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Inquiries, Investigations and

Objectives of the Session
At the end of the session, the participants
should be able to:
Discuss the importance of the curriculum
Explain how to use the curriculum guide in
planning for instruction
Explore Grade 12 Inquiries, Investigations
and Immersion Curriculum guide and
instructional materials
Give sample learning activities for the
learning competencies of Inquiries,
Investigations and Immersion
What is research?
Research is
A study/investigation
A scientific investigation
Is a study on investigation which is done
systematically, empirically, scientifically,
and logically for the purpose of achieving
knowledge and helping solve situational
Characteristics of a Research
Systematic - well defined designs, an
orderly procedure
Empirical measurable and observable
things or phenomenon that you can put in
print on the bases of your senses.
Scientific can be tested
Logical justifiable and acceptable by
Purpose of Research

1. Discover new knowledge

2. Help solve situational problems
System Framework of research


Skills and abilities Pure/Basic research
necessary in (Idealistic)
conducting Solutions to
Research/Scientific problems
Investigation (Social

Input Output
System Framework of research
Aims at developing a person to be-

ENVIRONMENT Sensitive to
Social Systematic
Political Critical
Economic Objective
Educational Logical
Technological Rational
Physical Analytical
Critical Researcher- has the 3rd
eyes, seeks the truth from what he
reads, does not take them hook-line
and sinker, does not jump into
conclusions. Treat opinions as
Begin with
a TOPIC in

Brainstorming for Research Topics
1. Scheduling 7. Field trips
2. Team teaching 8. School facilities
3. Evaluation of 9. Extracurricular
learning, programs
reporting to 10. Uses of ICT in
parents Instruction
4. Student 11. Stress
regulation management
5. Learning styles 12.Guidance-
6. Peer Tutoring counseling
I. Brainstorming for Research
STEP 1: Topic
Key Questions:
a.What do I know about the
b.What should I know about
the topic?
c.What do previous studies
say about my chosen topic?
II. Identifying the Problem and
Asking the Question

Specific Consideration in Choosing a

Is it within the limit and range of your resource
and time constraints?
Will you have access to the number of samples
Is there reason to believe that you can come up
with the answers to the problem?
Is the required methodology manageable and
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question

Specific Consideration in Choosing

a Problem
Critical Mass
Is the problem sufficient in magnitude and
scope (are there enough variables and
potential results)?
Are you interested in the problem?
Does it relate to your career interest?
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question

Specific Consideration in Choosing

a Problem
Theoretical Value
Does the problem fill a gap in the literature?
Will it contribute to the advancement in your
Does it improve the state of the art?
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question

Specific Consideration in Choosing

a Problem
Practical Values
Will the solution to the problem improve
Are practitioners likely to be interested in the
Will the findings aid the managers in making
sound decisions?
Will the system be changed by the outcome?
Situational Problem Research Problem
SEE Situation in the
EXPERIENCE Environment
I O N Physical
E PT Economic

FEEL C Religious/Moral

Meaningful sensation of
Source of Situational Problem
-a scientific
the condition in the
investigation of the
environment that bothers
different dimensions
you and which you alone
associated with the
cannot solve.
situational problem
involving 2 or more
factors or variables
Knowledge of child abuse existing
in the environment are problems
that can be derived from this
situation. Problems would be
a. Do children abused sexually
come from
-broken homes or not
-one-parent homes or not
-poor families or not
The research problem is just a
part of the whole pie. It
investigates two or more
variables, particularly, how these
variables are related.
II. Identifying the Problem and
Asking the Question
Background of the Problem
It is the presentation of the concept
of the study in a very effective
1. It must include an assumption of
2. It must be a loaded statement that
would drive an impact to emote
interest from the reader.
3. It must be simple, clear, specific and
related to the topic.
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question
Background of the Problem
This introductory page acquaints
the reader with the problem to be
dealt with. This orientation is
best accomplished by providing
rationale or background.
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question
Background of the Problem
The background intends to draw
a clearer picture of what you
want to say. It describes clearly,
colorfully and vividly the problem
situation which serves as the
rationale of the study.
II. Identifying the Problem
and Asking the Question
Background of the Problem
It presents in details the problem
situation based on what you

Happenings Lectures/Speeches Newspapers

Events Radio and TV Journal
Phenomenon Conversations Books
Personal Experience Interviews Reports &

Happenings Lectures/Speeches Newspapers

Events Radio and TV Journal
Phenomenon Conversations Books
Personal Experience Interviews Reports &

Records of Critical Records of Records of findings,

Incidents opinions, positions, figures/statistical
values data
1. Background of the Problem

The purpose of the background is to

highlight the need for the study by
presenting what is happening at
present and what ought to be using the
data that the researcher has gathered.

It identifies the area in which the

problem is to be found, and points out
that the problem had not been fully
2. Conceptual Framework

This deals with the key concepts and

related literature underlying the
framework that guides the study. The
purpose of this is:
1. To expand the context and
background of the study
2. To help further define the problem
3. To provide an empirical basis for the
subsequent development/formulation
of hypothesis.
2. Conceptual Framework

The initial step is to identify the key

variables of the study. This refers to
the independent, dependent and
moderator variables to be investigated.
2. Conceptual Framework

The second step is to look for the

definitions of the variables. For the
dependent variables the following should
be done:
1. Define the variable (universal definition)
2. Describe its characteristics and
3. Discuss its importance (how it affects
other variables) and how it is affected
by other variables (independent
2. Conceptual Framework

For the independent variable, define

and describe its characteristics and
indicators. Discuss its effect on the
dependent variable on the basis of the
review of related literature and studies.
The same should be done for the
moderator variables.
2. Conceptual Framework

The discussion should point out how

the previous studies relate to the
present investigation by highlighting
their similarities and differences. More
importantly, it must include some
relevant theories and concepts that
help in the development of the present
2. Conceptual Framework

Organizing the literature review

section by subheadings makes it easier
for the researcher to follow. To be
meaningful, this subheadings should
reflect the variables and their
2. Conceptual Framework

We should remember that the purpose of

literature review is to provide a basis for the
formulation of hypothesis.

