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Benefits of federation or why

federate?
• Political benefits of federation

• Federation was seen as a means of
gaining independence.

• The most qualified persons throughout the
region would be given the opportunity to
be part of the government

Benefits of federation or why
federate?
Economic benefit
• It was expected that the weaker
economies would be strengthen by
the stronger ones

• The bargaining power in international
negotiations would be increased

Benefits of federation or why federate? Development benefits • Freedom of movement ( meant reduction in population and unemployment) • The region was expected to develop at a faster rate • The domestic market would be increased as well as internal trade .

the Regional Economic Committee ( dealt with the economy especially a custom Union) and the Standing Closer Association Committee (S. the two most important were. Steps taken towards the Federation of 1958 1944 – Labour congress called a conference to discuss the purpose of a federation 1945. Secretary of State for the colonies asked the government to consider federation.C) was headed/ chaired by Sir. .A. 1947 Montego Bay Conference • Delegates from all British Colonies in the Caribbean met in Montego Bay. Hubert Rance. • Also at that meeting several committees were created. • It was agreed that if federation was adopted that it would not prejudice or hinder the constitutional development of member territories.C.Colonel Oliver Stanley. The committee was responsible for drafting a federal constitution.

Grenada. St. Montserrat. Belize( British Honduras) and the British Virgin Islands. • All countries accepted the proposals except Guyana . Vincent and the Grenadines (St. Nevis. Kitts . Dominica. St. Lucia. Antigua.Steps taken towards the Federation of 1958 1949 the Rance Report • Concrete proposal for financing the federation was presented as well as a draft constitution. . Anguilla) and Jamaica. Trinidad. Barbados. • The islands that accepted were.

• The former was postponed while the latter was referred to a Site Commission. .   1956 London Conference • Final agreements were worked out here although differences concerning a customs union and the site of the Federal capital were highlighted.Steps taken towards the Federation of 1958 1955 conference on freedom of movement in Trinidad • A compromise was reached whereby each unit was to control its own immigration on the grounds of health and security.

Steps taken towards the Federation of 1958 1957 Standing Federation Committee • This committee chose Trinidad (Chaguaramas) as the site for the Federal capital among three other countries namely Barbados. they completed the last details of the federation and approved the final draft of the constitution. Jamaica and Trinidad. • They adopted the title ‘The West Indies to describe the federation. • The British Government contributed one million pounds to help construct the capital building. .

• The constitution was to be reviewed every five years. • Provisions were made for a Governor General. a Prime Minister. . a Senate of 19 members ( two from each units except Montserrat which had one) a House of Representatives of 45 members elected by universal suffrage from the various colonies. 1957. Formation of the West Indies Federation • By Order in Council July 31. Ten Ministers. the West Indies Federation was set up.

Chief Whip of the conservative party in the British House of Commons • Elections to the House of Representative were held in March along party lines. Formation of the West Indies Federation • Federal Elections 1958 • Governor General of the federation - Lord Hailes. • The Federal Labour Party won over the opposing Democratic Labour Party. .

Norman Manley Vs Democratic Labour Party (D. Eric Williams. Formation of the West Indies Federation West Indian Federal Labour Party (W.I.L.L.P) members were Grantley Adams.I.P) members were Alexander Bustamante and Gomez Results of the elections DLP 19 seats W.L.F.F.P 26 seats   Grantley Adams from Barbados became the Prime Minister .

the federal government had NO power of taxation. Jamaica had to pay 43 %. Barbados and the others 9%.   • borrowing • defence • exchange control • immigration • emigration • the public service • the University College of the West Indies • Financing of the federation. Expenses were met by a levy imposed on each unit for example. Responsibilities held by the federal government • Audit. • The total revenue per year was about 2 million pounds . Trinidad 39%.

15 . Structure of the Federal Government Crown •     Governor General   Prime Minister Senate House of Representatives 19 members 2 each except Montserrat 45 seats JA – 17 seats TnT – 10 seats Bdos – 5 seats Others – 2 seats Mont – 1 seat Later JA and TnT had increased seats JA.17 – 30 and TnT 10 .

• The larger territories like Jamaica and Trinidad were unhappy with the arrangement. • Bustamante had always been sceptical of the federation. The Referendum By Jamaica May 1961 • Most of the members who formed the federal government were from the smaller islands that contributed little to the financing of the federation. 54% voted against federation while 46% for it. • Hence Jamaica pulled out of the federation followed by Trinidad shortly after (the following month). • Eric Williams famous statement about Jamaica’s withdrawal was ‘ten from one leaves nothing (10. • • At the end of the exercise.represented. Jamaica led by Sir. • They felt that they were under. Alexander Bustamante decided to carry out a referendum on the pros and cons of the federation to Jamaica.1=0)   End of the West Indies Federation 1962 In 1962 the British Government passed an Act dissolving the federation . He is known to have said that it was not a pauper federation but a federation of paupers.

• the economies of the Caribbean were competitive rather than complimentary. • the threat of retroactive taxation • Jamaica opposed a custom union • • Uneven constitutional development . Reasons for the failure / collapse of the West Indies Federation of 1958 • absence of a tradition of cooperation between British Caribbean States • poor facilities for communication between states • disagreement in respect to the location of the federal capital • Trinidad and Jamaica were willing to forego federation when they found out that they could have achieved independence without federating. • the withdrawal of Jamaica from the federation via a referendum..

