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Short-Circuit Analysis

IEC Standard

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


CORTO CIRCUITO
Características principales:

 Estándar de ANSI/IEEE & IEC.


 Análisis de fallas transitorias
(IEC 61363).
 Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E-
2000)
 Integrado con coordinación de
dispositivos de protección.
 Evaluación automática de
dispositivos.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 2


Purpose of Short-Circuit
Studies
• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
– Verify protective device close and latch capability

– Verify protective device interrupting capability

– Protect equipment from large mechanical forces


(maximum fault kA)

– I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)

– Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 3


Types of Short-Circuit Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 4


Types of Short-Circuit Faults
Types of SC Faults
•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Three-Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current
•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all faults).
•In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.
Typically IL-G ≅ .87 * I3-phase
•In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 5
Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)
v(t)= Vm∗ Sin(ω t + θ )

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 6


v(t)
i(t)

di
v(t)= Ri + L = Vm× Sin( ωt + θ ) (1)
dt
Solving equation 1 yields the following expression
- t
R
Vm Vm
i(t)= ωt + θ - φ ) +
× sin( θ - φ )×e L
× sin(
Z Z
    
Steady
State Transient
(DCOffset)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 7


AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay

DC Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 8


AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 9


Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 10


Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 11


IEC Short-Circuit
Calculation (IEC 909)
• Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current (I"k)

• Peak Short-Circuit Current (ip)

• Symmetrical Short-Circuit Breaking Current


(Ib)

• Steady-State Short-Circuit Current (Ik)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 12


IEC Short-Circuit
Calculation Method
• Ik” = Equivalent V @ fault location divided by
equivalent Z

• Equivalent V is based bus nominal kV and c


factor

• XFMR and machine Z adjusted based on


cmax, component Z & operating conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 13


Transformer Z Adjustment
• KT -- Network XFMR

• KS,KSO – Unit XFMR for faults on system side

• KT,S,KT,SO – Unit XFMR for faults in auxiliary


system, not between Gen & XFMR

• K=1 – Unit XFMR for faults between Gen &


XFMR

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 14


Syn Machine Z Adjustment
• KG – Synchronous machine w/o unit XFMR

• KS,KSO – With unit XFMR for faults on system


side

• KG,S,KG,SO – With unit XFMR for faults in


auxiliary system, including points between
Gen & XFMR

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 15


Types of Short-Circuits

• Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit
– This is a short-circuit condition to which at least
one synchronous machine contributes a
prospective initial short-circuit current which is
more than twice the generator’s rated current, or
a short-circuit condition to which synchronous
and asynchronous motors contribute more than
5% of the initial symmetrical short-circuit current
( I"k) without motors.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 16
Near-To-Generator Short-Circuit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 17


Types of Short-Circuits

• Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit
– This is a short-circuit condition during which the
magnitude of the symmetrical ac component of
available short-circuit current remains essentially
constant.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 18


Far-From-Generator Short-Circuit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 19


Factors Used in If Calc
• κ – calc ip based on Ik”

• μ – calc ib for near-to-gen & not meshed network

• q – calc induction machine ib for near-to-gen & not


meshed network

• Equation (75) of Std 60909-0, adjusting Ik for


near-to-gen & meshed network

• λmin & λmax – calc ik


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 20
IEC Short-Circuit Study Case

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 21


Types of Short-Circuits

When these options


are selected
• Maximum voltage factor is used

• Minimum impedance is used (all negative


tolerances are applied and minimum
resistance temperature is considered)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 22


Types of Short-Circuits

When this option is


selected
• Minimum voltage factor is used

• Maximum impedance is used (all positive


tolerances are applied and maximum
resistance temperature is considered)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 23


Voltage Factor (c)
• Ratio between equivalent voltage &
nominal voltage

• Required to account for:

• Variations due to time & place

• Transformer taps

• Static loads & capacitances

• Generator & motor subtransient


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 24
Calculation Method

• Breaking kA is more
conservative if the option
No Motor Decay is
selected

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 25


IEC SC 909 Calculation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 26


Device Duty Comparison

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 27


Mesh & Non-Mesh If
• ETAP automatically determines mesh &
non-meshed contributions according to
individual contributions

• IEC Short Circuit Mesh Determination


Method – 0, 1, or 2 (default)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 28


L-G Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 29


L-G Faults
Symmetrical Components

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 30


Sequence Networks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 31


L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

If = 3 × Ia 0
3 × VPr efault
If =
Z1 + Z 2 + Z0
if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 32


L-L Fault Sequence Network
Connections

I a 2 = − I a1
3 × VPr efault
If =
Z1 + Z 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 33


L-L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

I a 2 + I a1 + I a 0 = 0 = I a
VPr efault
If =
 Z0 Z 2 
Z1 +  
 Z0 + Z2 
if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 34


Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 35


Solid Grounded Devices
and L-G Faults
Generally a 3 - phase fault is the
most severe case. L - G faults can be
greater if :
Z1 = Z 2 & Z 0 < Z 1
If this conditions are true then :
I f3φ < I f 1φ
This may be the case if Generators or
Y/∆ Connected transformer are solidly
grounded.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 36


Zero Sequence Model
• Branch susceptances and static
loads including capacitors will be
considered when this option is
checked
• Recommended by IEC for
systems with isolated neutral,
resonant earthed neutrals &
earthed neutrals with earth fault
factor > 1.4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 37


Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•L-G Faults
•L-L-G Faults
•L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 38


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Total Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 39


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Percent DC Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 40


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
AC Component of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 41


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 42


Transient Fault Current
Calculation (IEC 61363)
Top Envelope of Fault Current Waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 43


IEC Transient Fault Current
Calculation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 44


Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•L-G Faults
•L-L-G Faults
•L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 45


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 46
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 47
TEMA 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 48


Protective Device Coordination

ETAP Star

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


ETAP START PROTECCION Y COORDINACION
Características principales:

 Curvas para más de 75,000


dispositivos.
 Actualización automática de
Corriente de Corto Circuito.
 Coordinación tiempo-corriente de
dispositivos.
 Auto-coordinación de dispositivos.
 Integrados a los diagramas
unifilares.
 Rastreo o cálculos en diferentes
tiempos.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 50


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 51
Agenda
• Concepts & Applications
• Star Overview
• Features & Capabilities
• Protective Device Type
• TCC Curves
• STAR Short-circuit
• PD Sequence of Operation
• Normalized TCC curves
• Device Libraries

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 52


Definition
• Overcurrent Coordination
– A systematic study of current responsive
devices in an electrical power system.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 53


Objective
• To determine the ratings and settings of
fuses, breakers, relay, etc.

• To isolate the fault or overloads.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 54


Criteria
• Economics

• Available Measures of Fault

• Operating Practices

• Previous Experience

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 55


Design
• Open only PD nearest (upstream) of the fault
or overload
• Provide satisfactory protection for overloads
• Interrupt SC as rapidly (instantaneously) as
possible
• Comply with all applicable standards and
codes
• Plot the Time Current Characteristics of
different PDs
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 56
Analysis
When:

• New electrical systems

• Plant electrical system expansion/retrofits

• Coordination failure in an existing plant

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 57


Spectrum Of Currents
• Load Current
– Up to 100% of full-load
– 115-125% (mild overload)
• Overcurrent
– Abnormal loading condition (Locked-Rotor)
• Fault Current
– Fault condition
– Ten times the full-load current and higher
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 58
Protection
• Prevent injury to personnel

• Minimize damage to components

– Quickly isolate the affected portion of the system

– Minimize the magnitude of available short-circuit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 59


Coordination
• Limit the extent and duration of service
interruption

• Selective fault isolation

• Provide alternate circuits

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 60


Coordination
C D B A
t

C D B

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 61


Protection vs. Coordination
• Coordination is not an exact science
• Compromise between protection and
coordination
– Reliability
– Speed
– Performance
– Economics
– Simplicity

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 62


Required Data
• One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams)
• Power Grid Settings
• Generator Data
• Transformer Data
– Transformer kVA, impedance, and connection
Motor Data
• Load Data
• Fault Currents
• Cable / Conductor Data
• Bus / Switchgear Data
• Instrument Transformer Data (CT, PT)
• Protective Device (PD) Data
– Manufacturer and type of protective devices (PDs)
– One-line diagrams (Relay diagrams)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 63


Study Procedure
• Prepare an accurate one-line diagram (relay diagrams)
• Obtain the available system current spectrum (operating
load, overloads, fault kA)
• Determine the equipment protection guidelines
• Select the appropriate devices / settings
• Plot the fixed points (damage curves, …)
• Obtain / plot the device characteristics curves
• Analyze the results

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 64


Time Current Characteristics
• TCC Curve / Plot / Graphs
• 4.5 x 5-cycle log-log graph
• X-axis: Current (0.5 – 10,000 amperes)
• Y-axis: Time (.01 – 1000 seconds)
• Current Scaling (…x1, x10, x100, x100…)
• Voltage Scaling (plot kV reference)
• Use ETAP Star Auto-Scale

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 65


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 66
TCC Scaling Example
• Situation:
– A scaling factor of 10 @ 4.16 kV is selected for
TCC curve plots.
• Question
– What are the scaling factors to plot the 0.48 kV
and 13.8 kV TCC curves?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 67


TCC Scaling Example
• Solution

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 68


Fixed Points

Points or curves which do not change regardless


of protective device settings:
• Cable damage curves
• Cable ampacities
• Transformer damage curves & inrush points
• Motor starting curves
• Generator damage curve / Decrement curve
• SC maximum fault points

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 69


Capability / Damage Curves
It2 I2 t I2 t
t
I 2t
2

Motor
Xfmr Cable
Gen

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 70


Cable Protection
• Standards & References
– IEEE Std 835-1994 IEEE Standard Power Cable Ampacity
Tables
– IEEE Std 848-1996 IEEE Standard Procedure for the
Determination of the Ampacity Derating of Fire-Protected
Cables
– IEEE Std 738-1993 IEEE Standard for Calculating the
Current- Temperature Relationship of Bare Overhead
Conductors
– The Okonite Company Engineering Data for Copper and
Aluminum Conductor Electrical Cables, Bulletin EHB-98

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 71


Cable Protection

The actual temperature rise of a cable when exposed to


a short circuit current for a known time is calculated by:

Ι2 t
A=
 T2 + 234 
0.0297log  
 T1 + 234 
Where:
A= Conductor area in circular-mils
I = Short circuit current in amps
t = Time of short circuit in seconds
T1= Initial operation temperature (750C)
T2=Maximum short circuit temperature
(1500C)
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 72
Cable Short-Circuit Heating Limits
Recommended
temperature rise:
B) CU 75-200C

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 73


Shielded
Cable

The normal tape


width is 1½
inches

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 74


NEC Section 110‑14 C
• (c) Temperature limitations. The temperature rating associated with the
ampacity of a conductor shall be so selected and coordinated as to not exceed
the lowest temperature rating of any connected termination,
termination conductor, or
device. Conductors with temperature ratings higher than specified for
terminations shall be permitted to be used for ampacity adjustment, correction,
or both.
• (1) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated 100 amperes or less,
or marked for Nos. 14 through 1 conductors, shall be used only for conductors
rated 600C (1400F).
• Exception No. 1: Conductors with higher temperature ratings shall be permitted
to be used, provided the ampacity of such conductors is determined based on
the 6O0C (1400F) ampacity of the conductor size used.
• Exception No. 2: Equipment termination provisions shall be permitted to be
used with higher rated conductors at the ampacity of the higher rated
conductors, provided the equipment is listed and identified for use with the
higher rated conductors.
• (2) Termination provisions of equipment for circuits rated over 100 amperes, or
marked for conductors larger than No. 1, shall be used only with conductors
rated 750C (1670F).

