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Pilot Protection

of
Transmission Lines

By
Suraj K
Sumanth V
Kiran R
Outline

Transmission line introduction


Typical protection schemes
Need for pilot aided schemes
Various pilot schemes
Redundancy considerations
Desirable attributes of pilot relay
Transmission Lines
A Vital Part of the Power System:
Provide path to transfer power between generation
and load
Operate at voltage levels from 69kV to 765kV
Deregulated markets, economic, environmental
requirements have pushed utilities to operate
transmission lines close to their limits.
Transmission Lines
Classification of line length depends
on:
Source-to-line Impedance Ratio (SIR), and
Nominal voltage

Length considerations:
Short Lines: SIR > 4
Medium Lines: 0.5 < SIR < 4
Long Lines: SIR < 0.5
Typical Protection Schemes
Short Lines

Current differential
Phase comparison
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Typical Protection Schemes
Medium Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Inverse time overcurrent
Current Differential
Typical Protection Schemes
Long Lines

Phase comparison
Directional Comparison Blocking (DCB)
Permissive Underreach Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip (POTT)
Unblocking
Step Distance
Step or coordinated overcurrent
Current Differential
Introduction

Nonpilot protection using overcurrent and distance


relays, contain a fundamental difficulty :
It is not possible to instantaneously clear a fault from
both ends of a transmission line if the fault is near one
end of the line.

Pilot protection is an adaptation of the principles of


differential relaying that avoids the use of control cable
between terminals.
The term pilot refers to a communication channel
between two or more ends of a transmission line to
provide instantaneous clearing over 100% of the line.
This form of protection is also known as teleprotection.
Need For Pilot Aided Schemes

BU

BU
S

S
Local Remote
Relay Relay

Communication
Channel
Pilot Communications Channels
Distance-based pilot schemes traditionally utilize
simple on/off communications between relays,
but can also utilize peer-to-peer communications
and GOOSE messaging over digital channels
Typical communications media include:
Pilot-wire (50Hz, 60Hz, AT)
Power line carrier
Microwave
Radio
Optic fiber (directly connected or multiplexed
channels)
Distance-based Pilot Protection
Pilot-Aided Distance-Based Schem

DUTT Direct Under-reaching Transfer


Trip
PUTT Permissive Under-reaching
Transfer Trip
POTT Permissive Over-reaching
Transfer Trip
Hybrid POTT Hybrid Permissive Over-
reaching Transfer Trip
DCB Directional Comparison Blocking
Scheme
DCUB Directional Comparison
Unblocking Scheme
Direct Underreaching Transfer
Trip (DUTT)
Requires only underreaching (RU) functions which
overlap in reach (Zone 1).
Applied with FSK channel
GUARD frequency transmitted during normal
conditions
TRIP frequency when one RU function operates
Scheme does not provide tripping for faults
beyond RU reach if remote breaker is open or
channel is inoperative.
Dual pilot channels improve security
DUTT Scheme

Zone 1

Bus Bus
Line

Zone 1
Permissive Underreaching
Transfer Trip (PUTT)
Requires both under (RU) and overreaching
(RO) functions
Identical to DUTT, with pilot tripping signal
supervised by RO (Zone 2)
PUTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1
To protect end of
line
Bus Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

Rx PKP
Local Trip
Zone 2
&
OR
Zone 1
Permissive Overreaching
Transfer Trip (POTT)
Requires overreaching (RO) functions (Zone
2).
Applied with FSK channel:
GUARD frequency sent in stand-by
TRIP frequency when one RO function operates
No trip for external faults if pilot channel is
inoperative
Time-delayed tripping can be provided
POTT Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1

Bus Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2

(Z1) Tx

Zone 1

Trip
(Z1) Rx OR Line
AND Breakers

Zone 2 t
o
POTT Scheme
POTT Permissive Over-reaching
Transfer Trip
End
Zone
BU

BU
S

S
Communication
Channel
POTT Scheme
LocalLocal
Relay FWD Remote
IGND Relay
Local Relay Z2 FWD IGND

Remote Relay Z2

Communicat
TRIP ion Channel

POTT RX POTT TX

Local ZONE 2 Remote


Relay 2 PKP PKP Relay
ZONE
OR
OR
Ground Dir OC Ground Dir OC Fwd
Fwd
POTT Scheme

Communications
POTT RX 1 POTT TX 1 A to G

Channel(s)
POTT RX 2 POTT TX 2 B to G

POTT RX 3 POTT TX 3 C to G

POTT RX 4 POTT TX 4 Multi Phase

Local Relay Remote Relay


POTT Scheme
Current reversal example
TRIP

Local Relay Remote Relay


Timer
Start Communication
Timer
Expire Channel

GND
GNDDIR
DIROC
OCFWD
REV POTT RX POTT TX ZONE
GND 2 OC
DIR ORREV
GND DIR OC FWD
POTT Scheme
Echo example
Remote FWD
IGND
Open