The conceptual framework is summarized or

synthesized into a logical network of
relationship of the key concepts or variables
involved in the study. This is further simplified
by presenting a research paradigm or
hypothetical illustration of the relationship of
variables and their corresponding indicators.
3. Research Hypothesis
(for quantitative research)

Hypothesis is a conjectural statement of

the relation between two or more variables.
It is a tentative or temporary answer to a
research problem.
3. Research Hypothesis
(for quantitative research)

It has the following characteristics:

1. It should conjecture upon a relationship

between two or more variables.
2. It should be stated clearly and
unambiguously in a declarative statement.
3. It should be testable; that is it should be
possible to restate it in an operational form
which can be evaluated based on data.
3. Research Hypothesis
(for quantitative research)


I.Q. and achievement test are positively

3. Research Hypothesis
(for quantitative research)

There are two approaches for developing


Deduction starts from generalization or

theory by logical deduction.

Induction starts from observation, opinions

to generalizations.
3. Research Hypothesis
(for quantitative research)

General Classification of Hypothesis

RESEARCH/ This temporarily
ALTERNATIVE (H1) asserts the
relationship of
NULL/TEST (Ho) Denies the relationship
of variables
4. Statement of the Problem

The advantages of stating the statement

of the problem are:
1. It provides the reader with an
immediate basis from which to
interpret subsequent statements
2. It makes it possible to quickly
determine the purpose of the study.
The reader will not have to search for
the introduction and background to
discover the problem being examined.
4. Statement of the Problem

A problem statement must have the

following characteristics:
1. It should ask about a relationship
between two or more variables.
2. It should be stated clearly,
unambiguously and usually in question
3. It should be possible to collect data to
answer the question asked.
4. It should not represent a moral or
ethical position.
4. Statement of the Problem

One or two sentences will normally

suffice to state the problem. Often the
statement begins as follows:
The purpose of this study is to examine
the relationship between.(state the
variables, locale and time as the case
4. Statement of the Problem

Specifically, it seeks answers to the

following questions:
1. What is the relation between I.Q.
and achievement?
2. Is there a relationship between
economic background and dropout
5. Definition of Terms

The definition is based on the

observable characteristics of that which
is being defined.

What is important is the nature of these

observations upon which definitions are
5. Definition of Terms

There are 3 approaches or types of

constructing definitions. These are arbitrarily
labelled as A, B, and C by Bruce W. Tuckman.

A type A definition can be constructed in terms

of the operations that must be performed to
cause the phenomenon or state being defined
to occur.

An intelligent child can be defined

operationally as the child produced by the
marriage of above average, intelligent couples.
5. Definition of Terms

A type B definition can be constructed in

terms of how the particular object or
thing defined operates, that is what it
does or what constitute its dynamic

Thus an intelligent student can be

operationally defined as a person who
gets high grades in school or a person
who demonstrates capability for solving
complicated mathematical problems.
5. Definition of Terms

A type C definition can be constructed

in terms of what the object or
phenomenon being defined looks like
that is what constitutes its static
properties. Thus, an intelligent student
can be defined for instance as a person
who has a good memory, large
vocabulary, good reasoning ability,
good mathematical skills, etc.
5. Definition of Terms

Ideally, the operational definition

should contain three parts. The first
part is its universal meaning. The
second part is how it is being used in
the study. The third is how it is being
6. Importance of the Study

It is at this point that the researcher

described who will benefit and what benefits
can be derived from the findings of the
study. The writer, under this section, tries
to sell its importance to the panel or to the
funding agency.
7. Scope and limitations of the Study

This tells the specific boundaries of the

study by describing the place or venue of the
study, the population, subjects/respondents,
time frame, the variables and their

Any weakness of the study such as failure

to use a more precise data gathering or
measuring instrument or failure to execute
an important procedure due to certain
circumstances beyond the researchers
control form part of the studys limitations.
Learners Output:
List of Related Literature
A literature review is a re-
view of something that has
already been written

STEP 1a: Literature Review: The Research

A literature review is an account of what

has been published on a topic by
accredited scholars and researchers

Generativity is one of the hallmarks

of scholarship (Shulman, 1999). It is
the ability to build on the scholarship
and research of those who have come
before us.
Why do a literature review?
A literature review can be a precursor in
the introduction of a research paper
A literature review is a critical and in
depth evaluation of previous research. It
is a summary and synopsis of a particular
area of research, allowing anybody
reading the paper to establish why you
are pursuing this particular research
Finding related research articles
typically requires competence on
the internet.
Search through databases that
have indexed information on
thousands of research articles
that have been conducted

Tips for Searching for Resources on the

Tips for Searching for Resources on
the Internet
List the major or key variables/concepts in the study
List synonyms for each variable
Outline the major points to be made in the literature
Do not limit your search to only studies that examine all of
the same variables as your study.
Put key phrases in quotation marks
When searching online, use the limit function to reduce
searches that have too many results.
Limit your use of Google
Do not cite wikipedia as a source. Like Google, anybody
can edit articles on wikipedia. Therefore, wikipedia
should never be used as a source for an academic paper.
Use the resources you have to find additional resources.
Boolean logic is the way
to put terms together in a
search by using AND, OR,

Tips for Searching for Resources on

the Internet
Using AND
When you use AND you will be
looking for articles containing two or
more words within each article.
For example, employee AND
motivation would retrieve articles
with both words in the article.
Use AND when you are searching
for concepts and want to be more
specific in your search (to narrow it
Using OR
When you use OR you will be
looking for articles containing either
one word or the other word.
For Example, employee OR
personnel OR staff. You would use
OR for similar concepts and
alternative words or synonyms (to
broaden out your search).
Using NOT
When you use NOT you will be
looking for one term but not the
For example, you might search for
broadband NOT wireless. You would
use NOT to exclude irrelevant results
(to narrow down your search).
Table 1 Writing styles opening sentence
Good opening style Opening style to avoid