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 75


Transformer Protection
• Standards & References
– National Electric Code 2002 Edition
– C37.91-2000; IEEE Guide for Protective Relay Applications to Power
Transformers
– C57.12.59; IEEE Guide for Dry-Type Transformer Through-Fault Current
Duration.
– C57.109-1985; IEEE Guide for Liquid-Immersed Transformer Through-
Fault-Current Duration
– APPLIED PROCTIVE RELAYING; J.L. Blackburn; Westinghouse Electric
Corp; 1976
– PROTECTIVE RELAYING, PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS; J.L.
Blackburn; Marcel Dekker, Inc; 1987
– IEEE Std 242-1986; IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and
Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 76


Transformer Category
ANSI/IEEE C-57.109

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 77


Transformer Categories I, II

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 78


Transformer Categories III

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 79


Transformer
FLA

200
Thermal

t I2t = 1250
(D-D LL) 0.87
(sec)
Infrequent Fault
(D-R LG) 0.58

Frequent Fault Mechanical


2
K=(1/Z)2t
Inrush

Isc
2.5 25 I (pu)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 80


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 81
Transformer Protection

M
Any Location – Non-Supervised

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 82


Transformer Protection
• Turn on or inrush current • Oil Level
• Internal transformer faults • Fans
• Oil Pumps
• External or through faults of major
magnitude • Pilot wire – Device 85
• Repeated large motor starts on the • Fault withstand
transformer. The motor represents a • Thermal protection – hot spot, top of oil
major portion or the transformers KVA temperature, winding temperature
rating. • Devices 26 & 49
• Harmonics • Reverse over current – Device 67
• Over current protection – Device 50/51 • Gas accumulation – Buckholz relay
• Over voltage –Device 59
• Ground current protection – Device
50/51G • Voltage or current balance – Device 60
• Differential – Device 87 • Tertiary Winding Protection if supplied
• Relay Failure Scheme
• Over or under excitation – volts/ Hz –
Device 24 • Breaker Failure Scheme

• Sudden tank pressure – Device 63


• Dissolved gas detection

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 83


Recommended Minimum
Transformer Protection
Protective system Winding and/or power system Winding and/or power system
grounded neutral grounded neutral ungrounded

Up to 10 MVA Up to 10 MVA Above


Above 10 MVA 10 MVA
Differential -
√ -

Time over current √ √ √ √


Instantaneous restricted √ √ - -
ground fault

Time delayed ground √ √ - -


fault

√ -

Gas detection

Over excitation -
√ √ √
Overheating -
√ -

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 84
Question

What is ANSI Shift Curve?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 85


Answer
• For delta-delta connected transformers, with
line-to-line faults on the secondary side, the
curve must be reduced to 87% (shift to the
left by a factor of 0.87)

• For delta-wye connection, with single line-to-


ground faults on the secondary side, the
curve values must be reduced to 58% (shift
to the left by a factor of 0.58)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 86


Question

What is meant by Frequent and


Infrequent for transformers?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 87


Infrequent Fault Incidence Zones for Category II & III Transformers

Source

Transformer primary -side protective device


(fuses, relayed circuit breakers, etc.) may be
selected by reference to the infrequent -fault -
incidence protection curve
Infrequent -Fault
Incidence Zone* Category II or III Transformer

Fault will be cleared by transformer


primary -side protective device
Optional main secondary –side protective device.
May be selected by reference to the infrequent -fault-
incidence protection curve

Fault will be cleared by transformer primary -side


protective device or by optional main secondary -
side protection device

Feeder protective device

Frequent -Fault Fault will be cleared by


Inciden ce Zone* feeder protective device

Feeders
* Should be selected by reference to the frequent -fault -incidence protection curve or for
transformers serving industrial, commercial and institutional power systems with secondary -side
conductors enclosed in conduit, bus duct, etc., the feeder protective device may be selected by
reference to the infrequent -fault -incidence protection curve.

Source: IEEE C57

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 88


Motor Protection

• Standards & References


– IEEE Std 620-1996 IEEE Guide for the Presentation of
Thermal Limit Curves for Squirrel Cage Induction
Machines.
– IEEE Std 1255-2000 IEEE Guide for Evaluation of
Torque Pulsations During Starting of Synchronous Motors
– ANSI/ IEEE C37.96-2000 Guide for AC Motor Protection
– The Art of Protective Relaying – General Electric

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 89


Motor Protection
• Motor Starting Curve

• Thermal Protection

• Locked Rotor Protection

• Fault Protection

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 90


Motor Overload Protection
(NEC Art 430-32 – Continuous-Duty Motors)

• Thermal O/L (Device 49)


• Motors with SF not less than 1.15
– 125% of FLA
• Motors with temp. rise not over 40°C
– 125% of FLA
• All other motors
– 115% of FLA

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 91


Motor Protection – Inst. Pickup
1
I LOCKED =
ROTOR XS + X d "

Recommended Instantaneous Setting:


I
RELAY PICK UP = PICK UP
∗ 1.6 TO 2
I LOCKED ROTOR

If the recommended setting criteria cannot be met, or where more sensitive


protection is desired, the in-stantaneous relay (or a second relay) can be set more
sensitively if delayed by a timer. This permits the asymmetrical starting component
to decay out. A typical setting for this is:
I
RELAY PICK UP = PICK UP
∗ 1.2 TO 1.2
I LOCKED ROTOR

with a time delay of 0.10 s (six cycles at 60 Hz)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 92


Locked Rotor Protection
• Thermal Locked Rotor (Device 51)
• Starting Time (TS < TLR)
• LRA
– LRA sym
– LRA asym (1.5-1.6 x LRA sym) + 10% margin

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 93


Fault Protection
(NEC Art / Table 430-52)
• Non-Time Delay Fuses
– 300% of FLA
• Dual Element (Time-Delay Fuses)
– 175% of FLA
• Instantaneous Trip Breaker
– 800% - 1300% of FLA*
• Inverse Time Breakers
– 250% of FLA
*can be set up to 1700% for Design B (energy efficient) Motor
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 94
Low Voltage Motor Protection

• Usually pre-engineered (selected from


Catalogs)
• Typically, motors larger than 2 Hp are
protected by combination starters
• Overload / Short-circuit protection

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 95


Low-voltage Motor
Ratings Range of ratings
Continuous amperes 9-250 —
Nominal voltage (V) 240-600 —
Horsepower 1.5-1000 —
Starter size (NEMA) — 00-9
Types of protection Quantity NEMA designation

Overload: overload relay 3 OL


elements

Short circuit: 3 CB
circuit breaker current
trip elements

Fuses 3 FU
Undervoltage: inherent — —
with integral control
supply and three-wire
control circuit

Ground fault (when — —


speci-fied): ground relay
with toroidal CT

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 96


Minimum Required Sizes of a NEMA
Combination Motor Starter System

C FLC
R HP

TER

UM
E
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 97
Required Data - Protection of a
Medium Voltage Motor
• Rated full load current
• Service factor
• Locked rotor current
• Maximum locked rotor time (thermal limit curve) with the motor at ambient and/or
operating temperature
• Minimum no load current
• Starting power factor
• Running power factor
• Motor and connected load accelerating time
• System phase rotation and nominal frequency
• Type and location of resistance temperature devices (RTDs), if used
• Expected fault current magnitudes
• First ½ cycle current
• Maximum motor starts per hour

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 98


Medium-Voltage Class E Motor Controller
Ratings Class El Class E2 (with
(without fuses)
fuses)

Nominal system voltage 2300-6900 2300-6900


Horsepower 0-8000 0-8000
Symmetrical MVA interrupting 25-75 160-570
capacity at nominal
system voltage

Types of Protective Devices Quantity NEMA Designation

Phase Balance
Overload, or locked Rotor, or
both:
Thermal overload relay 3 OL OC TR/O NEMA Class E1
Current balance relay 1 BC
TOC relay 3
IOC relay plus time delay 3 Negative-sequence voltage 1 — medium voltage starter
relay (per bus), or both
Thermal overload relay 3 OL
Undervoltage: — UV
TOC relay 3 OC Inherent with integral
IOC relay plus time delay 3 TR/OC control supply and three-
wire control circuit, when
Short Circuit: voltage falls suffi-ciently to
permit the contractor to
open and break the seal-in
Fuses, Class E2 3 FU circuit
IOC relay, Class E1 3 OC
Temperature: — OL
Ground Fault Temperature relay,
operating from resistance
sensor or ther-mocouple in
TOC residual relay 1 GP stator winding NEMA Class E2 medium
Overcurrent relay with 1 GP voltage starter
toroidal CT
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 99
Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,
1800 rpm Motor

First half cycle current showing


current offset.

Beginning of run up current


showing load torque pulsations.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 100
Starting Current of a 4000Hp, 12 kV,
1800 rpm Motor - Oscillographs

Motor pull in current showing motor


reaching synchronous speed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 101
Thermal Limit Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 102
Thermal Limit Curve

Typical
Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 103
(49)
I2 T

O/L
tLR MCP

(51) 200 HP
ts

Starting Curve

MCP (50)

LRAs LRAasym

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 104
Protective Devices
• Fuse

• Overload Heater

• Thermal Magnetic

• Low Voltage Solid State Trip

• Electro-Mechanical

• Motor Circuit Protector (MCP)

• Relay (50/51 P, N, G, SG, 51V, 67, 49, 46, 79, 21, …)


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 105
Fuse (Power Fuse)
• Non Adjustable Device (unless electronic)
• Continuous and Interrupting Rating
• Voltage Levels (Max kV)
• Interrupting Rating (sym, asym)
• Characteristic Curves
– Min. Melting
– Total Clearing

• Application (rating type: R, E, X, …)


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 106
Fuse Types
• Expulsion Fuse (Non-CLF)
• Current Limiting Fuse (CLF)
• Electronic Fuse (S&C Fault Fiter)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 107
Total Clearing
Time Curve

Minimum Melting
Time Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 108
Current Limiting Fuse
(CLF)
• Limits the peak current of short-circuit

• Reduces magnetic stresses (mechanical


damage)

• Reduces thermal energy

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 109
Current Limiting Action

Ip
Current (peak amps)

t a = tc – t m
Ip’
ta = Arcing Time
tm = Melting Time
tc = Clearing Time
tm ta Time (cycles)
tc Ip = Peak Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


Ip’ = Peak Let-thru Current Slide 110
© 1996-2009
©1996-2009 Operation OperationInc.
Technology, Technology, Inc. Notes:
– Workshop – Workshop Notes: Protective
Short-Circuit IEC Device Coordination Slide 111
Let-Through Chart
7% PF (X/R = 14.3)
Peak Let-Through Amperes

230,000

300 A

12,500 100 A

60 A

5,200 100,000

Symmetrical RMS Amperes


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 112
Fuse
Generally:

• CLF is a better short-circuit protection


• Non-CLF (expulsion fuse) is a better
Overload protection
• Electronic fuses are typically easier to
coordinate due to the electronic control
adjustments