Remote Z2

OPEN Communication
Channel
TRIP

POTT RX POTT TX

Local Relay POTT TX POTT RX Remote Relay

Communication
Channel
Hybrid POTT
Intended for three-terminal lines and weak infeed
conditions
Echo feature adds security during weak infeed
conditions
Reverse-looking distance and oc elements used to
identify external faults
Hybrid POTT
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote Local
Weak
Bus Bus system
Line

Zone 1 Zone 4

Zone 2
Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
Requires overreaching (RO) tripping and
blocking (B) functions
ON/OFF pilot channel typically used (i.e., PLC)
Transmitter is keyed to ON state when
blocking function(s) operate
Receipt of signal from remote end blocks
tripping relays
Tripping function set with Zone 2 reach or
greater
Blocking functions include Zone 3 reverse and
low-set ground overcurrent elements
DCB Scheme
Zone 2

Zone 1
Remote Local

Bus Bus
Line

Zone 1

Zone 2
Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)

BUS End Zone

BUS
Communication Channel
Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
Internal FaultsLocal Relay Z2

FWD IGND

TRIP
TRIP Timer
Start
Expired
Zone 2 PKP
NO Dir Block RX
OR
Local Relay GND DIR OC Fwd Remote Relay
Directional Comparison
Blocking (DCB)
External FaultsLocal Relay Z2

FWD IGND
Remote Relay Z4

TRIP Timer REV IGND


Start No TRIP
Dir Block RX DIR BLOCK TX
Local Relay Remote Relay
Zone 2 PKP Communication Zone 4 PKP
Channel
OR OR

GND DIR OC Fwd GND DIR OC Rev


Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Applied to Permissive Overreaching (POR)
schemes to overcome the possibility of
carrier signal attenuation or loss as a result
of the fault
Unblocking provided in the receiver when
signal is lost:
If signal is lost due to fault, at least one
permissive RO functions will be picked up
Unblocking logic produces short-duration
TRIP signal (150-300 ms). If RO function
not picked up, channel lockout occurs
until GUARD signal returns
DCUB Scheme

Forward

Bus Bus
Line

Forward

Trip
(Un-Block) Tx1 Line
Breakers

(Block) Tx2

Forward

(Block) Rx2 AND


AND
AND t
o
AND
(Un-Block) Rx1

Lockout
Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)

BUS End Zone

BUS
Communication Channel
Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Normal conditions

Load Current

FSK Carrier FSK Carrier

GUARD1 RX GUARD1 TX
Local Relay Remote Relay
NO Loss of Guard GUARD2 TX GUARD2 RX NO Loss of Guard
NO Permission NO Permission
Communication
Channel
Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Normal conditions, channel failure

Load Current

Loss of Channel
FSK Carrier FSK Carrier

GUARD1
NO RX RX GUARD1 TX
Local Relay Remote Relay
Loss of Guard GUARD2 TX GUARD2
NO RX RX Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started
Expired Block Timer Expired
Started
Communication
Block DCUB Channel Block DCUB
until Guard OK until Guard OK
Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Internal fault, healthy
Local Relay channel
Z2

Remote Relay Z2

TRIP TRIP Z1
FSK Carrier FSK Carrier

GUARD1
TRIP1 RXRX GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX
Local Relay Remote Relay
Zone 2 PKP ZONE 2 PKP
GUARD2
TRIP2 TX TX GUARD2
TRIP2 RXRX

Loss of Guard
Communication
Permission
Channel
Directional Comparison
Unblocking (DCUB)
Internal fault, channel failure
Local Relay Z2

Remote Relay Z2

Loss of Channel
TRIP TRIP Z1
FSK Carrier FSK Carrier

GUARD1
NO RX RX GUARD1
TRIP1 TX
TX
Local Relay Remote Relay
Zone 2 PKP ZONE 2 PKP
GUARD2
TRIP2 TX TX GUARD2
NO RX RX
Loss of Guard Loss of Guard
Block Timer Started Communication
Duration Timer Started
Expired Channel
Redundancy Considerations
Redundant protection systems increase dependability of
the system:
Multiple sets of protection using same protection
principle and multiple pilot channels overcome
individual element failure, or
Multiple sets of protection using different protection
principles and multiple channels protects against
failure of one of the protection methods.
Security can be improved using voting schemes (i.e.,
2-out-of-3), potentially at expense of dependability.
Redundancy of instrument transformers, battery
systems, trip coil circuits, etc. also need to be considered.
Redundant Communications
End Zone

BUS

BUS
AND Channels: OR Channels:
POTT Less Reliable POTT More Reliable
Communication Channel 1
DCB Less Secure DCB More Secure
Communication Channel 2
More Channel Security More Channel Dependability

Loss of Channel 2
Redundant Pilot Schemes
Pilot Relay Desirable Attributes

Integrated functions:
weak infeed
echo
line pick-up (SOTF)

Basic protection elements used to key the


communication:
distance elements
fast and sensitive ground (zero and
negative sequence) directional IOCs with
current, voltage, and/or dual polarization