Early work by Thomas (1996)

shows that
Thomas (1996) said
Another study on the topic by
Brown said (2000)
Brown (2000) asserts that
Smith (2003) wrote .
The latest research (Smith,
2003) show
Table 2 Verbs and synonyms, to use in writing about text and making an

Account for Clarify Describe Exemplify Investigate Recognize

Compare &
Analyze contrast Determine Expand Judge Reflect
Argues Conclude Discuss Explain Justify Refer to
Criticize Distinguish Exhibit Narrate Relate to
Debate Differentiate Identify Outline Report
Assert Defend Evaluate Illustrate Persuade Review
Assume Define Emphasize Imply Propose Suggest
Claim Demonstrat Examine Indicate Question Summarize
Table 3. Forming critical sentences using signaling words

As a consequence of x then y
In short
In effect / It follows that
This indicates that
This suggests that
This points to the conclusion that
This most obvious explanation is
This means that

Source: Brown and Keeley (2004)

Writing the Literature
Writing the Theoretical
(The SEC Approach)

Rule 1: State the theory

Suggested Sentence Stems

The theoretical basis of this paper is

This paper is theoretically anchored on
This paper is premised on
The theory of ______ underpins this study
We draw on ___________ to (state the objective of
the paper)

Rule 2: Explain the theory

Rule 3: Contextualize the theory

Rule 1: Synoptic Dimension

Defining what the construct is all about

Stating what has been said about the
variable (relationship, effect, difference)
or it historical development

Rule 2: Argumentative Dimension

Build arguments either through sentence

of problematising (SOP) or the need for
the study (NFS)
Variable: Teaching Beliefs
Literature 1 Claim 1 Evidence
Literature 2
Literature 3 Claim 2 Evidence
Literature 4
Literature 5 Claim 3 Evidence
Literature 6
Literature 7

Indicate the How do the Cite specific studies

findings of each findings relate? from your literature
of the literature How do the review that will
reviewed findings differ? support the claims
From these made in frame 2
similarities and
differences, what
can we possibly
Literature 1
Finding 1
Finding 2
Finding 3

Literature 2
Finding 1
Finding 2
Finding 3
Finding 4

Literature 3
Finding 1
Finding 2
The Need for
Finding 3 Dendrogramming
Literature 4
Finding 1
Finding 2
Finding 3

Literature 5
Finding 1
Finding 2
Finding 3
Finding 4
Finding 5
Example write-up (CF)
The conceptual framework underlying this study is anchored
on the concepts of research capability, workload, and
research productivity.

Research Capability
Research capability is simply the capability of the faculty to
undertake research. All the resources or inputs which enable
the faculty member to conduct research are considered as
components of research capability (Deza, 1999; Banaag,
1994). Salazar-Clemena and Almonte-Acosta (2007)
enumerated indicators of research capability which include
budget for research, the ability to obtain research grants,
the provision of research infrastructure, the ability to
collaborate with and access to research professionals, and
the presence of rules and procedure on the granting of
rewards for research.
Example write-up (CF)
In this study, research capability is described in terms of
technical skills in doing research, skills in conceptualizing a
research problem, knowledge and skills in designing the
research plan, knowledge and skills on research data
processing, and knowledge and skills in writing the research
paper. Technical skills include written communication
(expressing ones ideas and arguments using language
rules, presenting and packaging ideas effectively); oral
communication (expressing ones ideas and arguments
using language rules, presenting and packaging ideas
effectively); critical /analytical thinking (evaluating ideas,
analyzing the arguments of others); problem-solving;
research organization (parts, format of a research paper);
online search , use of electronic resources, databases &
search engines; use of computer commands/programs/
software; and acknowledging or citing sources/ cross-
Example write-up (CF)
Determinants of Research Productivity
Previous foreign and local studies have revealed
that the reasons for low research productivity
among faculty members are poor or lack of
research skills (Anunobi & Emerole, 2008; Iqbal,
2011); lack of research funds (Anunobi & Emerole,
2008; Iqbal, 2011; Mahilum, 2010); and heavy
workload or teaching overload (Iqbal, 2011;
Mahilum, 2010; Mordeno, 2002). Iqbal (2011)
added performance of administrative duties along
with academic duties, nonexistence of research
leave, negative attitude of the faculty towards
research and absence of professional journals while
Anunobi & Emerole (2008) included time constraints
as impediments to research publication.
Example write-up (CF)
Determinants of Research Productivity
Predictors of research productivity include
teachers training or having research
orientation (Finkelstein, 1984, Banaag, 1994,
Mordeno, 2002); academic rank (Flanigan, et
al.,1988; Banaag, 1994); highest educational
attainment (Finkelstein, 1984; Flanigan, et
al.,1988; Banaag, 1994);and sufficient time
allocated to research (Finkelstein, 1984).
Example write-up (CF)
While several studies have been made to investigate
correlates of research productivity, studies on research
capability in terms of specific research skills of teachers
were lacking. In this end, the researchers were
motivated to conduct this research that explored the
levels of proficiency of teachers on different skills that
determine their capability in doing research and how
this capability can be associated to research
productivity. Workload in terms of hours of work and
number of teaching preparations was also investigated
to verify its impact on faculty productivity in research. In
the end, it is aimed that this research may contribute to
the existing literatures on determinants of research
Read enough background material to
discuss the research and the theory
giving a reasonably complete account of
our knowledge of the topic
Present data that are based on data and
theory, including conflicting views of
different researchers.
Make it easy for the reader to
understand how all of the studies

