power

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 356

Rotor Angle Responses

• Case 2: Transient stable

• Case 3: Small-signal unstable

• Case 4: First swing unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 357

Power and Rotor Angle

(Classical 2-Machine

Example)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 358

Power and Rotor Angle

(cont’d)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 359

Power and Rotor Angle

(Parallel Lines)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 360

Both Lines In Service

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 361

One Line Out of Service

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 362

Equal Area Criterion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 363

Equal Area Criterion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 364

Equal Area - Stable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 365

Equal Area – Unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 366

Equal Area - Unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 367

Power System Stability

Limit

• Steady-State Stability Limit

After small disturbance, the synchronous

generator reaches a steady state operating

condition identical or close to the pre-

disturbance

Limit: δ < 90°

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 368

Power System Stability

Limit (con’d)

• Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit

After a severe disturbance, the synchronous

generator reaches a steady-state operating

condition without a prolonged loss of

synchronism

Limit: δ < 180° during swing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 369

Generator Modeling

• Machine

Equivalent Model / Transient Model / Subtransient Model

• Exciter and Automatic Voltage Regulator

(AVR)

• Prime Mover and Speed Governor

• Power System Stabilizer (PSS)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 370

Generator Modeling (con’d)

• Typical synchronous machine data

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 371

Factors Influencing TS

• Post-Disturbance Reactance seen from generator.

Reactance ↓ Pmax ↓

• Duration of the fault clearing time.

Fault time ↑ Rotor Acceleration ↑ Kinetic Energy ↑

Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑

• Generator Inertia.

Inertia ↑ Rate of change of Angle ↓ Kinetic Energy ↓

• Generator Internal Voltage

Internal Voltage ↓ Pmax ↓

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 372

Factors Influencing TS

• Generator Loading Prior To Disturbance

Loading ↑ Closer to Pmax. Unstable during acceleration

• Generator Internal Reactance

Reactance ↓ Peak Power ↑ Initial Rotor Angle ↓

Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑

• Generator Output During Fault

Function of Fault Location and Type of Fault

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 373

Solution to Stability

Problems

• Improve system design

Increase synchronizing power

• Design and selection of rotating equipment

Use of induction machines

Increase moment of inertia

Reduce transient reactance

Improve voltage regulator and exciter

characteristics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 374

Solution to Stability

Problems

• Reduction of Transmission System

Reactance

• High Speed Fault Clearing

• Dynamic Braking

• Regulate Shunt Compensation

• Steam Turbine Fast Valving

• Generator Tripping

• Adjustable Speed Synchronous Machines

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 375

Solution to Stability

Problems

• HVDC Link Control

• Current Injection from VSI devices

• Application of Power System Stabilizer

(PSS)

• Add system protections

Fast fault clearance

Load Shedding

System separation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 376

TEMA 8

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 377

Load Flow Analysis

FLUJO DE CARGA

Características principales:

Diversas representaciones de las

cargas.

Cálculo de los perfiles de tensión.

Corrección del factor de potencia.

Diagnóstico automático de equipos.

Corrección automática de impedancias

por temperatura.

Cálculo de pérdidas activas y reactivas.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 379

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 380

System Concepts

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 381

Power in Balanced 3-Phase

S =V I *

Systems S =3 ×S 1φ LN

3φ 1φ

= 3 ×V LL I *

= P + jQ

Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 382

Leading & Lagging Power

Factors

ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors as

negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading Lagging

Power Power

Factor Factor P + jQ P - jQ P + jQ

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 383

3-Phase Per Unit System

kVA B S = 3VI If you have two bases:

IB = Then you may calculate the other two

3kVB V = 3ZI

by using the relationships enclosed in

SB brackets. The different bases are:

(kVB ) 2 BI =

ZB = 3VB •IB (Base Current)

MVA B V

Z = B

2

•ZB (Base Impedance)

B SB •VB (Base Voltage)

•SB (Base Power)

I actual Vactual

I pu = Vpu = ETAP selects for LF:

IB VB •100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the

entire system.

