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I The Hydrologic Cycle

II Kinds of Water Use
III Kinds and Sources of Water
IV Water Planning Issues
About 71% of Earths surface is Watermelon is about 92%
water water

Plants and trees need

water to produce oxygen

Elephants drink up to
50 gallons of water a
About 60-65% of our body is
water beyond 3-5 days w/out water,
organs shut down and eventually
Ironically, water is all around us but we have the brain
-A polar Molecule where one end
is slightly positive and the other
end slightly negative
- Hydrogen bonds that result from
waters polarity is responsible for
many of its properties such as its
High heat capacity which is very
useful in our daily life

Water is comprised of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen,

giving it the chemical formula H2O.Water is the most common
chemical compound found on planet Earth and the most vital compound for
the formation and survival of life.
Definition of
Evaporation a process by which a liquid changes into its vapors.

Transpiration - is the process by which moisture is carried through

plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it
changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere.

Sublimation - is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the

gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

Condensation- is the change of water from its gaseous form (water vapor) into
Precipitation - is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water
vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms ofprecipitationinclude
drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, and hail.

Deposition - aphase transitionin which gas transforms into solid. The reverse
ofdepositionis sublimation.

Surface Runoff - is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that

flows over the landsurface, and is a major component of the water
Definition of Terms

Infiltration - is the process by which precipitation or water soaks into subsurface

soils and moves into rocks through cracks and pore spaces.

Percolation - - is the process by which precipitation or water moves downward

through openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground.
Figure 1. Off stream uses (depicted on the left) are
those in which water is removed from its source,
either by pumping or diversion. In stream uses
(depicted on the right) are those in which water
remains in place, and typically refers to stream
(rather than groundwater). Where water supply is
Even though there always has been plenty of fresh water on Earth, water has not always been
available when and where it is needed, nor is it always of suitable quality for all uses. Water must be
considered as a finite resource that has limits and boundaries to its availability and suitability for
Categories of Water use

Commercialwater use includes fresh water for motels, hotels, restaurants, office buildings, other
commercial facilities, and civilian and military institutions. Domestic water use is probably the most
important daily use of water for most people.

Domesticuse includes water that is used in the home every day, including water for normal
household purposes, such as drinking, food preparation, bathing, washing clothes and dishes, flushing
toilets, and watering lawns and gardens.

Industrialwater use is a valuable resource to the nation's industries for such purposes as processing,
cleaning, transportation, dilution, and cooling in manufacturing facilities. Major water-using industries
include steel, chemical, paper, and petroleum refining. Industries often reuse the same water over and
over for more than one purpose.

Irrigationwater use is water artificially applied to farm, orchard, pasture, andhorticulturalcrops, as

well as water used to irrigate pastures, for frost and freeze protection, chemical application, crop
cooling, harvesting, and for the leaching of salts from the crop root zone. Nonagricultural activities
include self-supplied water to irrigate public and private golf courses, parks,
Water pollution can come from a number of different sources. If
the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it
is called point-source pollution. If the pollution comes from
many sources, it is called nonpoint-source pollution.

Most types of pollution affect the immediate area surrounding

the source. Sometimes the pollution may affect the environment
hundreds of miles away from the source, such as nuclear waste,
this is called trans boundary pollution.
Surface waters are thenatural water resources of the Earth. They are found on the exterior
of the Earths crust and include:

- Oceans
- Rivers
- Lakes

These waters can becomepolluted in a number of ways, and this is called surface water
Microorganisms that live inwater feed on biodegradable substances. When
too much biodegradable material is added to water, the number
ofmicroorganisms increase and use up the available oxygen. This is called
oxygen depletion.
When oxygen levels in thewater are depleted, relatively harmless
aerobicmicroorganisms die and anaerobic microorganisms begin to thrive.
Some anaerobic microorganisms are harmful topeople, animals and the
environment, as they produce harmful toxins such asammonia and sulfides.
Nutrients and their effect on water

Nutrients are essential forplant growth and development. Many nutrients are found in
wastewater and fertilizers,and these can cause excess weed and algae growth if large
concentrations end upin water.

This can contaminate drinking water and clog filters.

This can be damaging to other aquatic organismsas the algae use up the oxygen in the
water, leaving none for thesurrounding marine life.
Groundwater Pollution

A lot of the Earths wateris found underground in soil or under rock structures called
aquifers. Humans often use aquifers asa means to obtain drinking water, and build
wells to access it. When this waterbecomes polluted it is called groundwaterpollution.

Groundwater pollution is often caused by pesticide contaminationfrom the soil, this

can infect our drinking water and cause huge problems.
Microbiological waterpollution is usually a natural
form of water pollution caused bymicroorganisms.

Many types ofmicroorganisms live in water and

cause fish, land animals and humans to becomeill.
Microorganisms such as:


Serious diseases such as cholera come from

microorganisms that livein water. These diseases
usually affect the health of people in
poorercountries, as they do not have the facilities to
treat polluted water.
Industrial and agriculturalwork involves the use of many different chemicals that can
run-off into waterand pollute it.

Metals and solvents from industrial work can pollute rivers andlakes. These are
poisonous to many forms of aquatic life and may slowtheir development, make them
infertile or even result in death.
Pesticides are used in farming to control weeds, insects and fungi. Run-offsof these
pesticides can cause water pollution and poison aquatic life.Subsequently, birds,
humans and other animals may be poisoned if they eatinfected fish.

Petroleum is another form of chemical pollutant that usually contaminateswater

through oil spills when a ship ruptures. Oil spills usually haveonly a localized affect on
wildlife but can spread for miles. The oil can cause the death of many fish and stick to
the feathers of seabirds causingthem to lose the ability to fly.
1.) POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION - is a single, identifiable source of pollution, such as a pipe or a
drain. Industrial wastes are commonly discharged to rivers and the sea in this way. Example: A company
has a new tank. This tank is being treated with a special chemical. After the tank is treated, the
treatment chemicals are drained into a stream that runs hear the building where the company
is. The chemicals are released directly into the stream water without being treated or
decontaminated to make them safe.
2.) NON-POINT SOURCE WATER POLLUTION - results when contaminants are introduced
into the environment over a large, widespread area(non-stationary source)Examples:
Stormwater runoff is the greatest contributor to non-point water pollution. May contain
Nutrients, Metals, Suspended Solids, Pesticides, Hydrocarbons and Microorganisms.
Too much water Heavy rainfall, rapid
snowmelt, removal of vegetation and destruction of wetlands cause

Too little water Overdrawing of groundwater one

sample cause is due to increasing population causing damage to the ecosystem.

Poor quality water

Functions of water resources planning & management are very complex tasks and may involve many different
activities conducted by many different players. The following components constitute water resources planning &

Water Allocation
Allocating water to major water users and uses, maintaining minimum levels for social and environmental use
while addressing equity and development needs of society.
River basin planning
Preparing and regularly updating the Basin Plan incorporating stakeholder views on development and
management priorities for the basin.
Stakeholder participation
Implementing stakeholder participation as a basis for decision making that takes into account the best interests
of society and the environment in the development and use of water resources in the basin.
Pollution control
Managing pollution using polluter pays principles and appropriate incentives to reduce most important pollution
problems and minimize environmental and social impact.
Implementing effective monitoring systems that provide essential management information and identifying and
responding to infringements of laws, regulations and permits.
Economic and financial management
Applying economic and financial tools for investment, cost recovery and behavior change to support the goals of
equitable access and sustainable benefits to society form water use.
Information management
Providing essential data necessary to make informed and transparent decisions and development and
sustainable management of water resources in the basin.