Writing the Introduction
(The TIOC Approach)

Pointers: The TIOC Approach

Highlight then trend/s in the field
Pinpoint the issues underlying the
State the overall objective/intent of
the paper in the light of the gap
Discuss the possible contribution of
the research attempt to
advancing/improving disciplinal
theory, research, practice and policy
(cross-reference to strengthen claims
Source: De Guzamn (2012). Writing for Intl Publication
Some Approaches to Starting the
Make a compelling statement about an
important issue
There is a strong evidence that computer games are hugely
popular. For example, as of 2002, more money was spent on
computer games in the United States- 6.9billion dollars- than
on box-office movies, and approximately 145 million
Americans (or about 60% of the population over age 6)
regularly played computer games (Lee, Park, & Jin, 2006).
Advocates of educational gaming have proposed that
educators should harness the appeal of computer games as a
vehicle for fostering student learning, but reviews of the
research literature have not yielded strong support for the
instructional effectiveness of computer games (Adams,
Mayer, McNamara, Koenig, & Wainess, 2011).
Some Approaches to Starting the
Identifying the Scope of Previous
The literature on suicide and suicide risk factors is extensive.
The research includes clinical reports, intervention strategies,
identification of individual risk factors, demographic patterns
of suicide, and estimates of base rates in different ages and
culture. A subset of this literature has examined suicide in
college students. College students suicide research is
longstanding and an increasing number of articles address
the topic each year (Stephenson, Belesis, & Balliet, 2005)
Some Approaches to Starting the
Presenting a Statistics

Health outcomes are increasingly

recognized as socially patterned, In 2001-
2002, the leading causes of death were
heart disease, cancer and stroke (Jackson,
Kubzansky, & Wright, 2006).
Some Approaches to Starting the
Describing common occurrences

For traditionally male jobs,.. Women are

less likely to be hired than men. They are
also paid less, given less authority, and
promoted less often. ..Conversely, male
applicants are discriminated against for
jobs that are considered feminine (Ulhmann
& Cohen, 2005),
Authors do not present the work
of another as if it were their own

Whether paraphrasing, quoting an author

directly, or describing an idea that
influenced your work, you must credit the
source. To avoid charges of plagiarism,
take careful notes as you research to keep
track of your sources and cite those
sources according to the guidelines.

Table 6.1. Basic Citation Styles
Type of citation First citation in Subsequent Parenthetical Parenthetical
text citations in text format, first format,
citation in text subsequent
citations in text

One work by Walker (2007) Walker (2007) (Walker, 2007) (Walker, 2007)
one author

One work by Walker and Walker and (Walker & (Walker & Allen,
two authors Allen (2004) Allen (2004) Allen, 2004) 2004)

One work by Bradley, Bradley et al. (Bradley, (Bradley et al.,

three authors Ramirez, and (1999) Ramirez & Soo, 1999)
Soo (1999) 1999)

One work by Bradley, Bradley et al. (Bradley, (Bradley et al.,

four authors Ramirez, Soo (2006) Ramirez, Soo & 2006)
and Walsh Walsh, 2006)
Type of citation First citation in Subsequent Parenthetical Parenthetical
text citations in text format, first format,
citation in text subsequent
citations in text
One work by Walker, Allen, Walker et al. (Walker, Allen, (Walker et al.,
five authors Bradley, (2008) Bradley, 2008)
Ramirez, and Ramirez, & Soo,
Soo (2008) 2008)
One work by six Wasserstein et Wasserstein et (Wasserstein et (Wasserstein et
or more authors al. (2005) al. (2005) al., 2005) al., 2005)
Groups (readily National NIMH (2003) (National (NIMH, 2003)
identified Institute of Institute of
through Mental Health Mental Health
abbreviation) as (NIMH, 2003) [NIMH], 2003)
Groups (no University of University of (University of (University of
abbreviaton) as Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, 2005) Pittsburgh, 2005)
authors (2005) (2005)
Beins, B.C. APA simplified style: Writing in
psychology, nursing, education, and
sociology. USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
De Guzman, A.B. Writing for international
publication. Presented in a seminar-
workshop 2012
Korb, K. (2015). Conducting educational
research: Search the Research Literature

1. Research Design
A research design is a plan or strategy in
order to answer the research problem and
control (variance) for validity. This is the
over-all plan for the conduct of the
Hence, substantially a design is intended
to answer the problem; and, technically it
provides control for validity.
Understanding Ways to Collect
1. Research Design
Essentially, research designs may be
classified only in two (2) categories on the
basis of maximum control for validity:
2. non-design or non-experimental
3. True Design or experimental design

Understanding Ways to Collect

1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
Not recommended for use
-designs which do not control adequate
against sources of internal validity
1. One shot case study
2. One-group pre-test-post-test design
B. Quasi-experimental design
Understanding Ways
C. True Experimental to Collect
1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
B. Quasi-experimental design
-this design controls some but not all
sources of internal invalidity due to existing
conditions by which experimental control is
difficult if not impossible.
C. True Experimental Design
Understanding Ways to Collect
1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
B. Quasi-experimental design
1. Expost facto design This is the study in which
the researcher examine the effects of
naturalistically occurring treatment after that
treatment has occurred rather than creating
the treatment itself. The researcher attempts
to rotate this after the fact.
2. Co-relational standard
C. True Experimental Ways
Design to Collect
1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
B. Quasi-experimental design
1. Expost facto design
2. Co-relational standard this involves two or
more sets of data from a group of subjects with
an attempt to determine the subsequent
relation between those sets of data.
C. True Experimental Design
Understanding Ways to Collect
1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
B. Quasi-experimental design
1. Expost facto design
2. Co-relational standard serve as useful
purpose in determining the relationship among
measures and suggesting possible bases for
causality, while correlation does not necessarily
imply causation.
C. True Experimental Design
Understanding Ways to Collect
1. Research Design
A. Pre-experimental design (non-design)
B. Quasi-experimental design
C. True Experimental Design provide
complete adequate controls for all sources of
internal invalidity (only possible for non-human
1. Post-only control group design
2. Pretest-post test control group design