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 113
Selectivity Criteria
Typically:
• Non-CLF: 140% of full load
• CLF: 150% of full load
• Safety Margin: 10% applied to Min
Melting (consult the fuse manufacturer)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 114
Molded Case CB
• Thermal-Magnetic Types
• Magnetic Only • Frame Size
• Motor Circuit Protector • Poles
(MCP)
• Integrally Fused (Limiters) • Trip Rating

• Current Limiting • Interrupting Capability


• High Interrupting Capacity • Voltage
• Non-Interchangeable Parts
• Insulated Case (Interchange
Parts)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 115
MCCB

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 116
MCCB with SST Device

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 117
Thermal Maximum

Thermal Minimum

Magnetic
(instantaneous)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 118
LVPCB
• Voltage and Frequency Ratings
• Continuous Current / Frame Size / Sensor
• Interrupting Rating
• Short-Time Rating (30 cycle)
• Fairly Simple to Coordinate
• Phase / Ground Settings
• Inst. Override
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 119
LT PU

CB 2
CB 1
LT Band

CB 2
ST PU 480 kV

CB 1

IT

ST Band
If =30 kA

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 120
Inst. Override

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 121
Overload Relay / Heater
• Motor overload protection is provided by a
device that models the temperature rise of
the winding
• When the temperature rise reaches a point
that will damage the motor, the motor is de-
energized
• Overload relays are either bimetallic, melting
alloy or electronic

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 122
Overload Heater (Mfr. Data)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 123
Question
What is Class 10 and Class 20 Thermal
OLR curves?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 124
Answer
• At 600% Current Rating:
– Class 10 for fast trip, 10
seconds or less
– Class 20 for, 20 seconds or
less (commonly used) 20

– There is also Class 15, 30


for long trip time (typically
provided with electronic
overload relays)
6

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 125
Answer

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 126
Overload Relay / Heater
• When the temperature at the combination motor starter is more than
±10 °C (±18 °F) different than the temperature at the motor, ambient
temperature correction of the motor current is required.
• An adjustment is required because the output that a motor can safely
deliver varies with temperature.
• The motor can deliver its full rated horsepower at an ambient
temperature specified by the motor manufacturers, normally + 40 °C.
At high temperatures (higher than + 40 °C) less than 100% of the
normal rated current can be drawn from the motor without shortening
the insulation life.
• At lower temperatures (less than + 40 °C) more than 100% of the
normal rated current could be drawn from the motor without shortening
the insulation life.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 127
Overcurrent Relay
• Time-Delay (51 – I>)
• Short-Time Instantaneous ( I>>)
• Instantaneous (50 – I>>>)
• Electromagnetic (induction Disc)
• Solid State (Multi Function / Multi Level)
• Application

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 128
© 1996-2009
©1996-2009 Operation OperationInc.
Technology, Technology, Inc. Notes:
– Workshop – Workshop Notes: Protective
Short-Circuit IEC Device Coordination Slide 129
Time-Overcurrent Unit
• Ampere Tap Calculation
– Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x A.T. Setting
– Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT
Ratio
– Multiples of A.T. = IR/A.T. Setting
CT IL
= IL/(CT Ratio x A.T.
Setting)
I R

51

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 130
Instantaneous Unit
• Instantaneous Calculation
– Ampere Pickup (P.U.) = CT Ratio x IT Setting
– Relay Current (IR) = Actual Line Current (IL) / CT
Ratio
– Multiples of IT = IR/IT Setting
CT IL
= IL/(CT Ratio x IT Setting)
IR
50

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 131
Relay Coordination
• Time margins should be maintained between T/C
curves
• Adjustment should be made for CB opening time
• Shorter time intervals may be used for solid state
relays
• Upstream relay should have the same inverse T/C
characteristic as the downstream relay (CO-8 to
CO-8) or be less inverse (CO-8 upstream to CO-6
downstream)
• Extremely inverse relays coordinates very well with
CLFs
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 132
Situation
4.16 kV

CT 800:5 50/51 Relay: IFC 53

CB
Cable
CU - EPR
1-3/C 500 kcmil
Isc = 30,000 A

5 MVA
DS
6%

Calculate Relay Setting (Tap, Inst. Tap & Time Dial)


For This System

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 133
Solution
5,000kVA
Transformer: IL = = 694 A
3 × 4.16kV
5 IL
IR = IL × = 4.338 A
800
IR
I Inrsuh = 12 × 694 = 8,328 A R CT

Set Relay:
125% × 4.338 = 5.4 A
TAP = 6.0 A (6/4.338 = 1.38)
TD = 1
5
Inst (50) = 8,328 × = 52.1A = >55 A
800

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 134
Question
What T/C Coordination interval should be maintained between relays?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 135
Answer
B
A
t CB Opening Time
+
Induction Disc Overtravel (0.1 sec)
+
Safety margin (0.2 sec w/o Inst. & 0.1 sec w/ Inst.)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 136
Recloser
• Recloser protects electrical transmission systems from temporary
voltage surges and other unfavorable conditions.
• Reclosers can automatically "reclose" the circuit and restore normal
power transmission once the problem is cleared.
• Reclosers are usually designed with failsafe mechanisms that prevent
them from reclosing if the same fault occurs several times in
succession over a short period. This insures that repetitive line faults
don't cause power to switch on and off repeatedly, since this could
cause damage or accelerated wear to electrical equipment.
• It also insures that temporary faults such as lightning strikes or
transmission switching don't cause lengthy interruptions in service.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 137
Recloser Types
• Hydraulic
• Electronic
– Static Controller
– Microprocessor Controller

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 138
Recloser Curves

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 139
TEMA 3

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 140
Transient Stability

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


Topics
• What is Transient Stability (TS)
• What Causes System Unstable
• Effects When System Is Instable
• Transient Stability Definition
• Modeling and Data Preparation
• ETAP TS Study Outputs
• Power System TS Studies
• Solutions to Stability Problems
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 142
What is Transient Stability
• TS is also called Rotor Angle Stability
Something between mechanical system and
electrical system – energy conversion
• It is a Electromechanical Phenomenon
Time frame in milliseconds
• All Synchronous Machines Must Remain in
Synchronism with One Another
Synchronous generators and motors
This is what system stable or unstable means

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 143
What is Transient Stability
• Torque Equation (generator case)

T = mechanical torque
P = number of poles
φ air = air-gap flux
Fr = rotor field MMF
δ = rotor angle

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 144
What is Transient Stability
• Swing Equation

M = inertia constant
D = damping constant
Pmech = input mechanical power
Pelec = output electrical power

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 145
What Causes System Unstable

• From Torque Equation


T (prime mover)
Rotor MMF (field winding)
Air-Gap Flux (electrical system)
• From Swing Equation
Pmech
Pelec
Different time constants in mechanical and
electrical systems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 146
What Causes System Unstable

• In real operation
Short-circuit
Loss of excitation
Prime mover failure
Loss of utility connections
Loss of a portion of in-plant generation
Starting of a large motor
Switching operations
Impact loading on motors
Sudden large change in load and generation
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 147
Effects When System Is Instable

• Swing in Rotor Angle (as well as in V, I, P,


Q and f)

Case 1: Steady-state stable


Case 2: Transient stable
Case 3: Small-signal unstable
Case 4: First swing unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 148
Effects When System Is Instable

• A 2-Machine
Example

• At δ = -180º
(Out-of-Step,
Slip the Pole)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 149
Effects When System Is Instable

• Synchronous machine slip poles –


generator tripping
• Power swing
• Misoperation of protective devices
• Interruption of critical loads
• Low-voltage conditions – motor drop-offs
• Damage to equipment
• Area wide blackout
• …
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 150
Transient Stability Definition

• Examine One Generator

• Power Output Capability Curve

∀ δ is limited to 180º

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 151
Transient Stability Definition
• Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit
 After a severe disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steady-state operating
condition without a prolonged loss of
synchronism
 Limit: δ < 180° during swing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 152
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Synchronous Machine

 Machine
 Exciter and AVR
 Prime Mover and Governor / Load Torque
 Power System Stabilizer (PSS) (Generator)
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 153
Modeling and Data Preparation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 154
Modeling and Data Preparation
• Typical synchronous machine data

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 155
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Induction Machine
 Machine
 Load Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 156
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Power Grid
 Short-Circuit Capability
 Fixed internal voltage and infinite inertia

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 157
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Load
 Voltage dependency
 Frequency dependency

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 158
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Load

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 159
Modeling and Data Preparation

• Events and Actions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 160
Modeling and Data Preparation
Device Type Action
Bus 3-P Fault L-G Fault Clear Fault
Branch Fraction Fault Clear Fault

PD Trip Close
Generator Droop / Isoch Start Loss Exc. P Change V Change Delete

Grid P Change V Change Delete


Motor Accelerate Load Delete
Change
Lumped Load Load Change Delete

MOV Start
Wind Turbine Disturbance Gust Ramp

MG Set Emergency Main

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 161
Power System TS Studies
• Fault
 3-phase and single phase fault
 Clear fault
 Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
 Critical System Separation Time (CSST)
• Bus Transfer
 Fast load transferring
• Load Shedding
 Under-frequency
 Under-voltage
• Motor Dynamic Acceleration
 Induction motor
 Synchronous motor
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 162
Power System TS Studies
• Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
Fault Clear fault Clear fault Clear fault Clear fault

1 cycle 1 cycle

unstable

unstable

unstable
stable

Cycle
CFCT

• Critical Separation Time (CSST)


Fault Separation Separation Separation Separation

1 cycle 1 cycle
unstable

unstable

unstable
stable

Cycle
CSST

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 163
Power System TS Studies
• Fast Bus Transfer

Motor residual voltage


1

0.8
Vmotor
0.6

0.4

0.2

0
s
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8

-1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 164
Power System TS Studies
• Fast Bus Transfer
ES = System equivalent per unit
δ volts per hertz
EM = Motor residual per unit per
hertz
ER = Resultant vectorial voltage
in per unit volts per hertz

Ttransfer ≤ 10 cycles
δ ≤ 90 degrees
ER ≤ 1.33 per unit (133%)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 165
Power System TS Studies
• Load Shedding

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 166
Power System TS Studies
• Motor Dynamic Acceleration
Important for islanded system operation
Motor starting impact
Generator AVR action
Reacceleration

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 167
Solution to Stability Problems

• Improve System Design


 Increase synchronizing power
• Design and Selection of Rotating
Equipment
 Use of induction machines
 Increase moment of inertia
 Reduce transient reactance
 Improve voltage regulator and exciter
characteristics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 168
Solution to Stability Problems

• Application of Power System Stabilizer


(PSS)
• Add System Protections
 Fast fault clearance
 Load shedding
 System separation
Out-Of-Step relay
…

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 169
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC
TEMA 4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 171
Harmonic Analysis

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


ARMONICAS
Características principales:

 Exploración de frecuencia.
 Flujo Armónico de Carga.
 Dimensionamiento y Diseño de
Filtros.
 Evaluación Automática del límite
de distorsión.
 Factores de la influencia del
teléfono (TIF & I*T)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 173
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 174
Types of Power Quality
Problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 175
Waveform Distortion
• Primary Types of Waveform Distortion
– DC Offset
– Harmonics
– Interharmonics
– Notching
– Noise

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 176
Harmonics
• One special category of power quality
problems

• “Harmonics are voltages and/or currents


present in an electrical system at some
multiple of the fundamental frequency.”
(IEEE Std 399, Brown Book)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 177
Nonlinear Loads
• Sinusoidal voltage
applied to a simple
nonlinear resistor

