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Univ.

Ovidius of Constana
Faculty of Medicine
General Medicine

INJECTIONS
Students:Buzdugan Gabriela
Calinciu Georgiana
Cpraru Lavinia-Renate

Constana,2017
Introduction
Q:What is an injection?

A: An injection is an infusion method of putting fluid


into the body
usually performed with
a syringe
a hollow needle
which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth
for the material to be administered into the body.

*The abbreviation meaning: Q=Question; A=Answer


Other types of injections:
Other less perfomed types are:
intraosseous
intraperitoneal
intrathecal
epidural
intracardiac
intraarticular
intracavernous
intravitreal
Q:Why would one use an
injection?
Injections are among the most common
health care procedures, with at least 16
billion administered in developing and
transitional countries each year.
95% of injections are administered in
curative care, 3% are for immunization,
and the rest for other purposes, such as
blood transfusions.
Introduction
Q:What are the main different types of injections?

A: The four main routes are:


1. Intradermal (ID) injection
2. Subcutaneous (SC) injection
3. Intramuscular (IM) injection
4. Intravenous (IV) injection
vs
VS
SC IM
1. Intradermal (ID) injection
Q:What it means?
For what is used?

A:
Intradermal means within, about, or below a dermal tissue layer
(typically the skin) and describes the location of administration.
Intradermal injections are delivered into the dermis, or the skin
layer underneath the epidermis (which is the upper skin layer).
Intradermal injections are usually given to clients for skin testing
procedures such as tuberculin screening and allergy tests. These
medications are given intradermally because they are very
potent. Since the dermis has a reduced blood supply the
medication absorption is slower thus reducing the risk of an
anaphylactic reaction
Side Effects

In studies, common reactions to the


intradermal flu shot included redness,
swelling, toughness, pain, and itching at the
injection site.
With the exception of pain, these side effects
were more common with the intradermal shot
than they are with regular flu shots.
2. Subcutaneous (SC) injection
Where are they administered?
Subcutaneous injections are administered in the fat layer,
underneath the skin
A subcutaneous injection is a method of administering medication.
In this type of injection, a short needle is used to inject a drug into
the tissue layer between the skin and the muscle.
Medication given this way is usually absorbed more slowly than
if injected into a vein, sometimes over a period of 24 hours.
Subcutaneous injections are highly effective in administering
vaccines and medications such as insulin, heparin, morphine,
diacetylmorphine and goserelin.
3. Intramuscular (IM) injection
An intramuscular injection is a technique used to deliver a
medication deep into the muscles. This allows the medication
to be absorbed into the bloodstream quickly.
Intramuscular (IM) injection is faster. However, IM injection
is not for regular use(mostly vaccines), and has its risks.
Most vaccines should be given via the intramuscular route
into the deltoid or the anterolateral aspect of the thigh.
This optimises the immunogenicity of the vaccine and
minimises adverse reactions at the injection site.
intra-muscular injections are usually given on the gluteus
maximus- a big muscle with large muscle mass, making it a
good deposit for the medication.
Side effects of IM Vaccines

Common side effects of any vaccine can include:


injection site reactions (pain, swelling and
redness)
mild fever.
The most common side effect is a sore arm from
the shot
shivering.
fatigue.
headache.
Intravenous therapy is the infusion of liquid
substances directly into a vein. Intravenous
(IV) means "situated, performed, or occurring
within or entering by way of a vein.
A drip is also sometimes known as a cannula,
intravenous fluids or IV. It is a short, small
plastic tube that is put into one s vein using a
needle. The plastic tube is then left in so that
fluids and medicines can be given directly into
the blood via the vein.
IV medication is often used because of the control it
provides over dosage. For instance, in some situations,
people must receive medication very quickly. This includes
emergencies, such as a heart attack, stroke, or poisoning.
-Other times, medications may need to be given
slowly but constantly. IV administration can also be a
controlled way to give drugs over time.
Certain drugs may be given by IV administration because if
you took them orally (by mouth), enzymes in your stomach
or liver would break them down. This would prevent the
drugs from working well when theyre finally sent to your
bloodstream. Therefore, these drugs would be much more
effective if sent directly into your bloodstream by IV
administration.
Epidural injections

An epidural steroid injection is performed to


help reduce the inflammation and pain
associated with nerve root compression.
Nerve roots can be compressed by a
herniated disc, spinal stenosis, and bone
spurs. When the nerve is compressed it
becomes inflamed.
Side effects
Nonetheless, reported side effects from epidural steroid injections
include:
Localized increase in pain.
Non-positional headaches resolving within 24 hours.
Facial flushing.
Anxiety.
Sleeplessness.
Fever the night of injection.
High blood sugar.
A transient decrease in immunity because of the suppressive effect of
the steroid.
Intracardiac injections
Intracardiac injections are injections that are given directly into
the heart muscles or ventricles. They are used in emergencies.
the most expeditious route of drug delivery during a cardiac
arrest
The primary indication for an intracardiac injection is when
vascular access is not readily available or unobtainable in an
arrested patient with asystole, pulseless electrical activity,
pulseless ventricular tachycardia, or ventricular fibrillation
the intracardiac injection of resuscitative medications may be
warranted and can be attempted as a last effort to resuscitate
the patient.
Epinephrine is the only resuscitative medication that should be
administered by intracardiac injection
Bibliography

https://en.wikipedia.org
www.everydayhealth.com
https://myphysiciansnow.com
www.phlabs.com
www.rxlist.com
www.mayoclinic.org
http://www.spine-health.com
Thank you for your
attention!
We hope you enjoyed our
presentation.
Now we prepared some
videos where the
procedures of the
injections are explained!