Understanding Ways to Collect

Experimental Research
Most powerful design
Used to establish cause and effect by
manipulating (influencing) an IV
(independent variable, aka treatment
or experimental variable) to see its
effect on a DV (dependent variable
,aka criterion or outcome variable)
Goes beyond description and prediction
Experimental Research

Comparison of groups (at least two groups of

subjects, called treatment and control groups)
Manipulation of the IV (experimenter changes
something for the treatment group thats different
than the control group)
Randomization (true experiments require random
assignment into treatment/control conditions
after random selection of subjects to participate in
Assignment takes place at start of experiment
Experimental Research

Do not use already formed groups

Groups should be equivalent (any
differences due to chance)
Randomization eliminates threats
from extraneous variables
Groups must be sufficiently large to be
Allextraneous variables must be controlled
to eliminate threats to validity/rival
Ensure groups are equivalent to begin using
Hold certain variables constant (i.e. age,
IQ) or build them into to the design

Experimental Research
Use matching when necessary
Use subjects as their own controls
(treat same group first in control
condition then in treatment OR use
pre-test/posttest on same group)
Use analysis of covariance to
statistically equate unequivalent

Experimental Research
Weak Designs(Pre experimental Designs)

True Experimental Designs

Quasi Experimental Designs

Experimental Research
(Group Designs)
Pre-Experimental Designs
Do not adequately control for the problems
associated with loss of external or internal
Cannot be classified as true experiments
Often used in exploratory research
Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs
One-Shot Design
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Static Group Design
One-Shot Design
A.K.A. after-only design
A single measure is recorded after the treatment
is administered
Study lacks any comparison or control of
extraneous influences
No measure of test units not exposed to the
experimental treatment
May be the only viable choice in taste tests
Diagrammed as: X O1
One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
Subjects in the experimental group are
measured before and after the treatment
is administered.
No control group
Offers comparison of the same individuals
before and after the treatment (e.g.,
If time between 1st & 2nd measurements is
extended, may suffer maturation
Can also suffer from history, mortality, and
testing effects
Diagrammed as O1 X O2
Static Group Design
A.K.A., after-only design with control group
Experimental group is measured after being exposed
to the experimental treatment
Control group is measured without having been
exposed to the experimental treatment
No pre-measure is taken
Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups
were equal on variables of interest prior to the
Diagrammed as: Experimental Group X O1
Control Group O2
Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design
A.K.A., Before-After with Control
True experimental design
Experimental group tested before and after
treatment exposure
Control group tested at same two times without
exposure to experimental treatment
Includes random assignment to groups
Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be
the same on both groups
Do run the risk of a testing effect
Diagrammed as
Experimental Group: O1 X O2
Control Group: O3 O4
Effect of the experimental treatment equals
(O2 O1) -- (O4 O3)

Pretest-Posttest Control Group

Posttest-Only Control Group Design
A.K.A., After-Only with Control
True experimental design
Experimental group tested after treatment exposure
Control group tested at same time without exposure
to experimental treatment
Includes random assignment to groups
Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the
same on both groups
Do not run the risk of a testing effect
Use in situations when cannot pretest
Posttest-Only Control Group Design

Diagrammed as
Experimental Group:R X O1
Control Group: O2R
Effect of the experimental treatment equals
(O2 O1)

Assume you manufacture an athletes foot remedy

Want to demonstrate your product is better than the
Cant really pretest the effectiveness of the remedy
True experimental design
Combines pretest-posttest with control group
design and the posttest-only with control group
Provides means for controlling the interactive
testing effect and other sources of extraneous
Does include random assignment

Solomon Four-Group Design

Solomon Four-Group Design
Diagrammed as
ExperimentalRGroup 1: O1 X O2
Control Group
R 1: O3 O4
Experimental Group 2: X O5
Control Group 2: O6
Effect (O2 O4) & (O5 O6)
of independent variable
Effect of pretesting (O O )
4 6
Effect of pretesting & measuring (O 2 O5)
Effect of random assignment (O1 O3)
Quasi-Experimental Designs

More realistic than true experiments

Researchers lacks full control over the scheduling of
experimental treatments or
They are unable to randomize
Time Series Design
Multiple Time Series Design
Same as Time Series Design except that a control
group is added
Time Series Design

Involves periodic measurements on the dependent variable

for a group of test units
After multiple measurements, experimental treatment is
administered (or occurs naturally)
After the treatment, periodic measurements are continued
in order to determine the treatment effect
Diagrammed as:
O1 O2 O3 O4 X O5 O6 O7 O8
The intentional or unintentional influence
that an experimenter (researcher) may
exert on a study

Experimenter Bias Effect

Correlational research involves study of existing
relationships between two variables
Descriptive in nature
Often a precursor to experimental research
Positive correlation is Hi/Hi and Lo/Lo (coeff. +r)
Negative correlation is Hi/Lo and Lo/Hi (-r)
Purpose is to explain relationships or to predict

Correlation Research
(Predicting Outcomes Through Association)
Correlation Research
(Predicting Outcomes Through

Explanatory studies examine relationship to

identify possible cause/effect
Relationship might or MIGHT NOT mean
For causation: 1) A before B; 2) A and B
related; 3) Rule out other causes of B (need
Prediction studies identify predictors of
criterions (i.e. HS GPA and College GPA)
The stronger the correlation the better the
Complex Correlation Techniques, such as multiple
regression allow use of several predictors for one criterion
Coefficient of multiple correlation (R) gives strength of
correlation between predictors and criterion
Coefficient of determination (r2) is amount x and y vary
Descriminant function analysis is for non-quantitative
criterion (predict which group someone will be in)
Other techniques also used (factor analysis, path analysis,
structural modeling)