• Increasing the
voltage by a few
percent may cause
current to double

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 178
Fourier Representation
• Any periodic waveform
can be expressed as a
sum of sinusoids
• The sum of the sinusoids
is referred to as Fourier
Series (6-pulse)

2 3 1 1 1 1
I ac = I d (cosωt − cos 3ωt + cos 7ωt − cos11ωt + cos13ωt
π 5 7 11 13

⇒ ∑ I h cos(hωt + Φ h )
h =1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 179
Harmonic Sources
• Utilities (Power Grid)
– Known as “Background Harmonic”
– Pollution from other irresponsible customers
– SVC, HVDC, FACTS, …
– Usually a voltage source
• Synchronous Generators
– Due to Pitch (can be eliminated by fractional-
pitch winding) and Saturation
– Usually a voltage source
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 180
Harmonic Sources (cont’d)
• Transformers
– Due to magnetizing branch saturation
– Only at lightly loaded condition
– Usually a current source
• Power Electronic Devices
– Charger, Converter, Inverter, UPS, VFD, SVC, HVDC,
FACTS (Flexible alternating current transmission systems) …
– Due to switching actions
– Either a voltage source or a current source

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 181
Harmonic Sources (cont’d)
• Other Non-Linear Loads
– Arc furnaces, discharge lighting, …
– Due to unstable and non-linear process
– Either a voltage source or a current source
• In general, any load that is applied to a power
system that requires other than a sinusoidal
current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 182
Harmonic I and V

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 183
Classification of Harmonics

• Harmonics may be classified as:

– Characteristic Harmonics

 Generally produced by power converters

– Non-Characteristic Harmonics

 Typically produced by arc furnaces and discharge


lighting (from non-periodical waveforms)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 184
Phase Angle Relationship
• Fundamental Frequency

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 185
Phase Angle Relationship
• Third Order

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 186
Phase Angle Relationship
• Fifth Order

• Seventh Order

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 187
Order vs. Sequence

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 188
Characteristic Harmonics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 189
Characteristic Harmonics
(cont’d)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 190
Harmonic Spectrum

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 191
Harmonic-Related Problems
• Motors and Generators

– Increased heating due to iron and copper losses

– Reduced efficiency and torque

– Higher audible noise

– Cogging or crawling

– Mechanical oscillations

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 192
Harmonic-Related Problems
(cont’d)
• Transformers
– Parasitic heating
– Increased copper, stray flux and iron losses

• Capacitors (var compensators)


– Possibility of system resonance
– Increased heating and voltage stress
– Shortened capacitor life
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 193
Harmonic-Related Problems
(cont’d)
• Power Cables
– Involved in system resonance
– Voltage stress and corona leading to dielectric
failure
– Heating and derating
• Neutrals of four-wire systems (480/277V; 120/208V)
– Overheating
• Fuses
– Blowing
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 194
Harmonic-Related Problems
(cont’d)
• Switchgears
– Increased heating and losses
– Reduced steady-state current carrying capability
– Shortened insulation components life
• Relays
– Possibility of misoperation
• Metering
– Affected readings
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 195
Harmonic-Related Problems
(cont’d)
• Communication Systems
– Interference by higher frequency electromagnetic field
• Electronic Equipment (computers, PLC)
– Misoperation
• System
– Resonance (serial and parallel)
– Poor power factor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 196
Parallel Resonance
• Total impedance at resonance frequency
increases
• High circulating current will flow in the
capacitance-inductance loop

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 197
Parallel Resonance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 198
Capacitor Banks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 199
Capacitor Banks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 200
Capacitor Banks

Say, Seventh Harmonic Current = 5% of 1100A = 55 A

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 201
Capacitor Banks

Resistance = 1% including cable and transformer


CAF = X/R = 7*0.0069/0.0012 =40.25
Resonant Current = 55*40.25 = 2214 A

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 202
Parallel Resonance (cont’d)
Cause: Source inductance resonates with
capacitor bank at a frequency
excited by the facilities harmonic
sources
Impacts: 1. Excessive capacitor fuse
operation
2. Capacitor failures
3. Incorrect relay tripping
4. Telephone interference
5. Overheating of equipment
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 203
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements
• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)
– Also known as Harmonic Distortion Factor (HDF), is
the most popular index to measure the level of
harmonic distortion to voltage and current
– Ratio of the RMS of all harmonics to the fundamental
component
– For an ideal system THD = 0%
– Potential heating value of the harmonics relative to
the fundamental

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 204
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
– Good indicator of additional losses due to
current flowing through a conductor
– Not a good indicator of voltage stress in a
capacitor (related to peak value of voltage
waveform, not its heating value)

∑ i
F 2

THD = 2

F1

Where Fi is the amplitude of the ith harmonic,


and F1 is that for the fundamental component.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 205
Harmonic Distortion
Example
Find THD for this waveform

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 206
Harmonic Example
• Find THD for this Harmonic Spectrum

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 207
Adjustable Speed Drive –
Current Distortion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 208
Adjustable Speed Drive –
Voltage Distortion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 209
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
• Individual Harmonic Distortion (IHD)
- Ratio of a given harmonic to fundamental
- To track magnitude of individual harmonic
Fi
IHD =
F1
• Root Mean Square (RMS) - Total
- Root Mean Square of fundamental plus all
harmonics
- Equal to fundamental RMS if Harmonics are
zero ∞
2
RMS = ∑F
1
i

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 210
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
• Arithmetic Summation (ASUM)
– Arithmetic summation of magnitudes of all
components (fundamental and all harmonics)
– Directly adds magnitudes of all components to
estimate crest value of voltage and current
– Evaluation of the maximum withstanding ratings
of a device

ASUM = ∑ Fi
1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 211
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
• Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)
– Weighted THD
– Weights based on interference to an audio
signal in the same frequency range
– Current TIF shows impact on adjacent
communication systems
∞ 2

∑ (W F )i i

TIF = 1

∞ 2

∑F
1
i

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 212
Harmonic Distortion
Measurements (cont’d)
• I*T Product (I*T)
– A product current components (fundamental
and harmonics) and weighting factors
H
I •T = ∑ h h
( I
h =1
⋅ T ) 2

where Ih = current component


Th= weighting factor
h = harmonic order (h=1 for fundamental)
H = maximum harmonic order to account
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 213
Triplen Harmonics
• Odd multiples of the
third harmonic
(h = 3, 9, 15, 21, …)
• Important issue for
grounded-wye systems
with neutral current
• Overloading and TIF problems
• Misoperation of devices due to presence of
harmonics on the neutral

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 214
Triplen Harmonics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 215
Winding Connections
• Delta winding provides ampere turn balance
• Triplen Harmonics cannot flow
• When currents are balanced Triplens
behave as Zero Sequence currents
• Used in Utility Distribution Substations
• Delta winding connected to Transmission

• Balanced Triplens can flow


• Present in equal proportions on both sides
• Many loads are served in this fashion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 216
Implications
• Neutral connections are susceptible to overheating
when serving single-phase loads on the Y side that
have high 3rd Harmonic
• Measuring current on delta side will not show the
triplens and therefore do not give a true idea of the
heating the transformer is subjected to
• The flow of triplens can be interrupted by appropriate
isolation transformer connection
• Removing the neutral connection in one or both Y
windings blocks the flow of Triplen harmonic current
• Three legged core transformers behave as if they have
a “phantom” delta tertiary winding
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 217
Modeling in Harmonic
Analysis
• Motors and Machines
– Represented by their equivalent negative
sequence reactance
• Lines and Cables
– Series impedance for low frequencies
– Long line correction including transposition and
distributed capacitance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 218
Modeling in Harmonic
Analysis (cont’d)
• Transformers
– Leakage impedance
– Magnetizing impedance
• Loads
– Static loads reduce peak resonant impedance
– Motor loads shift resonant frequency due to
motor inductance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 219
Reducing System
Harmonics
• Add Passive Filters
– Shunt or Single Tuned Filters
– Broadband Filters or Band Pass Filters
– Provide low impedance path for harmonic
current
– Least expensive

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 220
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
• Increase Pulse Numbers
– Increasing pulse number of convert circuits
– Limited by practical control problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 221
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
• Apply Transformer Phase Shifting
– Using Phase Shifting Transformers
– Achieve higher pulse operation of the total
converter installation
• In ETAP
– Phase shift is specified in the tab page of the
transformer editor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 222
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
• Either standard phase shift or special phase
shift can be used

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 223
Reducing System
Harmonics (cont’d)
• Add Active Filters

– Instantly adapts to changing source and load


conditions

– Costly

– MVA Limitation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 224
Voltage Distortion Limits
Recommended Practices for Utilities (IEEE
519): Bus Voltage Individual
Distortion
Total Voltage
Distortion
At
(%) THD (%)
PCC
69 kV and below 3.0 5.0
69.001 kV through 161kV 1.5 2.5
161.001 and above 1.0 1.5

In ETAP:
Specify Harmonic Distortion Limits in Harmonic
Page of Bus Editor:

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 225
Current Distortion Limits
Recommended Practices for General
Distribution Systems (IEEE 519):

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 226
TEMA 5

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 227
Motor Starting
Dynamic Acceleration

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


ARRANQUE DE MOTORES

Características principales:

 Aceleración dinámica de
motores.
 Parpadeo (Flicker) de tensión.
 Modelos dinámicos de motores.
 Arranque estático de motores.
 Varios dispositivos de arranque.
 Transición de carga.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 229
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 230
Why to Do MS Studies?
• Ensure that motor will start with voltage drop
• If Tst <Tload at s=1, then motor will not start
• If Tm=Tload at s<sr, motor can not reach rated speed
• Torque varies as (voltage)^2

• Ensure that voltage drop will not disrupt other loads


• Utility bus voltage >95%
• 3% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes visible
• 5% Sag represents a point when light flicker becomes irritating
• MCC bus voltage >80%
• Generation bus voltage > 93%

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 231
Why to Do MS Studies?
• Ensure motor feeders sized adequately
(Assuming 100% voltage at Switchboard or MCC)
• LV cable voltage drop at starting < 20%
• LV cable voltage drop when running at full-load < 5%
• HV cable voltage drop at starting < 15%
• HV cable voltage drop when running at full-load < 3%

• Maximum motor size that can be started across the line


• Motor kW < 1/6 kW rating of generator (islanded)
• For 6 MW of islanded generation, largest motor size < 1 MW

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 232
Motor Sizing
• Positive Displacement Pumps / Rotary Pumps

• p = Pressure in psi
• Q = fluid flow in gpm
• n = efficiency

• Centrifugal Pumps

• H = fluid head in feet

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 233
Motor Types
• Synchronous
• Salient Pole
• Round Rotor

• Induction
• Wound Rotor (slip-ring)
• Single Cage CKT Model
• Squirrel Cage (brushless)
• Double Cage CKT Model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 234
Induction Motor Advantages
• Squirrel Cage
• Slightly higher efficiency and power factor
• Explosive proof

• Wound Rotor
• Higher starting torque
• Lower starting current
• Speed varied by using external resistances

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 235
Typical Rotor Construction

• Rotor slots are not parallel to the shaft but


skewed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 236
Wound Rotor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 237
Operation of Induction
Motor
• AC applied to stator winding

• Creates a rotating stator magnetic field in air gap

• Field induces currents (voltages) in rotor

• Rotor currents create rotor magnetic field in air gap

• Torque is produced by interaction of air gap fields

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 238
Slip Frequency
• Slip represents the inability of the rotor to
keep up with the stator magnetic field

• Slip frequency
S = (ωs-ωn)/ωs where ωs = 120f/P
ωn = mech speed

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 239
Static Start - Example

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 240
Static Start - Example

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 241
Service Factor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 242
Inrush Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 243
Resistance / Reactance
• Torque Slip Curve is changed by altering
resistance / reactance of rotor bars.
• Resistance ↑ by ↓cross sectional area or
using higher resistivity material like brass.
• Reactance ↑ by placing conductor deeper in
the rotor cylinder or by closing the slot at the
air gap.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 244
Rotor Bar Resistance ↑
• Increase Starting Torque
• Lower Starting Current
• Lower Full Load Speed
• Lower Efficiency
• No Effect on Breakdown Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 245
Rotor Bar Reactance ↑
• Lower Starting Torque
• Lower Starting Current
• Lower Breakdown Torque
• No effect on Full Load Conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 246
Motor Torque Curves

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 247
Rotor Bar Design
• Cross section Large (low
resistance) and positioned deep in
the rotor (high reactance).
(Starting Torque is normal and
starting current is low).
• Double Deck with small conductor
of high resistance. During starting,
most current flows through the
upper deck due to high reactance
of lower deck. (Starting Torque is
high and starting current is low).