Zactual Sactual

Z pu = Spu = •The kV rating of reference point is

used along with the transformer turn

ZB SB ratios are applied to determine the

base voltage for different parts of the

system.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 384

Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch

impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show

the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31

and the X/R = 12.14

Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is used

by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different parts

of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting from

the utility kV rating.

kVB1

To determine base voltage use:

N1

kV =

1

B kVB2

N2

kVB2

Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find

the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X

Z pu ×

R x pu

X pu = R pu =

X

2

X

1+ R

R

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 385

0.065(12.14) 0.06478

X pu = = 0.06478 R pu = = 0.005336

1 + (12.14) 2 12.14

The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the

following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.

2 2

V o

SnB 13.8 100

Z pu = Z pu n

n o B

o = (5.33× 10− 3 + j0.06478) = (0.1115 + j1.3538)

VB SB 13.5 5

Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base

impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

VB = = = 4.0695 ZB = = = 0.165608

N1 3.31 MVA 100

N 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 386

The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base

impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain

the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Z pu = = = (0.6038+ j6.0382)

ZB 0.1656

% Z = 100 × Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8

The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values

in 100 MVA base

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 387

Load Flow Analysis

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 388

Load Flow Problem

• Given

– Load Power Consumption at all buses

– Configuration

– Power Production at each generator

• Basic Requirement

– Power Flow in each line and transformer

– Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 389

Load Flow Studies

• Determine Steady State Operating Conditions

– Voltage Profile

– Power Flows

– Current Flows

– Power Factors

– Transformer LTC Settings

– Voltage Drops

– Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)

– Total Generation & Power Demand

– Steady State Stability Limits

– MW & Mvar Losses

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 390

Size & Determine System

Equipment & Parameters

• Cable / Feeder Capacity

• Capacitor Size

• Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)

• Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting

• Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.

• MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings

• Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)

• Generator’s Mvar Demand

• Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 391

Optimize Operating

Conditions

• Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits

of Equipment

Maximum Ratings

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 392

Calculation Process

• Non-Linear System

• Calculated Iteratively

– Assume the Load

Voltage (Initial Conditions)

– Calculate the Current I Assume VR

– Based on the Current, Calc: I = Sload / VR

Calculate Voltage Drop Vd Calc: Vd = I * Z

results are within the specified precision.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 393

Load Flow Calculation

Methods

• Low Requirements on initial values,

but slow in

speed. 3. Fast-Decoupled Method

• Two sets of iteration equations: real

power – voltage angle,

reactive power – voltage magnitude.

1. Newton-Raphson Method • Fast in speed, but low in solution

• precision.

Fast in speed, but high requirement on

initial values. • Better for radial systems and

• systems with long lines.

First order derivative is used to speed up

calculation.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 394

Load Nameplate Data

kVARated = =

PF × Eff PF × Eff kW

kVARated PF =

FLA3φ = kVA

3 × kV kVA

I 3φ = 1000 ×

kVARated ( 3 × kV)

FLA1φ =

kV kVA

I1φ = 1000 ×

Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 % kV

loading conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 395

Constant Power Loads

• In Load Flow calculations induction,

synchronous and lump loads are treated

as constant power loads.

• The power output remains constant even

if the input voltage changes (constant

kVA).

• The lump load power output behaves like

a constant power load for the specified %

motor load.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 396

Constant Impedance Loads

• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads (%

static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor

Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance

Loads.

• The Input Power increases proportionally to the square of

the Input Voltage.

• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as capacitive

loads for Power Factor Correction.

• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads

because of their operating characteristics.

© 1996-2008 Operation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology,

Technology, Inc.

Inc. ––Workshop

Workshop Notes:

Notes: Short-Circuit

Load Flow Analysis

IEC Slide

Slide 397

397

Constant Current Loads

• The current remains constant even if the voltage

changes.

• DC Constant current loads are used to test Battery

discharge capacity.

• AC constant current loads may be used to test

UPS systems performance.

• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in

ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for

Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 398

Constant Current Loads

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 399

Generic Loads

Exponential Load

Polynomial Load

Comprehensive

Load

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 400

Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage

•AVR: Automatic Voltage

Regulation

•Fixed: Fixed Excitation

(no AVR action)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 401

Governor Operating Modes

• Isochronous: This governor setting allows the

generator’s power output to be adjusted based on

the system demand.