Correlation Research
(Predicting Outcomes Through Association)
Problem selection usually its are x and y related
or how well does p predict c
Sample random selection of at least 30
Measurement need quantitative data
Design/Procedures need two measures on each
Data collection usually both measures close in
Data analysis correlation coefficient, r, and plot
(r is -1 to +1, and the closer to plus or minus 1, the
stronger the relationship)

Correlation Research
(Predicting Outcomes Through Association)
General guidelines:
+.75 to +1.0 Very strong relationship
+.50 to +.75 Moderate strong relationship
+.25 to +.50 Weak relationship
+.00 to +.25 Low to no relationship
Need .5 or better for prediction of any use,
and .65 for accurate predictions
Reliability coefficients should be .7 up
Validity coefficients should be .5 up

Correlation Research
Correlation Research

Remember correlation is not causation

(lurking variables)
Subject characteristics may get different
correl w/ different ability levels, gender,
etc. (can control with partial correlation)
Location testing conditions can impact
Instrumentation problems helps to
standardize instrument and data collection
for both groups
What factors could affect the variables
being studied?
Does any factor affect BOTH variables? (this
is where threats occur)
Figure a way to control any lurking

Correlation Research
Causal Comparative Research
(Ex Determines
Post Facto) cause
(or effect) that has occurred and looks
for effect (or cause) from it
Start w/ differences in groups and examine them
Examples: Difference in math abilities of male/female
No random assignment to treatment (it already occurred)
Associational like correlation but primarily interested in
IV either cannot (ethnicity) or should not (smoking) be
Causal Comparative versus Correlational
Often an alternative to experimental (faster
and cheaper)
Serious limitation is lack of control over
threats to internal validity
Need to remember the cause may be the
effect; they may only be related and there is
some other variable that is the cause
Both are associational (looking for relationship)
Both are often prelude to experiments
Neither involves manipulation of variables
Causal Comparative works with different groups;
correlation examines one group on different
Correlation is measured w/ coefficient while
Causal comparative compares
means/medians/percents of group members

Causal Comparative versus Correlational Research

Both compare group scores of some type
In experimental the IV is manipulated, but
not in CC (already took place)
CC does not provide as strong evidence as
experimental for cause and effect

Causal Comparative Research

versus Experimental Research
Problem formation identify phenomena and look
for causes or consequences of it
Sometimes several alternate hypotheses
Sample define (operationally) characteristics of
study carefully, then select individuals who possess
Groups should be homogeneous in regard to several
important variables (to control for them as causes)
then match control/experimental groups on one or
more variables
Instruments use any type to compare the groups
Design basic CC involves 2 or more groups that
differ on variable of interest (basic design is one
group possesses trait (athlete) other doesnt
compare DV (GPA)

Causal Comparative Research

Subject characteristics since dont select subjects and
form groups, there may be unidentified lurking variables
Can use matching to control for any identified
differences, but limits samples size
Can find or create homogeneous groups (for example
compare only high GPA students to other high GPA
students) on attitudes toward x
Statistical matching adjusts posttest scores based on
some initial difference
Other threats location, instrument, history,
maturation, loss of subjects can be concerns
Need to control as many as possible to eliminate alternate

Causal Comparative Research

(Threats to Internal Validity)
Survey Research
(Used to describe what people
Cross sectional provide a snapshot in time
Longitudinal collect data at different points in time
to study changes over time
Trend study - random sample each year on same
Cohort study - sample from same cohort members
year after year
Panel study - same individuals surveyed year after
year (mortality a problem over long time periods)
Often surveys are the data collection instrument in
correlation (or cc/expl) studies
Steps to conduct Survey Research

Define the problem

Needs to be important enough respondents
will invest their time to complete it
Must be based on clear objectives
Identify the target population
Defined by sample unit or unit of analysis
Unit can be a person, school, classroom,
district, etc.)
Survey a sample or do a census of the
Methods of data collection
Direct administration to a group (such as at a meeting)
- good response rate, limited generalize.
Mail survey (inexpensive way to get large amount of
data from widespread pop) - lower response rates, not
in-depth info, illiterate missed
Telephone survey (cheap/fast) - response rates higher
due to encouragement (Im not selling); miss some
pop members, interviewer bias possible
Personal interviews (face-to-face has good response
rate but time and cost high) - lack anonymity,
interviewer bias

Survey Research
(Steps to conduct survey research)
Select the sample (randomly, but check to
see respondents are qualified to answer)
Pilot test can indicate likely response rate
and problems with data collection or sample
Prepare instrument (questionnaire and
interview schedule)
Appearance important - look short and easy
Clarity in questions is essential

Survey Research
(Steps to conduct survey research)
Question types (same questions need to be asked
of all respondents)
Closed ended (multiple choice) - easier to
complete, score, analyze
Categories must be all inclusive, mutually
Open ended - easy to write, hard to analyze
and hard on respondents

Survey Research
(Steps to conduct survey research)

This describes the population of the study and

the method of getting the representative
sample (of the population). The total
population of interest and the number of the
sample subjects of the study are given and
embodied in a table.
Sample any group on which info is obtained

Population group that researcher is trying to represent

Population must be defined first; more closely defined,

easier to do, but less generalizable

Study a subset of the population because it is cheaper,

faster, easier, and if done right, get same results as a
census (study of whole population)

Accessible population the group you are able to

realistically generalize tomay differ from target

Sample and Population

Sampling Method
Random v. Nonrandom
Random every population element has an
equal and independent chance to participate
Uses names in a hat or table or random

Elimination of bias in selecting the sample is

most important (meaning the researcher does
not influence who gets selected)

Ensuringsufficient sample size is second

most important
Random v. Nonrandom

Nonrandom/purposive - troubles
Names in a hat or table of random

Larger samples more likely to

represent population.