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 248
Rotor Bar Design
• Bars are made of Brass or
similar high resistance
material. Bars are close to
surface to reduce leakage
reactance. (Starting torque is
high and starting current is
low).

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 249
Load Torque – ID Fan

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 250
Load Torque – FD Fan

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 251
Load Torque – C. Pump

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 252
Motor Torque – Speed Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 253
Double Cage Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 254
Motor Full Load Torque
• For example, 30 HP 1765 RPM Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 255
Motor Efficiency
• kW Saved = HP * 0.746 (1/Old – 1/New)
• $ Savings = kW Saved * Hrs /Year * $/kWh

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 256
Acceleration Torque
• Greater
Acceleration
Torque means
higher inertia
that can be
handled by the
motor without
approaching
thermal limits

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 257
Acceleration Torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 258
Operating Range
• Motor, Generator, or Brake

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 259
Rated Conditions
• Constant Power
Load(kva)

Ir
L1

Terminal Current
kvar

0.8 1.0
Terminal Voltage 0.8 Terminal Voltage 1.0

P = Tm Wm , As Vt ( terminal voltage ) changes from 0.8 to 1.1 pu, Wm


changes by a very small amount. There fore, P is approx constant since
Tm (α w²m) is approx. constant

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 260
Starting Conditions
• Constant Impedance
Starting Conditions Constant Impedance
P
It

Kva
LR
I LR

.8 kva .9 I LR
LR
0.9 1.0
Terminal Voltage Vt (pu) 0.9 Terminal Voltage 1.0
Vt (pu)

KVA LR = Loched - rotor KVA at rated voltage = 2HP

2 ≡ Code letter factor ≡ Locked – rotor KVA ∕ HP

Z st = ______
KVA B ____
KVR ² Pu, Rst = Zst cos θ st , Xst= Zst sin θ st
KVA LR KVB

KVR = rated voltage KVB = Base voltage KVAB = Base power

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 261
Voltage Variation
• Torque is proportional to V^2
• Current is proportional to V
I

v1 100% voltage

80% voltage

p
R

ws wm 0 ws wm
0
Load
I
100% V

Tst α ( operating voltage) ²


_____________
Rated voltage
80% V

Ist α ( _____________
operating voltage)
Rated voltage

T st T’ T
st

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 262
Frequency Variation
• As frequency decreases, peak torque shifts toward lower
speed as synchronous speed decreases.
• As frequency decrease, current increases due reduced
impedance.
I
T W3 = 120
em
___f RPM
F1 P
F1
F2 › F1
F 2 › F1

0 WS1 WS2 Wm
0 WS1 WS2 Wm

Adjustable speed drive : Typical speed range for variable torque loads such as pumps and fans is 3/1,maximun is 8/1 ( 1.5 to 60 Hz)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 263
Number of Poles Variation
• As Pole number increases, peak torque shifts toward lower
speed as synchronous speed decreases.

Nro. of poles variation

T
em
2 P - poles W′S = WS
___
P - poles 2

R
Load

Wm
0 W′S WS

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 264
Rotor Z Variation
• Increasing rotor Z will shift peak torque towards lower
speed.
Rotor – Resistance Variation

r2 r3 r4

r1

Q
R
S

r1 › r2 › r3 › r4

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 265
Modeling of Elements
• Switching motors – Zlr, circuit model, or
characteristic model
• Synch generator - constant voltage behind
X’d
• Utility - constant voltage behind X”d
• Branches – Same as in Load Flow
• Non-switching Load – Same as Load flow
• All elements must be initially energized,
including motors to start
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 266
Motor Modeling
1. Operating Motor
– Constant KVA Load
1. Starting Motor
– During Acceleration – Constant Impedance
– Locked-Rotor Impedance
– Circuit Models
Characteristic Curves
After Acceleration – Constant KVA Load
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 267
Locked-Rotor Impedance
• ZLR = RLR +j XLR (10 – 25 %)
• PFLR is much lower than operating PD. Approximate
starting PF of typical squirrel cage induction motor:
POWER FACTOR

HORSE POWER RATING

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 268
Circuit Model I
• Single Cage Rotor
– “Single1” – constant rotor resistance and
reactance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 269
Circuit Model II
• Single Cage Rotor
– “Single2” - deep bar effect, rotor resistance and
reactance vary with speed [Xm is removed]

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 270
Circuit Model III
• Double Cage Rotor
– “DB1” – integrated rotor cages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 271
Circuit Model IV
• Double Cage Rotor
– “DB2” – independent rotor cages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 272
Characteristic Model
• Motor Torque, I, and PF as function of Slip
– Static Model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 273
Calculation Methods I
• Static Motor Starting
– Time domain using static model
– Switching motors modeled as Zlr during starting and
constant kVA load after starting
– Run load flow when any change in system

• Dynamic Motor Starting


– Time domain using dynamic model and inertia model
– Dynamic model used for the entire simulation
– Requires motor and load dynamic (characteristic) model

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 274
Calculation Methods II

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 275
Static versus Dynamic
• Use Static Model When
– Concerned with effect of motor starting on other
loads
– Missing dynamic motor information

• Use Dynamic Model When


– Concerned with actual acceleration time
– Concerned if motor will actually start

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 276
MS Simulation Features
• Start/Stop induction/synchronous motors
• Switching on/off static load at specified loading category
• Simulate MOV opening/closing operations
• Change grid or generator operating category
• Simulate transformer LTC operation
• Simulate global load transition
• Simulate various types of starting devices
• Simulate load ramping after motor acceleration

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 277
Automatic Alert
• Starting motor terminal V
• Motor acceleration failure
• Motor thermal damage
• Generator rating
• Generator engine continuous
& peak rating
• Generator exciter peak rating
• Bus voltage
• Starting motor bus
• Grid/generator bus
• HV, MV, and LV bus
• User definable minimum time
span
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 278
Starting Devices Types
• Auto-Transformer • Y/D Winding
• Stator Resistor • Partial Wing
• Stator Reactor • Soft Starter
• Capacitor at Bus • Stator Current Limit
• Capacitor at Motor – Stator Current Control
Terminal – Voltage Control
• Rotor External Resistor – Torque Control

• Rotor External Reactor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 279
Starting Device
• Comparison of starting conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 280
Starting Device – AutoXFMR

• C4 and C3 closed initially


• C4 opened, C2 is closed with C3 still closed. Finally C3 is open

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 281
Starting Device – AutoXFMR
• Autotransformer starting
EX. 50% Tap

Vmcc
3IST

line
MCC 5VMCC IST VM
M 50%
VMCC tap

Autotransformer starter

PFST ( with autotransformer) = PFST ( without autotransformer)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 282
Starting Device – YD Start

• During Y connection Vs = VL / √3
• Phase current Iy = Id / √3 and 3 to 1 reduction in torque

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 283
Starting Device – Rotor R

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 284
Starting Device – Stator R
• Resistor

RL XL

RLR
5VMCC VM
VMCC
50%
tap XLR

PFST ( with resistor) = 1-[pu tap setting ]² * [ 1- (PFST without resistor)²]

= 1- (0.5)² * [1-(PFST)²]

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 285
Starting Device Stator X
• Reactor

RL XL

RLR
5VMCC VM
VMCC
50%
tap XLR

PFST ( with reactor) = [pu tap setting ] * PFST (without reactor)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 286
Transformer LTC Modeling
• LTC operations can be simulated in motor
starting studies
• Use global or individual Tit and Tot

V limit

Tit Tot

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 287
MOV Modeling I
• Represented as an impedance load during
operation
– Each stage has own impedance based on I, pf, Vr
– User specifies duration and load current for each stage

• Operation type depends on MOV status


– Open statusclosing operation
– Close statusopening operation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 288
MOV Modeling II
• Five stages of operation
Opening Closing
Acceleration Acceleration
No load No load
Unseating Travel
Travel Seating
Stall Stall

• Without hammer blow  Skip “No Load” period

• With a micro switch  Skip “Stall” period

• Operating stage time extended if Vmtr < Vlimit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 289
MOV Closing
• With Hammer Blow- MOV Closing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 290
MOV Opening
• With Hammer Blow- MOV Opening

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 291
MOV Voltage Limit
• Effect of Voltage Limit Violation
I

ACCL STALL

VMTR < V LIMIT

UNSETTING

TRAVEL

Travel Tstl
Tacc Tpos

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 292
TEMA 6

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 293
Short-Circuit
ANSI Standard

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


CORTO CIRCUITO
Características principales:

 Estándar de ANSI/IEEE & IEC.


 Análisis de fallas transitorias
(IEC 61363).
 Efecto de Arco (NFPA 70E-
2000)
 Integrado con coordinación de
dispositivos de protección.
 Evaluación automática de
dispositivos.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 295
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 296
Short-Circuit Analysis
Types of SC Faults
•Three-Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Three-Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Ungrounded Fault
•Phase to Phase Grounded Fault
•Phase to Ground Fault

Fault Current
•IL-G can range in utility systems from a few percent to
possibly 115 % ( if Xo < X1 ) of I3-phase (85% of all faults).
•In industrial systems the situation IL-G > I3-phase is rare.
Typically IL-G ≅ .87 * I3-phase
•In an industrial system, the three-phase fault condition
is frequently the only one considered, since this type of
fault generally results in Maximum current.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 297
Purpose of Short-Circuit
Studies
• A Short-Circuit Study can be used to determine
any or all of the following:
– Verify protective device close and latch capability

– Verify protective device Interrupting capability

– Protect equipment from large mechanical forces


(maximum fault kA)

– I2t protection for equipment (thermal stress)

– Selecting ratings or settings for relay coordination

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 298
System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
• Power Company Supply

• In-Plant Generators

• Transformers (using negative tolerance)

• Reactors (using negative tolerance)

• Feeder Cables and Bus Duct Systems (at


lower temperature limits)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 299
System Components
Involved in SC Calculations
• Overhead Lines (at lower temperature limit)

• Synchronous Motors

• Induction Motors

• Protective Devices

• Y0 from Static Load and Line Cable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 300
Elements That Contribute
Current to a Short-Circuit
• Generator
• Power Grid
• Synchronous Motors
• Induction Machines
• Lumped Loads
(with some % motor load)
• Inverters
• I0 from Yg-Delta Connected Transformer
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 301
Elements Do Not Contribute
Current in PowerStation
• Static Loads

• Motor Operated Valves

• All Shunt Y Connected Branches

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 302
Short-Circuit Phenomenon

v(t) i(t)
v(t)= Vm∗ Sin(ω t + θ )

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 303
v(t)
i(t)

di
v(t)= Ri + L = Vm× Sin( ωt + θ ) (1)
dt
Solving equation 1 yields the following expression
- t
R
Vm Vm
i(t)= ωt + θ - φ ) +
× sin( θ - φ )×e L
× sin(
Z Z
    
Steady
State Transient
(DCOffset)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 304
AC Current (Symmetrical) with
No AC Decay

DC Current

© 1996-2009Operation
©1996-2009 OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 305
AC Fault Current Including the
DC Offset (No AC Decay)

©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 306
Machine Reactance ( λ = L I )

AC Decay Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 307
Fault Current Including AC & DC Decay

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 308
ANSI Calculation Methods
1) The ANSI standards handle the AC Decay by varying
machine impedance during a fault.

