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Error

analysis
Douglas Mckeating

Part 4: The process of error analysis (cont.)


Part 5: Explanation of causes
Part 4: Process
Verbal groups
Incorrect 19 down her friends all
3. When she fell
Correct laugh but12 Ana was crying because her
Total arm was 31broke.
Complex 5. Last Saturday I was helped my
Incorrect
1.father 2
in ourSamu
Yesterday garden.
and Epeli miss the
Correct
bus so they1walk to school and the
Totalheadmaster3 bit them because they were
Simplelate.
Regular
6. Weverbs:
digged some holes and plant the
Incorrect
cassava. 12
Correct
9. He got out2 of bed, put on his clothes
Total
and wash 14 his face. Then he drinked
Irregular
some verbs:
tea and go to school.
Incorrect
10. He picked up5 rubbish round the school
Correct
and talk to9his friends, then the teacher
Total 14
bit the drum.
1. Yesterday Samu and Epeli miss the bus so they
walk to school and the headmaster bit them
because they were late.
2. She climb the tree and pick that ripe fruit.
3. When she fell down her friends all laugh but
Ana was crying because her arm was broke.
4. Then he cleaned his teeth and wash his face,
then went to bed.
5. Last Saturday I was helped my father in our
garden.
6. We digged some holes and plant the
cassava.
7. When we went to the beach we play football,
then we made a fire and cook the food for our
picnic.
Students know the concept of
past tense.
But all past tense verbs
should be taught and focus
because they are different in
some way.
Ex. *She was angry on me.
Multiple classification of errors
List errors under individual lexical
items, linguistic systems, semantic
areas, etc.
On
With
Angry
Preposition (substitution)
Other processes of analysis
Recognise
Interpret
Reconstruct
Classified
Count + go into more details
Assess error gravity determine
Part 5:
Explanation of
causes
Possible causes of error

Interlingual causes of error


Intralingual causes of error
Cross-association
Wrong analogy and
overgeneralization
Other possible causes
Carelessness
Errors encouraged by teaching
Interlingual causes of error

Mother tongue interference or


language transfer
Give rise to CA
Compare and contrast
structural descriptions of
languages
Different structures --->
CA: Its predictive powers are
limited.
Similarity between languages ---> no difficulty
Partial similarities often causes great
difficulties.

Errors often do not occur where there are


big differences
These differences are easier to remember.
Intralingual
causes of error
Faulty generalization about rules of TL
Different types of intralingual causes
are by no means clear-cut.

1) Cross-association
2) Wrong analogy and over-generalisation
1) Cross-association

Encouraged by methods of

presentation and practice


This tea is very hot. I cant drink it.
This tea is too hot to drink.

This apple is very sour. I cant eat it.


*This apple is very sour to eat.
*This apple is too sour to eat it.
1) Cross-association

The apple is too sour to eat.


The apple is so sour that I cant eat it.

The bag is too heavy to carry.


*The bag is very heavy that I cant carry
it.
*The bag is so heavy for me to carry it.
*The bag is too heavy that I cant carry it.
2) Wrong analogy and
over-generalisation

Learners search for patterns and formulate


rules to reduce the learning load.
They may over-generalize their rules and
fail to take exceptionsshowed, told,
into account.
Ex. *She explained me how to mend it.
taught of
Or they may ignore counter-examples
their rules.
They try to simplify or regularize the
language.
Other possible
causes
1) Carelessness
2) Errors encouraged by
teaching
Hyper-correction
Faulty rules given by the
teacher
1)
Carelessness
Errors VS lapses
Errors result from the leaner
following rules which he
believes are correct but which
are actually wrong.
Lapses (careless mistakes)
result from failure to follow a
2) Errors encouraged
by teaching

Hyper-correction
results from over-emphasis on
items that CA (and EA)
indicates may (or do) present
difficulty.
Ex. Over-emphasis on 3rd person
s
I lives in a small village.
2) Errors encouraged
by teaching

Hyper-correction
Ex. Final voiceless consonants
(Fijian students)
price ---> prize
She won the first price.
ice ---> eyes
She has beautiful brown ice.
2) Errors encouraged
by teaching

Hyper-correction
Ex. Final voiceless consonants
(Fijian students)
price ---> prize
She won the first price.
ice ---> eyes
She has beautiful brown
ice.
2) Errors encouraged
by teaching

Faulty rules given by the


teacher
Teachers sometimes give
students rules which are far
from adequate.
Ex.
If the action is in the past, the
verb must be in the past tense