Any difference between population

and sample is random and small
(called random sampling error)

Simple Random Sampling

Ensures small subgroups (strata) are

Normally proportional to their part of


Breakpopulation into strata, then

randomly select w/in strata

Multistage sampling

Stratified random sampling

Select groups as sample units
rather than individuals

REQUIRES a large number of


Multistage sampling

Cluster Random Sampling

Considered random is list if
randomly ordered or nonrandom if
systematic w/ random starting point

Divide population size by sample

size to get N (ps/ss=N)

Systematic can be nonrandom if list

is ordered

Systematic (Nth) Sampling

Using group that is handy/available (or

Avoid,if possible, since tend not to be

representative due to homogeneity of

Report large number of demographic

factors to see likeliness of

Convenience Sampling
Using personal judgment to select
sample that should be representative
(i.e., this faculty seems to represent all
teachers) OR selecting those who are
known to have needed info (interested
in talking only to those in power)

Snowball is a type (used with hard to

identify groups such as addicts)

Purposive Sampling
Sample size affects accuracy of

Larger sample means less

chance of error

Minimum is 30; upper limit is

1,000 (see table)

Representative sample is required (not the
same thing as variety in a sample)
High participation rate is needed

replications enhance generalization
when nonrandom sampling is used

Ecological generalization (generalizable to

other settings/conditions, such as using a
method tested in math for English class)

Data Collection Procedure
Data Collection Procedure
This represents the logical procedure in
collecting and treating data to answer the research
question and the hypothesis:
The usual order of presentation of this section is
chronological, for instance:

1) Requesting permission from the concerned

authorities to conduct the investigation and to
administer the research instruments to the
subjects, including its approval thereof attached as
an appendix;
Data Collection Procedure
2) Orientation and actual administration or
mailing of the research instrument;
3) Follow-ups of those who failed to return the
instrument before the deadline set;
4) Gathering of the duly accomplished research

This section tells the reader what you did and

how you did it. Any errors or weaknesses in the
procedures that have been discovered during the
conduct of the research should be pointed out, and
any consequent limitations upon the research
should be fully noted.
Data information researchers obtain
about subjects
Demographic data are characteristics
of subjects such as age, gender,
education level, etc.
Assessment data are scores on tests,
observations, etc. (the device used to
measure these is called the
measurement instrument)

Validity measures what it is supposed to
Reliability a measure that consistently
gives same readings (repeatable)

Objectivity absence of subjective
judgments (need to eliminate subjectivity
in measuring)
Usability of instruments
Consider ease of administration; time
to administer; clarity of directions;
ease of scoring; cost; reliability/validity
data availability

(Classifying Data Collection Instruments)
By the group providing the data
Researcher instruments (researchers
observes student performance and
Subject instruments (subjects record
data about themselves, such as taking
Others/Informants (3rd party reports
about subjects such as teacher rates
(Classifying Data Collection Instruments)
By where instrument came from
Preference is for existing
Can develop your own (requires time,
effort, skill, testing;
By response type
Written response preferred objective
tests, rating checklist
Performance instruments measure
procedure, product
Instrumentation(Examples of
Data Collection Instruments)
Researcher Completed Instruments
Rating scales (mark a place on a continuum
for example numeric rating 1=poor to 5=
Interview schedules (complete scales as
interview takes place; use precoding; beware
of dishonesty)
Instrumentation(Examples of
Data Collection Instruments)
Researcher Completed Instruments
Tally sheets (for counting/recording frequency
of behavior, remarks, activities, etc.)
Flow charts (to record interactions in a room)
Anecdotal records (need to be specific and
Time/Motion logs (record what took place and
Item Formats
Selection items or closed response (T/F;
Yes/No; Right/Wrong; Multiple choice)
Supply items or open ended (short answer;
Unobtrusive measures (no intrusion into
event usually direct observation and

Types of Scores
Raw scores (initial score or count obtained
w/out context)
Derived scores (raw scores translated to
meaningful usage with standardized process)
Age/Grade equivalence; Percentile ranks;
Standard scores (how far a score is from a given
reference point, i.e. z and T scores);
Which to use depends on the purpose; usually
standard scores used

Norm Referenced v. Criterion Referenced Tests
Norm referenced scores give a score relative to a
reference group (the norm group)
Criterion referenced scores determine if a
criterion has been mastered
These are used to improve instruction since
they indicate what students can or cannot do
or do or do not know

(Measurement Scales)
Nominal (in name only)
Numbers are only name tags, they have no
mathematical value (gender: 1=male and 2=
female OR race: 1= Blk, 2=Wht, 3=other)
Ordinal (in name, plus relative order)
Numbers show relative position, but not
quantity (grade level, finishing place in a
(Measurement Scales)
Interval (in name w/ order AND equal distance)
Numbers show quantity in equal intervals, but an
arbitrary zero (can have negative numbers;
degrees C or F)
Ratio (in name, w/ order, eq. distance AND absolute
Numbers show quantity with base of zero where
zero means the construct is absent
Higher levels more precisecollect data at highest
level possible; some statistics only work with higher
level data
(Preparing for Data Analysis)
Scoring data use exact same format for
each test and describe scoring method in
Tabulating and Coding carefully transfer
data from source documents to computer
Give each test an ID number
Any words must be coded with numerical
Report codes in text of research report
Types of instruments
Cognitive measuring intellectual processes such
as thinking, memorizing, problem solving,
analyzing, or reasoning

Achievement measuring what students already


Aptitude measuring general mental ability,

usually for predicting future performance

Measurement Instruments
Types of instruments (continued)
Affective assessing individuals feelings,
values, attitudes, beliefs, etc.
Typical affective characteristics of interest
Values deeply held beliefs about ideas, persons, or objects
Attitudes dispositions that are favorable or unfavorable
toward things
Interests inclinations to seek out or participate in particular
activities, objects, ideas, etc.
Personality characteristics that represent a persons typical