ANSI

2) The ANSI standards handle the the dc


offset by applying multiplying factors. The
ANSI Terms for this current are:
•Momentary Current
•Close and Latch Current
•First Cycle Asymmetrical Current

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 309
Sources and Models of Fault
Currents in ANSI Standards
Sources
•Synchronous Generators
•Synchronous Motors & Condensers
•Induction Machines
•Electric Utility Systems (Power Grids)

Models
All sources are modeled by an internal
voltage behind its impedance.

E = Prefault Voltage
R = Machine Armature Resistance
X = Machine Reactance (X”d, X’d, Xd)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 310
Synchronous Generators
Synchronous Generators are modeled
in three stages.

Synchronous Motors &


Condensers
Act as a generator to supply fault
current. This current diminishes as the
magnetic field in the machine decays.

Induction Machines
Treated the same as synchronous
Synchronous Reactance
motors except they do not contribute to
Transient Reactance the fault after 2 sec.

Subtransient Reactance Electric Utility Systems


The fault current contribution tends to
remain constant.
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 311
½ Cycle Network

This is the network used to calculate momentary short-circuit current


and protective device duties at the ½ cycle after the fault.

1 ½ to 4 Cycle Network

This network is used to calculate the interrupting short-circuit current


and protective device duties 1.5-4 cycles after the fault.

30-Cycle Network

This is the network used to calculate the steady-state short-circuit


current and settings for over current relays after 30 cycles.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 312
Reactance Representation for
Utility and Synchronous Machine
½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4 Cycle 30 Cycle

X”d X”d X”d


Utility

X”d X”d X’d


Turbo Generator

Hydro-Gen with X”d X”d X’d


Amortisseur winding

Hydro-Gen without 0.75*X”d 0.75*X”d X’d


Amortisseur winding

α
X”d X”d
Condenser

X”d 1.5*X”d α
Synchronous Motor

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 313
Reactance Representation for Induction
Machine
½ Cycle 1 ½ to 4
Cycle

>1000 hp , <= 1800 X”d 1.5*X”d


rpm

>250, at 3600 rpm X”d 1.5*X”d

All others, >= 50 hp 1.2*X”d 3.0*X”d

< 50 hp 1.67*X”d
α

Note: X”d = 1 / LRCpu

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 314
Device Duty and Usage of Fault Currents
from Different Networks
½ Cycle Currents 1 ½ to 4 Cycle Currents
(Subtransient Network) (Transient Network)

Closing and Latching Interrupting


HV Circuit Breaker
Capability Capability

LV Circuit Breaker Interrupting Capability ---

---
Fuse Interrupting Capability

SWGR / MCC Bus Bracing ---

Relay Instantaneous Settings ---

30 Cycle currents are used for determining overcurrent settings.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 315
Momentary Multiplying
Factor

MFm is calculated based on:


• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
• Location of fault (Remote / Local generation)
Comparisons of Momentary capability (1/2 Cycle)
SC Current Duty Device Rating

HV CB Asymmetrical RMS C&L RMS


Crest C&L RMS

HV Bus Asymmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS


Crest Crest

LV Bus Symmetrical RMS Symmetrical RMS


Asymmetrical RMS Asymmetrical RMS
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 316
Interrupting Multiplying
Factor

MFi is calculated based on:


• Fault X/R (Separate R & X Networks)
• Location of Fault (Remote / Local
generation)
• Type and Rating of CB
Comparisons of Interrupting Capability (1 ½ to 4 Cycle)

SC Current Duty Device Rating

Adj. Symmetrical RMS* Adj. Symmetrical RMS*


HV CB

Adj. Symmetrical RMS*** Symmetrical RMS


LV CB & Fuse

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 317
HV CB Closing and
Latching Duty

Calculate ½ Cycle Current (Imom,rms,sym ) using ½ Cycle Network.

• Calculate X/R ratio and Multiplying factor MFm

• Imom,rms,Asym= MFm * Imom,rms,sym

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 318
HV CB Interrupting Duty

Calculate 1½ to 4 Cycle Current (Imom,rms,sym ) using ½ Cycle Network.

• Determine Local and Remote contributions (A “local” contribution is


fed predominantly from generators through no more than one
transformation or with external reactances in series that is less than
1.5 times generator subtransient reactance. Otherwise the
contribution is defined as “remote”).

• Calculate no AC Decay ratio (NACD) and multiplying factor MFi

NACD = IRemote / ITotal


ITotal = ILocal + IRemote

(NACD = 0 if all local & NACD = 1 if all remote)

• Calculate Iint,rms,adj = MFi * Iint,rms,Symm


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 319
HV CB Interrupting
Capability
• CB Interrupting kA varies between Max kA and Rated kA as
applied kV changes – MVAsc capability.

• ETAP’s comparison between CB Duty of Adj. Symmetrical kA


and CB capability of Adjusted Int. kA verifies both symmetrical
and asymmetrical rating.

• The Option of C37.010-1999 standard allows user to specify


CPT.

• Generator CB has higher DC rating and is always compared


against maximum through SC kA.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 320
LV CB Interrupting Duty

• LV CB take instantaneous action.

• Calculate ½ Cycle current Irms, Symm (I’f) from the ½ cycle


network.

• Calculate X/R ratio and MFi (based on CB type).

• Calculate adjusted interrupting current Iadj, rms, symm = MFi *


Irms, Symm

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 321
Fuse Interrupting Duty

Calculate ½ Cycle current Iint,rms,symm from ½ Cycle Network.

• Same procedure to calculate Iint,rms,asymm as for CB.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 322
L-G Faults

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 323
L-G Faults
Symmetrical Components

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 324
Sequence Networks

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 325
L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

If = 3 × Ia 0
3 × VPr efault
If =
Z1 + Z 2 + Z0
if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 326
L-L Fault Sequence Network
Connections

I a 2 = − I a1
3 × VPr efault
If =
Z1 + Z 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 327
L-L-G Fault Sequence
Network Connections

I a 2 + I a1 + I a 0 = 0 = I a
VPr efault
If =
 Z0 Z 2 
Z1 +  
 Z0 + Z2 
if Zg = 0

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 328
Transformer Zero Sequence Connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 329
Solid Grounded Devices
and L-G Faults
Generally a 3 - phase fault is the
most severe case. L - G faults can be
greater if :
Z1 = Z 2 & Z 0 < Z 1
If this conditions are true then :
I f3φ < I f 1φ
This may be the case if Generators or
Y/∆ Connected transformer are solidly
grounded.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 330
Unbalanced Faults Display
& Reports
Complete reports that include individual
branch contributions for:
•L-G Faults
•L-L-G Faults
•L-L Faults

One-line diagram displayed results that


include:
•L-G/L-L-G/L-L fault current
contributions
•Sequence voltage and currents
•Phase Voltages

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 331
©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 332
©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 333
SC Study Case Info Page

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 334
SC Study Case Standard
Page

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 335
SC Study Case Adjustments
Page
Tolerance
Adjustments Length
Adjustments
•Transformer
Impedance •Cable Length
•Reactor •Transmission
Resistance Line Length
•Overload
Heater
Resistance
Temperature
Corrections
Adjust Fault •Transmission Line
Impedance Resistance
•L-G fault •Cable Resistance
Impedance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 336
Tolerance Adjustments

Z 'Transforme r = Z Transforme r * (1 ± Tolerance )


Length 'Cable = LengthCable * (1 ± Tolerance )
Length 'Transmissi onLine = LengthTransmissi onLine * (1 ± Tolerance )

Positive tolerance value is used for IEC Minimum If calculation.


Negative tolerance value is used for all other calculations.

Adjustments can be applied Individually or Globally

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 337
Temperature Correction

(234.5 + Tc )
R'Copper ' = RBASE *
(234.5 + Tb )
( 228.1 + Tc )
R' Alumi = RBASE *
( 228.1 + Tb )

RBASE = Resistance at base tempereatu re


R' = Resistance at operating temperatur e
Tb = Conductor base temperatur e in C
Tc = Conductor temperatur e limit in C

Temperature Correction can be applied


Individually or Globally
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 338
System for SC Study
Power Grid U1
X/R = 55
Gen1
Voltage Control
Design Setting:
%Pf = 85
MW = 4
Transformers Max Q = 9
T1 X/R Min Q = -3
PS =12
PT =12
ST =12
T2 X/R = 12

Lump1
Y open grounded

©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 339
System for SC Study

Tmin = 40, Tmax = 90

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 340
System for SC Study

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 341
Short-Circuit Alerts
• Bus Alert

• Protective Device Alert

• Marginal Device Limit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 342
Bus SC Rating
Type of Device Monitored Parameter Condition Reported
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical
MV Bus (> 1000 Volts)
Momentary Asymmetrical. crest kA Bracing Crest
Momentary Symmetrical. rms kA Bracing Symmetrical
LV Bus (<1000Volts)
Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Bracing Asymmetrical

Protective Device Rating


Device Type ANSI Monitored Parameters IEC Monitored Parameters

LVCB Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

Momentary C&L Making


Momentary C&L Crest kA N/A
HV CB
Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

Fuse Interrupting Adjusted Symmetrical. rms kA Breaking

SPDT Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making


SPST Switches Momentary Asymmetrical. rms kA Making

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 343
3-Phase Duty SC Results
Run a 3-phase Duty SC calculation for a
fault on Bus4. The display shows the
Initial Symmetrical Short-Circuit Current.

©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 344
Unbalance Fault Calculation

©1996-2009
© 1996-2009Operation
OperationTechnology,
Technology,Inc.
Inc.––Workshop
WorkshopNotes:
Notes:Short-Circuit
Short-CircuitIEC
ANSI Slide 345
TEMA 7

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 346
Transient Stability

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


Time Frame of Power System
Dynamic Phenomena

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 348
Introduction
• TS is also called Rotor Stability, Dynamic
Stability
• Electromechanical Phenomenon
• All synchronous machines must remain in
synchronism with one another
• TS is no longer only the utility’s concern
• Co-generation plants face TS problems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 349
Analogy

• Which vehicles will pushed hardest?


• How much energy gained by each vehicle?
• Which direction will they move?
• Height of the hill must they climb to go over?