.the issue of freedom of movement • the federal government was poorly financed • a lack of a strong spirit of loyalty to the federation • Britain still controlled essential areas such as defence and foreign affairs • Insularity • Government deprived of seasoned experienced politicians • Impact of freedom of movement . Reasons for the failure / collapse of the West Indies Federation of 1958 • the view held especially by Jamaica that they would have to subsidize poorer countries. • the belief that Jamaica ( bauxite and tourism) and Trinidad ( oil) had the means to ‘go it alone’ • Disagreements on the type of federation that was needed. • Caribbean tended to trade outside rather than within the region. Jamaica wanted a weak federation and Trinidad wanted a strong federation.

Why were some leaders disappointed because the federation failed? • The leaders in the smaller islands saw federation as their only hope of achieving independence. He believed that the collapse would send the message that Afro. . • others saw it as a way to develop economically • some leaders like Grantley Adams felt disappointed because he believed that all his hard work was in vain. • Manley believed that the withdrawal of Jamaica via the referendum had made the Caribbean a laughing stock.Caribbean people cannot unite to rule themselves. • some after having given up their positions as Prime Minister in their countries to take part in the federal government found themselves without a country to lead.

• How did the British Government help / what role did they play? • Administrative leadership ( Rance and others helped work out details of the federation) • They promoted the conferences of 1953 and 1956 • Provided grants • Passed act to established the federation • Promised one million pounds to help with the building of the capital • Provided Governor General example Lord Halies . Why were some leaders disappointed because the federation failed? • some felt that Jamaica had destroyed the only chance of political unification in the Caribbean.

Achievement of the Federation • Federation facilitated the movement from colonialism to independence through a united voice • The coming together of small states strengthened their effectiveness in dealing with international bodies such as the United Nations • In addition.donated to it by the Government of Canada.the Federal Maple and the Federal Palm . • • It created a federal civil service. the Federation began quickly to seek to establish federal institutions and supporting structures. namely British West Indies Airways (BWIA). • It had embarked also on negotiations to acquire the subsidiary of the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC). established the West Indies Shipping Service (in 1962) to operate two multipurpose ships . .

• The then University College of the West Indies (UCWI). opened its second campus at St Augustine. . in 1960. which was established in 1948 with one campus at Mona. Jamaica. Achievement of the Federation • Cooperation in tertiary education was consolidated and expanded during this period. Trinidad and Tobago.

INDIVIDUALS WHO PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN THE WEST INDIES FEDERATION 1958 • Theophilus Albert Marryshow ( Grenada) 1887 – 1958 .

Theophilus Albert Marryshow ( Grenada) 1887 – 1958 Education • Primary education at the Roman Catholic St. • A journalist and political agitator in the region . George’s Chronicle and Grenada Gazette. Louis Primary then the Methodist school Career • Early employment as a newspaper delivery boy at the Federalist and Grenada People in 1911.active in publishing articles on self government through greater representation in the Legislative Council and Federation of the West Indies and expound view on West Indian unity. • Managing editor of the West Indian 1915 • Post WW I days. • Editor of the St.

violent protest in solidarity with other British Caribbean disadvantaged workers • His impact on the Federal Movement • Was widely regarded as the father of the British West Indies Federation. Theophilus Albert Marryshow ( Grenada) 1887 – 1958 • Gave evidence before Major Wood and West Indian Royal Commission and advocated that elected members be included in those legislatures which were still under pure Crown Colony • Strong critic of Colonial rule • Leading member of the British Caribbean Federal Party in 1930’s • Embarked on political struggle for racial equality • Organized non. • Brought political consciousness to the West Indian masses .

Theophilus Albert Marryshow ( Grenada) 1887 – 1958 • Travelled extensively across the British West Indies advocating federation • Called for a united British West Indies with democratic political institutions • Influenced early trade unionist and politicians to favour West Indies Federation • Gave impetus to the nationalist movement in the BWI • Desired self government before federation unresponsive colonial legislatures • Advocated a people’s parliament based on adult suffrage • Sir Grantley Adams (Barbados) 1898 – 1971 •   .

INDIVIDUALS WHO PLAYED A MAJOR ROLE IN THE WEST INDIES FEDERATION 1958 Sir Grantley Adams (Barbados) 1898 – 1971 .

he became famous over his defence of Clement Payne a trade unionist over the 1937 riot • Politician • He . while there he debated extensively • At the end of studies he moved among the social elites Career • He practised law from 1920s . along with Cummings and Wynter founded the Barbados Progressive League the fore runner of the Barbados Labour Party • He led a minority government in 1948 • He advocated in parliament the lowering of the franchise and voting rights for women and adult suffrage . Sir Grantley Adams (Barbados) 1898 – 1971 Education • St. Giles primary and Harrison College • Barbados scholarship 1918 • Studied law at Oxford University 1919.

Sir Grantley Adams (Barbados) 1898 – 1971 • 1951 he won general elections and helped to restore Barbados socio economic situation • He was the first Premier and second Prime Minister of Barbados • Trade Unionist • Responsible for the formation of the Barbados Workers union • He was chairman of the union • Impact on federation • Was a federalist at heart • Firm believer in WI unity • Strong advocate of universal suffrage and self government • Contested the federal elections and won • Became the federation’s first and only PM of the short lived union   .

Vincent) . Kitts • Milton Cato ( St. Assignment Do similar research for the following individuals: • Eric Williams (Trinidad) • Norman Manley ( Jamaica) • Vere Bird 9 Antigua) • Robert Bradshaw 9 St.

Describe the attempt to establish a Leeward Island federation in 1871. 4. What attempts at closer union were made between the seventeenth century and the nineteenth century? 2. Possible questions 1. Why did the withdrawal of Jamaica then Trinidad from the federation of 1958 result in the breakup of that federation? 3. Why did Barbados refuse to join the Windward Island federation in 1876? .