• Droop: This governor setting allows the generator

to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is

fixed.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 402

Isochronous Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 403

Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 404

Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 405

Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 406

Adjusting Steam Flow

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 407

Adjusting Excitation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 408

In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating

modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode

•Governor is operating in

Isochronous mode

•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control

•Governor is operating in Droop

Mode

•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control

•Governor is operating in Droop

Mode

•Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR

action)

PF Control

•Governor is operating in Droop

Mode

•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor

Setting

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 409

• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary

based on the Power Demand

• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & θ are

varied

• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & θ are

varied

• If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the model

is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 410

Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 411

Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 412

Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 413

Maximum & Minimum

Reactive Power

Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 414

Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding

Machine Rating

Heating Limit

(Power Factor Point)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 415

Generation Categories

Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

10 Different Generation

Categories for Every

Generator or Power Grid in

the System

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 416

Power Flow

V1 = V1 ∠δ 1

V 2 = V2 ∠δ 2

S = V*I = P + jQ

V1*V2 V1*V2 V2

2

= *SIN (δ1 − δ 2 ) + j *COS (δ1 − δ 2 ) −

X X X

V1*V2

P= *SIN (δ1 −δ 2 )

X

2

V1*V2 V2

Q= *COS( δ1 − δ 2 ) −

X X

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 417

Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are

connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0° , V2 = 100 /30° and X = 0 +j5

determine the power flow in the system.

I= =

X j5

I = −10 − j2.68

I

V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 − j268

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 418

The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This

machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and

absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

Power Flow S

1 1

( V ⋅E)

⋅sin ( δ ) 0

∆

X

2

( V ⋅E)

⋅cos ( δ ∆) −

V

X X

−2

2

0 δ ∆ π

Real Power Flow

Reactive Power Flow

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 419

Bus Voltage

ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways

•kV value

•Percent of Nominal Bus kV

For Bus4:

kVCalculated = 13.5 kVNo min al = 13.8

kVCalculated

V% = ×100 = 97.83%

kVNo min al

For Bus5:

kVCalculated = 4.03 kVNo min al = 4.16

kVCalculated

V% = × 100 = 96.85%

kVNo min al

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 420

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 421

Lump Load Negative

Loading

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 422

Load Flow Adjustments

• Transformer Impedance

– Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation

tolerance

• Reactor Impedance

– Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

• Overload Heater

– Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

– Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length

variation tolerance

• Cable Length

– Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 423

Load Flow Study Case

Adjustment Page

Adjustments applied

•Individual

•Global

Temperature Correction

• Cable Resistance

• Transmission Line

Resistance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 424

Allowable Voltage Drop

NEC and ANSI C84.1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 425

Load Flow Example 1

Part 1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 426

Load Flow Example 1

Part 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 427

Load Flow Alerts

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 428

Equipment Overload Alerts

Cable Monitor Continuous Amps

Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps

Line Monitor Line Ampacity

Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output

UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps

Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 429

Protective Device Alerts

Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported

High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad

Fuses Rated Current OverLoad

Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad

SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 430

If the Auto Display

feature is active, the

Alert View Window will

appear as soon as the

Load Flow calculation

has finished.

© 1996-2009 Operation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology,

Technology, Inc.

Inc. ––Workshop

Workshop Notes:

Notes: Short-Circuit

Load Flow Analysis

IEC Slide

Slide 431

431

Advanced LF Topics

Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 432

Load Flow Convergence

• Negative Impedance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 433

Voltage Control

• Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be

fixed for proper equipment operation and

insulation ratings be met.

– Transformer Replacement

– Capacitor Addition

– Transformer Tap Adjustment

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 434

Under-Voltage Example

• Create Under Voltage • Method 2 - Shunt Capacitor

Condition – Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8

– Change Syn2 Quantity to 6. – 300 kvar 3 Banks

(Info Page, Quantity Field) – Voltage is improved

– Run LF • Method 3 - Change Tap

– Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under – Place LTC on Primary of T6

Voltage Condition)

– Select Bus8 for Control Bus

• Method 1 - Change Xfmr – Select Update LTC in the

Study Case

– Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8

MVA, will notice slight – Run LF

improvement on the Bus8 kV – Bus Voltage Comes within

specified limits

– Too Expensive and time

consuming

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 435

Mvar Control

• Vars from Utility • Method 2 – Add Capacitor

– Add Switch to CAP1 – Close Switch

– Open Switch

– Run Load Flow

– Run LF

– Var Contribution from the

Utility reduces

• Method 1 – Generator

– Change Generator from

Voltage Control to Mvar Control • Method 3 – Xfmr MVA

– Set Mvar Design Setting to 5 – Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA

Mvars

– Will notice decrease in the

contribution from the Utility

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 436

Panel Systems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 437

Panel Boards

• They are a collection of branch circuits

feeding system loads

• Panel System is used for representing

power and lighting panels in electrical

systems

Double-Click to drop multiple panels

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 438

Representation

A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as an

internal or external load

Advantages:

1. Easier Data Entry

2. Concise System

Representation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 439

Pin Assignment

Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel

ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 440

Assumptions

• Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)

• Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-

Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel

circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage

• The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire

panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel

• There are no losses in the feeders connecting a

load to the panel

• Static loads are calculated based on their rated

voltage

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 441

Line-Line Connections

Load Connected Between Two Phases of a

3-Phase System

A A

B B

C C

Load

LoadB

Angle by which load current IBC lags the load voltage = θ°

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C: For load connected to phase B

PBC = VBC .IBC .cos θ PB = VB.IB.cos (θ - 30)

QB = VB.IB.sin (θ - 30)

QBC = VBC .IBC .sin θ

And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC

PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)

QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 442

Info Page

NEC Selection

A, B, C from top to bottom or

left to right from the front of the

panel

voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-

wire delta connected system

(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1-Phase 3-Wire Panel

1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 443

Rating Page

Intelligent kV Calculation

If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus

having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the

default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732

=) 0.277 kV

is Ingress Protection

(IPxy), where IP00 means

no protection or shielding

on the panel

Breakers or Fuses from

Main Device Library

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 444

Schedule Page

Standard Layout

Column Layout

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 445

Description Tab

First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999

Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined

Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total

panel load

External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the element

type

For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s demand

factor status

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 446

Rating Tab

Amperes for this load.

for a 3-phase load are 1200,

enter W as 400 (=1200/3)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 447

Loading Tab

For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 448

Protective Device Tab

LV Circuit Breaker

(Molded Case, with

Thermal Magnetic

Trip Device) or

Fuse will appear

depending on the

Type of protective

device selected.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 449

Feeder Tab

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 450

Action Buttons

Copy the content of the selected

row to clipboard. Circuit number,

Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link

and State are not copied.

copied row) in the selected row.

This will work when the Link

Type is other than space or

unusable, and only for fields

which are not blocked.

selected row.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 451

Summary Page

Continuous Load – Per Phase and Total

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 452

Output Report

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 453

Panel Code Factors

for each types of load separately and then summed up

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 454

- Siemens Power Engineering GuideTransféré parteamlc
- Short Circuit CalculationTransféré parbhoirsandeep
- IEC60909_ICCTransféré parMarcos Melo
- IEEETransféré parBala Murugan
- 06 - Short Circuit_IECTransféré parchanchai T
- According to Iec60909Transféré parcgalli2
- Calculation of Short-circuit IEC 60909Transféré parIuliu Grad
- IEC 61363-1 ShortCircuit CalcsTransféré parMakiber
- Short Circuit Analyse IEC 60909Transféré parIuliu Grad
- IEC 60909-0.pdfTransféré parEricksson P. Garcia
- ABB Trf. ProtectionTransféré parmagcan
- 3 Phase Short CircuitTransféré parijmlandeta
- 03 - Load Flow and PanelTransféré parchanchai T
- 23 - Battery Sizing DischargeTransféré parchanchai T
- Short-Circuit Current CalculationsTransféré parMaximo Gomez Guerrero
- Short-Circuit Protective Device Coordination & Arc Flash AnalysisTransféré parconstellana
- CT & Relay Setting-Differential ProtectionTransféré parSudipta Chatterjee
- Etap PowerStation® 4.0-User Guide-Dr Tarek NaglaTransféré parncaliao
- 08 - Device CoordinationTransféré parchanchai T
- 11 - Transient StabilityTransféré parchanchai T
- Short Circuit Current CalculationTransféré parSamarakoon Banda
- IEC 60909 0 2001 Short Circuit Current_ResumenTransféré parOscar Ordoñez Velasquez
- ABB Protection Application HandbookTransféré pareng_hesham147
- ETAP User Guide 12.6.pdfTransféré parnovitopo
- Industrial Power Systems Handbook - Donald BeemanTransféré parDhanraj Bachai
- Etap SimulationTransféré par386
- FCT Not DeterminedTransféré parCharles Moncy
- Short Circuit CalculationTransféré pargraduadoesime
- Handbook for Protection Engineers(2)Transféré parAna Raquel Santos