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 350
Introduction (cont’d)
• System protection requires consideration of:
Critical Fault Clearing Time (CFCT)
Critical Separation Time (CST)
Fast load transferring
Load Shedding
…

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 351
Causes of Instability
• Short-circuits
• Loss of utility connections
• Loss of a portion of in-plant generation
• Starting of a large motor
• Switching operations (lines or capacitors)
• Impact loading on motors
• Sudden large change in load and
generation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 352
Consequences of Instability
• Synchronous machine slip poles –
generator tripping
• Power swing
• Misoperation of protective devices
• Interruption of critical loads
• Low-voltage conditions – motor drop-offs
• Damage to equipment
• Area wide blackout
• …
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 353
Synchronous Machines
• Torque Equation (generator case)

T = mechanical torque
P = number of poles
φ air = air-gap flux
Fr = rotor field MMF
δ = rotor angle

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 354
Swing Equation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 355
Synchronous Machines
(cont’d)
• Swing Equation

M = inertia constant
D = damping constant
Pmech = input mechanical power
Pelec = output electrical power

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 356
Rotor Angle Responses

• Case 1: Steady-state stable


• Case 2: Transient stable
• Case 3: Small-signal unstable
• Case 4: First swing unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 357
Power and Rotor Angle
(Classical 2-Machine
Example)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 358
Power and Rotor Angle
(cont’d)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 359
Power and Rotor Angle
(Parallel Lines)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 360
Both Lines In Service

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 361
One Line Out of Service

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 362
Equal Area Criterion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 363
Equal Area Criterion

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 364
Equal Area - Stable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 365
Equal Area – Unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 366
Equal Area - Unstable

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 367
Power System Stability
Limit
• Steady-State Stability Limit
 After small disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steady state operating
condition identical or close to the pre-
disturbance
 Limit: δ < 90°

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 368
Power System Stability
Limit (con’d)
• Transient and Dynamic Stability Limit
 After a severe disturbance, the synchronous
generator reaches a steady-state operating
condition without a prolonged loss of
synchronism
 Limit: δ < 180° during swing

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 369
Generator Modeling

• Machine
Equivalent Model / Transient Model / Subtransient Model
• Exciter and Automatic Voltage Regulator
(AVR)
• Prime Mover and Speed Governor
• Power System Stabilizer (PSS)
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 370
Generator Modeling (con’d)
• Typical synchronous machine data

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 371
Factors Influencing TS
• Post-Disturbance Reactance seen from generator.
Reactance ↓ Pmax ↓
• Duration of the fault clearing time.
Fault time ↑ Rotor Acceleration ↑ Kinetic Energy ↑
Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑
• Generator Inertia.
Inertia ↑ Rate of change of Angle ↓ Kinetic Energy ↓
• Generator Internal Voltage
Internal Voltage ↓ Pmax ↓

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 372
Factors Influencing TS
• Generator Loading Prior To Disturbance
Loading ↑ Closer to Pmax. Unstable during acceleration
• Generator Internal Reactance
Reactance ↓ Peak Power ↑ Initial Rotor Angle ↓
Dissipation Time during deceleration ↑
• Generator Output During Fault
Function of Fault Location and Type of Fault

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 373
Solution to Stability
Problems
• Improve system design
 Increase synchronizing power
• Design and selection of rotating equipment
 Use of induction machines
 Increase moment of inertia
 Reduce transient reactance
 Improve voltage regulator and exciter
characteristics

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 374
Solution to Stability
Problems
• Reduction of Transmission System
Reactance
• High Speed Fault Clearing
• Dynamic Braking
• Regulate Shunt Compensation
• Steam Turbine Fast Valving
• Generator Tripping
• Adjustable Speed Synchronous Machines
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 375
Solution to Stability
Problems
• HVDC Link Control
• Current Injection from VSI devices
• Application of Power System Stabilizer
(PSS)
• Add system protections
 Fast fault clearance
 Load Shedding
 System separation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 376
TEMA 8

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 377
Load Flow Analysis

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC


FLUJO DE CARGA
Características principales:

 Cálculo de los flujos de potencia.


 Diversas representaciones de las
cargas.
 Cálculo de los perfiles de tensión.
 Corrección del factor de potencia.
 Diagnóstico automático de equipos.
 Corrección automática de impedancias
por temperatura.
 Cálculo de pérdidas activas y reactivas.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 379
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 380
System Concepts

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 381
Power in Balanced 3-Phase
S =V I *

Systems S =3 ×S 1φ LN

3φ 1φ

= 3 ×V LL I *
= P + jQ

Inductive loads have lagging Power Factors.


Capacitive loads have leading Power Factors.

Lagging Power Factor Leading Power Factor Current and Voltage

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 382
Leading & Lagging Power
Factors
ETAP displays lagging Power Factors as positive and leading Power Factors as
negative. The Power Factor is displayed in percent.

Leading Lagging
Power Power
Factor Factor P + jQ P - jQ P + jQ

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 383
3-Phase Per Unit System
kVA B S = 3VI  If you have two bases:
IB =   Then you may calculate the other two
3kVB V = 3ZI
by using the relationships enclosed in
 SB  brackets. The different bases are:
(kVB ) 2 BI =
ZB =  3VB  •IB (Base Current)
 
MVA B V
Z = B 
2
•ZB (Base Impedance)
 B SB  •VB (Base Voltage)
•SB (Base Power)
I actual Vactual
I pu = Vpu = ETAP selects for LF:
IB VB •100 MVA for SB which is fixed for the
entire system.
Zactual Sactual
Z pu = Spu = •The kV rating of reference point is
used along with the transformer turn
ZB SB ratios are applied to determine the
base voltage for different parts of the
system.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 384
Example 1: The diagram shows a simple radial system. ETAP converts the branch
impedance values to the correct base for Load Flow calculations. The LF reports show
the branch impedance values in percent. The transformer turn ratio (N1/N2) is 3.31
and the X/R = 12.14
Transformer Turn Ratio: The transformer turn ratio is used
by ETAP to determine the base voltage for different parts
of the system. Different turn ratios are applied starting from
the utility kV rating.

kVB1
To determine base voltage use:

N1
kV =
1
B kVB2
N2
kVB2
Transformer T7: The following equations are used to find
the impedance of transformer T7 in 100 MVA base.

X
Z pu ×  
R  x pu
X pu = R pu =
 
X
2
X
1+    R 
R 

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 385
0.065(12.14) 0.06478
X pu = = 0.06478 R pu = = 0.005336
1 + (12.14) 2 12.14
The transformer impedance must be converted to 100 MVA base and therefore the
following relation must be used, where “n” stands for new and “o” stands for old.

2 2
 V o
  SnB   13.8   100 
Z pu = Z pu  n 
n o B
 o  = (5.33× 10− 3 + j0.06478)    = (0.1115 + j1.3538)
 VB   SB   13.5   5 

% Z = 100 × Z pu = 11.15 + j135.38


Impedance Z1: The base voltage is determined by using the transformer turn ratio. The base
impedance for Z1 is determined using the base voltage at Bus5 and the MVA base.

kVutility 13.5 VB2 (4.0695) 2


VB = = = 4.0695 ZB = = = 0.165608
 N1  3.31 MVA 100
 N 2 

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 386
The per-unit value of the impedance may be determined as soon as the base
impedance is known. The per-unit value is multiplied by one hundred to obtain
the percent impedance. This value will be the value displayed on the LF report.

Zactual (0.1 + j1)


Z pu = = = (0.6038+ j6.0382)
ZB 0.1656
% Z = 100 × Z pu = 60.38 + j603.8
The LF report generated by ETAP displays the following percent impedance values
in 100 MVA base

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 387
Load Flow Analysis

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 388
Load Flow Problem
• Given
– Load Power Consumption at all buses
– Configuration
– Power Production at each generator

• Basic Requirement
– Power Flow in each line and transformer
– Voltage Magnitude and Phase Angle at each bus

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 389
Load Flow Studies
• Determine Steady State Operating Conditions
– Voltage Profile
– Power Flows
– Current Flows
– Power Factors
– Transformer LTC Settings
– Voltage Drops
– Generator’s Mvar Demand (Qmax & Qmin)
– Total Generation & Power Demand
– Steady State Stability Limits
– MW & Mvar Losses
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 390
Size & Determine System
Equipment & Parameters
• Cable / Feeder Capacity
• Capacitor Size
• Transformer MVA & kV Ratings (Turn Ratios)
• Transformer Impedance & Tap Setting
• Current Limiting Reactor Rating & Imp.
• MCC & Switchgear Current Ratings
• Generator Operating Mode (Isochronous / Droop)
• Generator’s Mvar Demand
• Transmission, Distribution & Utilization kV
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 391
Optimize Operating
Conditions
• Bus Voltages are Within Acceptable Limits

• Voltages are Within Rated Insulation Limits


of Equipment

• Power & Current Flows Do Not Exceed the


Maximum Ratings

• System MW & Mvar Losses are Determined

• Circulating Mvar Flows are Eliminated


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 392
Calculation Process
• Non-Linear System
• Calculated Iteratively
– Assume the Load
Voltage (Initial Conditions)
– Calculate the Current I Assume VR
– Based on the Current, Calc: I = Sload / VR
Calculate Voltage Drop Vd Calc: Vd = I * Z

– Re-Calculate Load Voltage VR Re-Calc VR = Vs - Vd

– Re-use Load Voltage as initial condition until the


results are within the specified precision.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 393
Load Flow Calculation
Methods

1. Accelerated Gauss-Seidel Method


• Low Requirements on initial values,
but slow in
speed. 3. Fast-Decoupled Method
• Two sets of iteration equations: real
power – voltage angle,
reactive power – voltage magnitude.
1. Newton-Raphson Method • Fast in speed, but low in solution
• precision.
Fast in speed, but high requirement on
initial values. • Better for radial systems and
• systems with long lines.
First order derivative is used to speed up
calculation.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 394
Load Nameplate Data

kWRated HP × 0.7457 kVA = (kW ) 2 + (kVar ) 2


kVARated = =
PF × Eff PF × Eff kW
kVARated PF =
FLA3φ = kVA
3 × kV kVA
I 3φ = 1000 ×
kVARated ( 3 × kV)
FLA1φ =
kV kVA
I1φ = 1000 ×
Where PF and Efficiency are taken at 100 % kV
loading conditions

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 395
Constant Power Loads
• In Load Flow calculations induction,
synchronous and lump loads are treated
as constant power loads.
• The power output remains constant even
if the input voltage changes (constant
kVA).
• The lump load power output behaves like
a constant power load for the specified %
motor load.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 396
Constant Impedance Loads
• In Load Flow calculations Static Loads, Lump Loads (%
static), Capacitors and Harmonic Filters and Motor
Operated Valves are treated as Constant Impedance
Loads.
• The Input Power increases proportionally to the square of
the Input Voltage.
• In Load Flow Harmonic Filters may be used as capacitive
loads for Power Factor Correction.
• MOVs are modeled as constant impedance loads
because of their operating characteristics.

© 1996-2008 Operation
©1996-2009 Operation Technology,
Technology, Inc.
Inc. ––Workshop
Workshop Notes:
Notes: Short-Circuit
Load Flow Analysis
IEC Slide
Slide 397
397
Constant Current Loads
• The current remains constant even if the voltage
changes.
• DC Constant current loads are used to test Battery
discharge capacity.
• AC constant current loads may be used to test
UPS systems performance.
• DC Constant Current Loads may be defined in
ETAP by defining Load Duty Cycles used for
Battery Sizing & Discharge purposes.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 398
Constant Current Loads

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 399
Generic Loads

Exponential Load
Polynomial Load
Comprehensive
Load

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 400
Generator Operation Modes

Feedback Voltage
•AVR: Automatic Voltage
Regulation
•Fixed: Fixed Excitation
(no AVR action)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 401
Governor Operating Modes
• Isochronous: This governor setting allows the
generator’s power output to be adjusted based on
the system demand.
• Droop: This governor setting allows the generator
to be Base Loaded, meaning that the MW output is
fixed.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 402
Isochronous Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 403
Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 404
Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 405
Droop Mode

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 406
Adjusting Steam Flow

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 407
Adjusting Excitation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 408
In ETAP Generators and Power Grids have four operating
modes that are used in Load Flow calculations.

