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BY: group 10
Layers of the ATMOSPHERE
Solar Energy Affects the
Solar Radiation and how the Atmosphere is Heated as the
temperature profile of the Earth shows, several factors
contribute to the heating of the Earth's atmosphere. To
understand how the atmosphere is heated, we must
first understand the nature of radiation. In today's
world, the word radiation tends to have negative
connotations, often associated with nuclear fallout or
nuclear plant mishaps. Theterm radiation is much more
general than that, and refers to any form of energy
which can travel through a vacuum. (Sound, for
instance, cannot travel through a vacuum and requires
a medium (like air or water) through which it
propagates, hence sound is not a form of radiation.)
The ozone layer
is a belt of naturally occurring ozone gas that sits 9.3 to 18.6 miles (15 to
30 kilometers) above Earth and serves as a shield from the harmful
ultraviolet B radiation emitted by the sun.
Ozone is a highly reactive molecule that contains three oxygen atoms. It is
constantly being formed and broken down in the high atmosphere, 6.2 to
31 miles (10 to 50 kilometers) above Earth, in the region called the
Today, there is widespread concern that the ozone layer is deteriorating
due to the release of pollution containing the chemicals chlorine and
bromine. Such deterioration allows large amounts of ultraviolet B rays
toreach Earth, which can cause skin cancer and cataracts in humans and
harm animals as well.
Extra ultraviolet B radiation reaching Earth also inhibits the reproductive
cycle of phytoplankton, single-celled organisms such as algae that make up
the bottom rung of the food chain. Biologists fear that reductions in
phytoplankton populations will in turn lower the populations of other
animals. Researchers also have documented changes in the reproductive
rates of young fish, shrimp, and crabs as well as frogs and salamanders
exposed to excess ultraviolet B.
The Main Ozone-Depleting Substances (ODS)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
The most widely used ODS, accounting for over 80% of total stratospheric ozone depletion.
Used as coolants in refrigerators, freezers and air conditioners in buildings and cars
manufactured before 1995.
Found in industrial solvents, dry-cleaning agents and hospital sterilants.
Also used in foam products such as soft-foam padding (e.g. cushions and mattresses) and
rigid foam (e.g. home insulation).
Used in some fire extinguishers, in cases where materials and equipment would be destroyed
by water or other fire extinguisher chemicals. In B.C., halons cause greater damage to the
ozone layer than do CFCs from automobile air conditioners.
Methyl Chloroform
Used mainly in industry for vapour degreasing, some aerosols, cold cleaning, adhesives and
chemical processing.
Carbon Tetrachloride
Used in solvents and some fire extinguishers.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
HCFCs have become major, transitional substitutes for CFCs. They are much less harmful to
stratospheric ozone than CFCs are. But HCFCs they still cause some ozone destruction and are
potent greenhouse gases.
Primary Air Pollutants
Indoor airis air within a building such as your
home, classroom, office, shopping center,
hospital or gym. We sayIndoor Air
Pollutionif indoor air is contaminated by
smoke, chemicals, smells or particles.
Indoor Air Pollution
Indoor air pollution consists of toxic
gases or particles that can harm your
health. These pollutants can build up
rapidly indoors to levels much higher
than those usually found outdoors.
This is especially true if large
amounts of a pollutant are released
indoors. Moreover, "tighter"
construction in newer homes can
prevent pollutants from escaping to
Common Air Pollutants
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Fuel combustion from vehicles and engines.
Reduces the amount of oxygen reaching the bodys organs and tissues; aggravates heart disease,
resulting in chest pain and other symptoms.
Ground-level Ozone (O3)
Secondary pollutant formed by chemical reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and NOx in the
presence of sunlight.
Decreases lung function and causes respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and shortness of breath, and
also makes asthma and other lung diseases get worse.
Lead (Pb)
Smelters (metal refineries) and other metal industries; combustion of leaded gasoline in piston engine
aircraft; waste incinerators (waste burners), and battery manufacturing.
Damages the developing nervous system, resulting in IQ loss and impacts on learning, memory, and
behavior in children. Cardiovascular and renal effects in adults and early effects related to anaemia.
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
Fuel combustion (electric utilities, big industrial boilers, vehicles) and wood burning.
Worsens lung diseases leading to respiratory symptoms, increased susceptibility to respiratory infection.
Particulate Matter (PM)
This is formed through chemical reactions, fuel combustion (e.g., burning coal, wood, diesel), industrial
processes, farming (plowing, field burning), and unpaved roads or during road constructions.
Short-term exposures can worsen heart or lung diseases and cause respiratory problems. Long-term
exposures can cause heart or lung disease and sometimes premature deaths.
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
SO2 comes from fuel combustion (especially high-sulfur coal); electric utilities and industrial processes as
well as natural occurances like volcanoes.
Aggravates asthma and makes breathing difficult. It also contributes to particle formation with associated
health effects.
Risks of Indoor Pollutants
Health effects from exposure to indoor air pollutants may
be experienced soon after exposure or even in some cases
after many months or years [1]. Also, immediate effects
may show up after a single exposure or after repeated
exposures including irritation of the eyes, nose and throat,
headaches, dizziness and fatigue. Such symptoms of
diseases as asthma may occur soon after exposure to
indoor air pollutants. Increases in the incidence of asthma
and allergies worldwide during recent years have
stimulated research on potential environmental causes.