- Usos Productivos de La ETransféré parelectrica3
- CIP Parte1a_AnalisisFallas_Sistemas de Transmision 26ene11Transféré parelectrica3
- CIP Parte1a_AnalisisFallas_Sistemas de Transmision 26ene11Transféré parelectrica3
- Fotos (16-10-10) Foro de LeyTransféré parelectrica3
- eventos febrero 02Transféré parelectrica3
- Fotos (4-l12-10) Curso CortocircuitoTransféré parelectrica3
- miercolesTransféré parelectrica3
- CIP Parte1b_AnalisisFallas_Sistemas de Transmision 26ene11Transféré parelectrica3
- CIP Parte2_AnalisisFallas_Sistemas de Transmision 26ene11Transféré parelectrica3
- Fotos (21-10-10) Expo Ing. Andres CiudadTransféré parelectrica3
- evento 15 FebreroTransféré parelectrica3
- Fotos (19-10-10) Exposicion Ing. Jonathan GiraldeauTransféré parelectrica3
- Presentación Relé Arc FlashTransféré parelectrica3
- fotosevento eneroTransféré parelectrica3
- miercoles 2Transféré parelectrica3
- Semana del Ingeniero Electricista 29-09-10 Expo Sic Ion Eduardo Antunez de MayoloTransféré parelectrica3
- lunesTransféré parelectrica3
- miercolesTransféré parelectrica3
- 28-09-10 exposicion cesar monteroTransféré parelectrica3
- martesTransféré parelectrica3
- Charla Magistral "Perspectiva de la Tecnología de Alta Tensión"Transféré parelectrica3
- Semana del Ingeniero Electricista 27-09-10 bienvenidaTransféré parelectrica3
- 27-09-10 exposicion ismael aragonTransféré parelectrica3
- Semana del Ingeniero Electricista 28-09-10 exposicion jorge echevarriaTransféré parelectrica3
- juevesTransféré parelectrica3
- LUNESTransféré parelectrica3
- 29-10-10 Expo Sic Ion Julio Ruiz RomeroTransféré parelectrica3
- Charla Magistral "Primer Plan de Transmision Eléctrica"Transféré parelectrica3
- martes 2Transféré parelectrica3
- lunes2Transféré parelectrica3

- F1379.tyho6649Transféré parErsen Serin
- PIP-CTSE2018Transféré parKelly Bates
- transaction-logfilesTransféré parchanducsp
- Drum Level Indicating Systems DIAMONDTransféré partonymr1
- Applied Crypto HardeningTransféré parJessé Oliveira
- NED BscparameterhanlingTransféré parAshar Saragih
- Pull master model-pl2-winche.pdfTransféré parFrank Patricio
- Power Supply DVP-PS01Transféré parRodrigo Perez
- Improved AcTransféré parSirLotus
- CoreText Framework RefTransféré parShah Paril
- Z_AVISO_CONVENIO_HTTP_POST.txtTransféré parolecosas4273
- Epson SC-480 Service ManualTransféré parKinder Black
- BS 1868-1975.pdfTransféré parJavier Espino
- Dcac9k Lab Guide 20160501Transféré parrajish.g.nair
- Astm f2126Transféré parDarío Sadler
- Affinity DesignerTransféré parManu77
- expendiblesipsTransféré parTorrentFreak_
- A6V10060987_hq-enTransféré parImran Mohiuddin
- Logic Relay Brochure 2CDC126016B0202Transféré parOscar Garcia
- TK310.pdfTransféré partamnguyen29842764
- 2 1 9trussdesign 1Transféré parapi-268199425
- Node.js Notes for ProfessionalsTransféré parPeter Ranieri
- ftpTransféré parshreyash
- FortiOS v4.0 MR2 Patch Release 10 Release NotesTransféré parEliezer De Sousa Oliveira
- 229544844 Flexi Multiradio BTS LTE EvolutionTransféré parLuis Diaz
- asg-2-electrical-power-supplyTransféré pardragan87
- Whitemud Freeway Speed Limit ChangesTransféré parpkGlobal
- 3d Volumetric ConstructionTransféré parDanica May Bautista Torres
- Aiml TutorialTransféré parArdhi
- WR-1_(En)Transféré parRob