Swing Mode
•Governor is operating in
Isochronous mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Voltage Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•Automatic Voltage Regulator

Mvar Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•Fixed Field Excitation (no AVR
action)

PF Control
•Governor is operating in Droop
Mode
•AVR Adjusts to Power Factor
Setting
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 409
• In the Swing Mode, the voltage is kept fixed. P & Q can vary
based on the Power Demand
• In the Voltage Control Mode, P & V are kept fixed while Q & θ are
varied
• In the Mvar Control Mode, P and Q are kept fixed while V & θ are
varied

• If in Voltage Control Mode, the limits of P & Q are reached, the model
is changed to a Load Model (P & Q are kept fixed)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 410
Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 411
Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 412
Generator Capability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 413
Maximum & Minimum
Reactive Power
Machine Rating (Power Factor Point)

Field Winding Heating Limit

Steady State Stability Curve

Armature Winding Heating Limit

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 414
Generator Capability Curve

Field Winding
Machine Rating
Heating Limit
(Power Factor Point)

Steady State Stability Curve

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 415
Generation Categories
Generator/Power Grid Rating Page

Load Flow Loading Page

10 Different Generation
Categories for Every
Generator or Power Grid in
the System

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 416
Power Flow

V1 = V1 ∠δ 1 
 
V 2 = V2 ∠δ 2 

S = V*I = P + jQ
V1*V2  V1*V2 V2 
2
= *SIN (δ1 − δ 2 ) + j *COS (δ1 − δ 2 ) − 
X  X X 
V1*V2
P= *SIN (δ1 −δ 2 )
X
2
V1*V2 V2
Q= *COS( δ1 − δ 2 ) −
X X

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 417
Example: Two voltage sources designated as V1 and V2 are
connected as shown. If V1= 100 /0° , V2 = 100 /30° and X = 0 +j5
determine the power flow in the system.

V1 − V 2 100 + j0 − (86.6 + j50)


I= =
X j5
I = −10 − j2.68
I

V1I* = 100(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 + j268


V2 I* = (86.6 + j50)(−10 + j2.68) = −1000 − j268

| I |2 X = 10.352 × 5 = 536 var

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 418
The following graph shows the power flow from Machine M2. This
machine behaves as a generator supplying real power and
absorbing reactive power from machine M1.

Power Flow S
1 1

( V ⋅E)
⋅sin ( δ ) 0

X

2
( V ⋅E)
⋅cos ( δ ∆) −
V
X X

−2
2
0 δ ∆ π
Real Power Flow
Reactive Power Flow

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 419
Bus Voltage
ETAP displays bus voltage values in two ways
•kV value
•Percent of Nominal Bus kV

For Bus4:
kVCalculated = 13.5 kVNo min al = 13.8
kVCalculated
V% = ×100 = 97.83%
kVNo min al
For Bus5:
kVCalculated = 4.03 kVNo min al = 4.16
kVCalculated
V% = × 100 = 96.85%
kVNo min al

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 420
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 421
Lump Load Negative
Loading

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 422
Load Flow Adjustments
• Transformer Impedance
– Adjust transformer impedance based on possible length variation
tolerance
• Reactor Impedance
– Adjust reactor impedance based on specified tolerance

• Overload Heater
– Adjust Overload Heater resistance based on specified tolerance

• Transmission Line Length


– Adjust Transmission Line Impedance based on possible length
variation tolerance
• Cable Length
– Adjust Cable Impedance based on possible length variation tolerance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 423
Load Flow Study Case
Adjustment Page
Adjustments applied
•Individual
•Global

Temperature Correction
• Cable Resistance
• Transmission Line
Resistance

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 424
Allowable Voltage Drop
NEC and ANSI C84.1

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 425
Load Flow Example 1
Part 1

© 1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. - Workshop Notes: Load Flow Analysis


©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 426
Load Flow Example 1
Part 2

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 427
Load Flow Alerts

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 428
Equipment Overload Alerts

Bus Alerts Monitor Continuous Amps


Cable Monitor Continuous Amps
Reactor Monitor Continuous Amps
Line Monitor Line Ampacity
Transformer Monitor Maximum MVA Output
UPS/Panel Monitor Panel Continuous Amps
Generator Monitor Generator Rated MW

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 429
Protective Device Alerts
Protective Devices Monitored parameters % Condition reported

Low Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad


High Voltage Circuit Breaker Continuous rated Current OverLoad
Fuses Rated Current OverLoad
Contactors Continuous rated Current OverLoad
SPDT / SPST switches Continuous rated Current OverLoad

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 430
If the Auto Display
feature is active, the
Alert View Window will
appear as soon as the
Load Flow calculation
has finished.

© 1996-2009 Operation
©1996-2009 Operation Technology,
Technology, Inc.
Inc. ––Workshop
Workshop Notes:
Notes: Short-Circuit
Load Flow Analysis
IEC Slide
Slide 431
431
Advanced LF Topics
Load Flow Convergence

Voltage Control

Mvar Control

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 432
Load Flow Convergence
• Negative Impedance

• Zero or Very Small Impedance

• Widely Different Branch Impedance Values

• Long Radial System Configurations

• Bad Bus Voltage Initial Values

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 433
Voltage Control
• Under/Over Voltage Conditions must be
fixed for proper equipment operation and
insulation ratings be met.

• Methods of Improving Voltage Conditions:


– Transformer Replacement
– Capacitor Addition
– Transformer Tap Adjustment

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 434
Under-Voltage Example
• Create Under Voltage • Method 2 - Shunt Capacitor
Condition – Add Shunt Capacitor to Bus8
– Change Syn2 Quantity to 6. – 300 kvar 3 Banks
(Info Page, Quantity Field) – Voltage is improved
– Run LF • Method 3 - Change Tap
– Bus8 Turns Magenta (Under – Place LTC on Primary of T6
Voltage Condition)
– Select Bus8 for Control Bus
• Method 1 - Change Xfmr – Select Update LTC in the
Study Case
– Change T4 from 3 MVA to 8
MVA, will notice slight – Run LF
improvement on the Bus8 kV – Bus Voltage Comes within
specified limits
– Too Expensive and time
consuming

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 435
Mvar Control
• Vars from Utility • Method 2 – Add Capacitor
– Add Switch to CAP1 – Close Switch
– Open Switch
– Run Load Flow
– Run LF
– Var Contribution from the
Utility reduces
• Method 1 – Generator
– Change Generator from
Voltage Control to Mvar Control • Method 3 – Xfmr MVA
– Set Mvar Design Setting to 5 – Change T1 Mva to 40 MVA
Mvars
– Will notice decrease in the
contribution from the Utility

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 436
Panel Systems

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 437
Panel Boards
• They are a collection of branch circuits
feeding system loads
• Panel System is used for representing
power and lighting panels in electrical
systems

Click to drop once on OLV


Double-Click to drop multiple panels

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 438
Representation
A panel branch circuit load can be modeled as an
internal or external load

Advantages:
1. Easier Data Entry
2. Concise System
Representation

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 439
Pin Assignment
Pin 0 is the top pin of the panel
ETAP allows up to 24 external load connections

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 440
Assumptions
• Vrated (internal load) = Vrated (Panel Voltage)
• Note that if a 1-Phase load is connected to a 3-
Phase panel circuit, the rated voltage of the panel
circuit is (1/√3) times the rated panel voltage
• The voltage of L1 or L2 phase in a 1-Phase 3-Wire
panel is (1/2) times the rated voltage of the panel
• There are no losses in the feeders connecting a
load to the panel
• Static loads are calculated based on their rated
voltage
©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 441
Line-Line Connections
Load Connected Between Two Phases of a
3-Phase System
A A
B B
C C

IBC IB = IBC IC = -IBC

Load
LoadB
Angle by which load current IBC lags the load voltage = θ°

Therefore, for load connected between phases B and C: For load connected to phase B

SBC = VBC .IBC SB = VB.IB


PBC = VBC .IBC .cos θ PB = VB.IB.cos (θ - 30)
QB = VB.IB.sin (θ - 30)
QBC = VBC .IBC .sin θ
And, for load connected to phase C

SC = VC.IC
PC = VC.IC.cos (θ + 30)
QC = VC.IC.sin (θ + 30)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 442
Info Page

NEC Selection
A, B, C from top to bottom or
left to right from the front of the
panel

Phase B shall be the highest


voltage (LG) on a 3-phase, 4-
wire delta connected system
(midpoint grounded)

3-Phase 4-Wire Panel


3-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 3-Wire Panel
1-Phase 2-Wire Panel

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 443
Rating Page
Intelligent kV Calculation
If a 1-Phase panel is connected to a 3-Phase bus
having a nominal voltage equal to 0.48 kV, the
default rated kV of the panel is set to (0.48/1.732
=) 0.277 kV

For IEC, Enclosure Type


is Ingress Protection
(IPxy), where IP00 means
no protection or shielding
on the panel

Select ANSI or IEC


Breakers or Fuses from
Main Device Library

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 444
Schedule Page

Circuit Numbers with


Standard Layout

Circuit Numbers with


Column Layout

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 445
Description Tab
First 14 load items in the list are based on NEC 1999
Last 10 load types in the Panel Code Factor Table are user-defined
Load Type is used to determine the Code Factors used in calculating the total
panel load
External loads are classified as motor load or static load according to the element
type
For External links the load status is determined from the connected load’s demand
factor status

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 446
Rating Tab

Enter per phase VA, W, or


Amperes for this load.

For example, if total Watts


for a 3-phase load are 1200,
enter W as 400 (=1200/3)

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 447
Loading Tab
For internal loads, enter the % loading for the selected loading category

For both internal and external loads, Amp values are


calculated based on terminal bus nominal kV

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 448
Protective Device Tab

Library Quick Pick -


LV Circuit Breaker
(Molded Case, with
Thermal Magnetic
Trip Device) or

Library Quick Pick –


Fuse will appear
depending on the
Type of protective
device selected.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 449
Feeder Tab

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 450
Action Buttons
Copy the content of the selected
row to clipboard. Circuit number,
Phase, Pole, Load Name, Link
and State are not copied.

Paste the entire content (of the


copied row) in the selected row.
This will work when the Link
Type is other than space or
unusable, and only for fields
which are not blocked.

Blank out the contents of the entire


selected row.

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 451
Summary Page
Continuous Load – Per Phase and Total

Non-Continuous Load – Per Phase and Total

Connected Load – Per Phase and Total (Continuous + Non-Continuous Load)

Code Demand – Per Phase and Total

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 452
Output Report

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 453
Panel Code Factors

The first fourteen have fixed formats per NEC 1999

Code demand load depends on Panel Code Factors

Code demand load calculation for internal loads are done


for each types of load separately and then summed up

©1996-2009 Operation Technology, Inc. – Workshop Notes: Short-Circuit IEC Slide 454