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CHAPTER 2 (a)

ADVANCED PUBLIC SECTOR ACCOUNTING


(PSA 521/672)

TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT


& ISO in Public Sector
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LEARNING OUTCOMES
Able to:

Explain the meaning of Total


Quality Management (TQM)
Describe about ISO 9000
Discuss about TQM and ISO in
public sector

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WHAT IS QUALITY?

The totality of features and


characteristics of a product or
service that bear on its ability to
satisfy stated or implied needs.
(ISO 8402:1994)

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CONTINUED

Satisfy stated or implied needs.


The constant achievement of all that your
customer requires and expects.
Conformance to requirements.
Fitness for use (product/service does what it is
intended to do).

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QUALITY IS ABOUT

Knowing what you want to do and how you want


to do it.
Using what you learn to develop your
organization and its services.
Seeking to achieve continuous improvement.
Satisfying your stakeholders those different
people and groups with an interest in your
organization.
Determined by the product users, clients or
customers, not by society in general.
It is not the same as 'expensive' or 'high quality'.
Low priced products can be considered as having
high quality IF the product users determine them
as such.
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WHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY
MANAGEMENT (TQM)?
The Concept of TQM

Approach to quality that emphasizes


CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT, a
philosophy of DOING IT RIGHT THE FIRST
TIME and striving for ZERO DEFECTS
and ELIMINATION OF ALL WASTE.
It is a concept of using quality methods
and techniques to strategic advantage
within organization.
Management philosophy developed by W. Edwards Deming
Relates to the continuous improvement in quality through
research in customer satisfaction and the empowerment of
employees

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W

CONTINUESHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)? cont.

A process in creating a culture of excellence for the


whole organization and is customer driven.
Aims to enable organization to achieve total quality in
all its operational aspects.
Focus on the overall quality measures used including
managing quality design and development, quality
control and maintenance, quality improvement, and
quality assurance.
Consider all quality measures taken at all levels and
involving all employees.

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PRIMARY ELEMENTS OF TQM

A management
system for a
customer-focused
organization that
involves in continual
improvement

The Certified Manager of


Quality/Organizational Excellence Handbook,
pp. 291-291

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PRINCIPLES OF TQM

1. Top management support


2. Strategic quality planning
3. Training and recognition
4. Customer focus
5. Quality assurance
6. Teamwork
7. Performance measurement and quality
assurance
DAC 1/1992:
The Guidelines on Total Quality Management (TQM) in the Public Service

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1. FOCUS ON CUSTOMER

Every member in the


organization has to be
inculcated with the practice
and the culture of pleasing
them internal and external.

Government agencies must


know who their customer is
and make an effort to provide
products and services that
satisfy their needs.

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2. QUALITY ASSURANCE

This objective can be achieved by adhering to


clearly laid quality standards for products, work
processes and input used.

This has to be supported in turn by quality


inspection, tracing sources of flaws and taking
remedial action.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY
ASSURANCE IN ENSURING
QUALITY
Quality assurance is any systematic process of
checking to see whether a product or service being
developed is meeting specified requirements.
Capable to increase customers confidence and
organizations credibility, to improve work processes
and efficiency, and to enable a company to better
compete with others.
The systematic monitoring and evaluation of the
various aspects of a project, service or facility will
maximize the probability that minimum standards of
quality are being attained by the production process

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3. STRATEGIC PLANNING

Management should regularly plan and take


appropriate measures to improve the work
processes to ensure that the quality of the final
output is on the rise all the time in line with the
increasingly complex needs of customers.

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4. TEAMWORK

Teamwork is effective in contributing creative


and innovative ideas and implementing
improvements successfully.

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5. TRAINING AND
RECOGNITION-BUILDING A
SENSE OF OWNERSHIP
AMONG WORKERS
Strengthen awareness, commitment as well as
to instill a sense of responsibility among
workers in upgrading quality in their
department.

It can be achieved by creating a sense of


togetherness at the workplace.

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6. LEADERSHIP AND
COMMITMENT BY TOP
MANAGEMENT
The management should be involved directly in
upgrading quality and ensuring that the
objectives of the department are achieved.

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7. MEASUREMENT OF
PERFORMANCE
Management of quality requires support from
an effective system of performance appraisal.

As such the departments should formulate a


comprehensive system of performance
appraisal.