The occurrence of respiratory and pulmonary diseases is

the most common outcome of the indoor air pollutants
Effects of Pollution on
The effects of environmental
pollution on humans are mainly
physical, but can also turn into
neuro-affections in the long term.
The best-known troubles to us are
respiratory, in the form of allergies,
asthma, irritation of the eyes and
nasal passages, or other forms of
respiratory infections.
Effects of Pollution on
In short, environmental pollution,
almost exclusively created by human
activities, has a negative effect on
the ecosystem, destroying crucial
layers of it and causing an even more
negative effect on the upper layers.
Air pollution
Air pollution may be defined as the
presence of one or more contaminants like
dust, mist, smoke and colour in the
atmosphere that are injurious human beings,
plants and animals.

Rapid industrialization
Fast urbanization
Rapid growth in population
Growth of vehicles on the roads and
Activities of human beings have disturbed the
natural balance of the atmosphere.
Sources of Air
Sources ofair pollution are of two

Natural sources of pollution are those that

are caused due to natural phenomena.
Ex: Volcanic eruptions, Forest fires, Biological
decay, Pollen grains, Marshes, Radioactive

Artificial sources are those which are

created by man.
Ex: Thermal power plants, Vehicular emissions,
Fossil fuel burning, agricultural activities etc.
Techniques of
Air Pollution
Control Measures
The atmosphere has several
built-in self cleaning processes such
as dispersion, gravitational settling,
flocculation, absorption, rain-
washout, etc to cleanse the
atmosphere. However, control of
contaminants at their source level is
a desirable and effective method
through preventive or control
Some measures that can be adopted
in this direction are:
Using unleaded petrol
Using fuels with low sulphur and ash content
Encouraging people to use public transport, walk or use
a cycle as opposed to private vehicles
Ensure that houses, schools, restaurants and
playgrounds are not located on busy streets
Plant trees along busy streets as they remove
particulates, carbon dioxide and absorb noise
Industries and waste disposal sites should be situated
outside the city preferably on the downwind of the city.
Catalytic converters should be used to help control
emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons
Control measures in industrial
Emission rates should be restricted
to permissible levels by each and
every industry
Incorporation of air pollution control
equipment in design of plant layout
must be made mandatory
Continuous monitoring of the
atmosphere for pollutants should be
carried out to know the emission
Airpollution can be reduced by adopting the following
Ensuring sufficient supply of oxygen to the combustion chamber
and adequate temperature so that the combustion is complete
thereby eliminating much of the smoke consisting of partly burnt
ashes and dust.
To use mechanical devices such as scrubbers, cyclones, bag
houses and electro-static precipitators in manufacturing
processes. The equipment used to remove particulates from the
exhaust gases of electric power and industrial plants are shown
below. All methods retain hazardous materials that must be
disposed safely. Wet scrubber can additionally reduce sulphur
dioxide emissions.
The air pollutants collected must be carefully disposed. The
factory fumes are dealt with chemical treatment
Current State of Air Pollution

Air pollution can be harmful even

when it is not visible. Newer scientific
studies have shown that some
pollutants can harm public health
and welfare even at very low levels
Prospects about Air Pollution for the Future
at Home as well as around the World

Urban air pollution is set to become

the biggest environmental cause of
premature death in the coming
decades, overtaking even such mass
killers as poor sanitation and a lack
of clean drinking water, according to
a new report.
warming, refers to the rise in average
surface temperatures on Earth. An
overwhelming scientific consensus
maintains that climate change is due
primarily to the human use of fossil
fuels, which releases carbon dioxide
and other greenhouse gases into the
air. The gases trap heat within the
atmosphere, which can have a range
of effects on ecosystems, including
rising sea levels, severe weather
events, and droughts that render
landscapes more susceptible to
The primary cause of climate change is the
burning of fossil fuels, such as oil and coal,
which emits greenhouse gases into the
atmosphereprimarily carbon dioxide. Other
human activities, such as agriculture and
deforestation, also contribute to the
proliferation of greenhouse gases that cause
climate change.
While some quantities of these gases are a
naturally occurring and critical part of
Earths temperature control system, the
atmospheric concentration of CO2did not
rise above 300 parts per million between the
advent of human civilization roughly 10,000
years ago and 1900. Today it is at about 400
ppm, a level not reached in more than