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TQM IN MALAYSIAN PUBLIC
SECTOR

Introduced in July 1992


In line with the Govt. of Malaysias aim to
ENHANCE QUALITY SERVICE OF THE PUBLIC SECTOR
REMINDER!!!
Prior to that, PSD introduced various quality
effort including Innovative awards, Quality Read:
Control Circle, Service counter quality etc. Dev.
Administration
Quality improvement programmes were mainly
Circular 1/92
through the introduction of government Dev.
circular Development Administration Administration
Circulars Circular 2/96

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RELATED DEV. ADMINISTRATIVE
CIRCULARS

GUIDELINES FOR QUALITY GUIDELINES ON PRODUCTIVITY


IMPROVEMENT STRATEGIES IMPROVEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SERVICES,
IN THE PUBLIC SERVICES, DAC 6, 1991
DAC 4/1991
Objective to plan & implement productivity
7 quality programmes to improvements
be implemented
Quality suggestion Defines the concept of productivity
system
Quality processes 8 common factors to attain higher productivity
Quality inspection Workforce
Quality day Systems & procedures
Quality slogan
Organizational structure
Feedback on quality
Quality public service Management style
Work environment
Technology
Materials
Capital equipment

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BENEFITS OF TQM

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ESSENTIAL SUCCESSFUL FACTORS
FOR TQM
Top Managements Commitment (leadership quality)
Effective Management Style
Conducive Corporate Culture
Staff Commitment
Appropriate Education and Training Programmes
Recognising High Performance
Effective Evaluation on Quality Improvement
ProgrammeYussof, Ishak, 1996, TQM and Its Introduction in Malaysias Public Service,
Jurnal Ekonomi, pp.31-49

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ISO 9000

An effort to accelerate excellent services achievement QMS


based on MS ISO 9000
A written standard that defines the basic elements of a quality
system that organizations should use to ensure their products
and services meet or exceed customer expectations.
The PRINCIPAL GOAL of the ISO9000 Standard is quality
assurance and the fundamental principle in quality assurance
is prevention and not remedial action after the defects have
occurred.
Dev Administration Circular No. 2 of 1996

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ISO 9000 AND PUBLIC SECTOR IN
MALAYSIA

On the 11th July 1996, the Chief Secretary to the As at 2001,


Government had launched the Guidelines for approximately
Implementation of MS9000 in the Civil Service. 800 govt.
Towards achieving effective quality agencies were
management system (QMS). involved with
the ISO 9000
To ensure goods and services produced would implementatio
have features that meet customers satisfaction.
n and >200
Responsibility for overseeing the agencies
implementation of ISO9000 in the public sector achieved the
Malaysian Administrative Modernisation standard.
Unit (MAMPU)

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ISO 9000 AND PUBLIC SECTOR IN
MALAYSIA

Notwithstanding the encouraging performance of Civil Service


agencies, it is felt that much more can be achieved in improving the
quality of their service delivery. In this direction the Government has
decided that the time is right for agencies to implement a quality
management system that is universal and based on a standard that is
internally recognised , to conform to MS ISO 9000 standard. THE
ADOPTION OF THIS STANDARD WILL FURTHER STRENGTHEN THE
QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM THAT ALREADY EXISTS IN
GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.
(DAC, No. 2 of 1996: I)

The rationals of implementing the MS ISO in public services is to


encourage government agencies to produce an efficient and effective
Quality Management System according to the standard. Nevertheless,
it will only be recognised after the Quality Management System is given
with the certificate recognition.

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ISO 9001: 2008
ISO 9001: 2008 is the standards fourth revision and replaces ISO
9001:2000. The revision year follows the ISO standard code.
ISO 9001 standard was developed based on eight quality
management principles to ensure company product or services
consistently meet customer and applicable regulatory requirements
continually improve to enhance customer satisfaction.
ISO 9001:2008 specifies requirements for aquality management
system where an organization
needs to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide product that
meets customer and applicable statutory and regulatory
requirements, and
aims to enhance customer satisfaction through the effective
application of the system, including processes for continual
improvement of the system and the assurance of conformity to
customer and applicable statutory and regulatory requirements.

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ISO 9001:2008

Section 1: ScopeTalks Section 5: Management


about the standard and how Responsibility
it applies to organizations
and the importance of Gives ISO requirements for
aprocess approach Managements role in the
QMS
Section 2: Normative Section 6: Resource
Reference References Management
ISO9000:2005which should
be used along with the Section 7: Product
standard. Realization
Section 3: Terms and
Definitions
Section 8: Measurement,
Section 4: General Analysis and Improvement
RequirementsGives ISO Gives ISO requirements on
requirements for the overall monitoring processes and
Quality Management improving those processes
Systems

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ISO 9001:2015
www.msoline.gov.my

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