Measurement Instruments
Types of instruments (continued)
Affective (continued)
Scales used for responding to items on affective tests
Positive or negative statements to which subjects
respond on scales such as strongly disagree, disagree,
neutral, agree, or strongly agree
Semantic differential
Bipolar adjectives (i.e., two opposite adjectives) with a
scale between each adjective
Dislike: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ :Like
Rating scales rankings based on how a subject would rate
the trait of interest

Measurement Instruments Obj. 5.1

Types of instruments (continued)
Affective (continued)
Scales used for responding to items on affective
tests (continued)
Thurstone statements related to the trait of interest to
which subjects agree or disagree
Guttman statements representing a uni-dimensional

Measurement Instruments Obj. 5.1

Issues for cognitive, aptitude, or affective
Problems inherent in the use of self-report
Bias distortions of a respondents performance or
responses based on ethnicity, race, gender, language,
Responses to affective test items
Socially acceptable responses
Accuracy of responses
Response sets
Alternatives include the use of projective tests

Measurement Instruments
Finding the Answers to the
Research Question
1. Interpretation of Data
For descriptive problems that require
finding out what is, as the term implies,
descriptive statistical analysis can be
used to describe the data. The mean,
median, mode and standard deviation are
the main descriptive statistical treatment
applicable. The mean or median is used
to indicate the average while the
standard deviation provides the variability
of the data/scores in the sample.

Descriptive Statistics
Sample of Computer Output

N Min Max Mean SD

TEST 56 1.0 2.0 1.5 0.5

THIRDQ 56 2.0 46.0 21.8 17.6
FOURTHQ 56 5.0 7.0 24.3 7.4
Valid N 56
Sample Frequencies
Frequency Percent Percent Valid
Cum. Percent

Female 216 45.6 45.6 45.6

Male 258 54.4 54.4 100.0
Total 474 100.0 100.0
Characteristic Profile
A. Gender
F %

Male 216 45.6

Female 258 54.4
Total 474 100.0
as to gender, the respondents were
mostly female (since the modal class is

Sample Interpretation
F %
30-32 5 6.25
27-29 43 53.75
24-26 29 36.25
21-23 3 3.75
Total 80 100

Illustration 2.
Results on the table show that most of the
respondents were within the age range of
27-39 (43 or 53.75%). However it could be
seen that the combined ranges from 24-26
to 27-39 composed almost 90% of the

From this, it could be said that most of the

respondents were young adults.

Descriptive Statistics Used in
Evaluation Studies
Contents Mean Verbal Des.
Concept definition 4.6 Excellent
Presentation of concepts 4.6 Excellent
Sufficiency of Problem
scenarios and examples 5.0 Excellent
Sufficiency of questions to
ignite the critical thinking 4.8 Excellent
Writing of the topics within
to the level of the students
understanding 4.8 Excellent
Interpret results on the context
of the study
The concepts in the CTL were presented in
real situations that are familiar to the
students (X=4.6). This is the basic principle
strictly adhered to in a contextual teaching
approach, thus, if the materials fail in this
aspect, there is no contextual approach.
Since the experts judged the criterion as
excellent, it only means that the CTL
materials were successful in translating the
concepts to true-to-life experiences.
Bivariate Analysis

Interval Data Pearsons r

Ranked Data Spearman rho

Kendall Tau

Nominal data Chi square

Comparison of
2 Groups T-test of Difference
between means of Independent Data

2 sets of scores of 1 group (ie

Comparison of Pre & Posttest) T-test of
Difference Between Means of Correlated

Comparison of 3 or more Groups

Analysis of Variance.
Sample of a Correlation Matrix
# of Age Incom Yrs Educ
Childrn inSch
# of r 1.0 .404 -.018 -.237 -.172

2-t sig . .000 .489 .000 .000

Age r .4041 1 -.047 -.250 .149

2-t sig .000 .070 . .000 .000

Incom r -.018 .047 1 .361 .360

2-t sig .489 .070 . 000 . .000

Yrs inSch r -.237 -.259 .361 1 .864
2-t sig .000 .000 .000 . .000
Positive correlation:
Negative correlation:

Interpreting correlation coefficient

Subjects being Pearsons r Significance
Mathvs.MathNEAT 0.77095 significant
Sci vs.Sci(NEAT) 0.79908
Eng vs.Eng(NEAT) 0.69801
HEKASI vs HEKASI 0.23142 not sig.
It is necessary to explore the statistical
significance by using the critical value,
however, it is much better to determine
whether the computed Pearson's r denotes
a high correlation between the variable
concerned because statistical
significance may only be negligible or
too low to consider. Computer
statistical outputs provide the
probability of alpha which may
indicate the percent of occurrence of
the error to reject the null hypothesis
when it is true.
As shown in the table, math
achievement is significantly related to
the result of the NEAT in mathematics
(r=.77). This means that the NEAT
results in mathematics relate to the
math achievement of the students in
school. If a pupil performs well in
school mathematics, he is likely to get
high in the NEAT.
Sample Interpretation
Test of Difference
Between Groups
The Pretest/Posttest control
group Design

Experimental grp. R O1 X O2
Control grp. R O3 O4

where: 01 and 03 are pretests

02 and 04 are posttest
O2 = O4; The traditional and
experimental approach have the same

O2 > O4; The experimental group have

better results.

O2 < O4: The control group have better


Possible Results of the design

Sample of T-test Output
One-Sample Statistics
N Mean Std. Dev Std.
of the

Pre 29 6.50 1.60 .29

Post 29 40.20 4.00 .74

t Value = 0.8972 (Probability of t = 0.4831)

T Stat continued
Paired Std. t df Sig. (2-
Difference Dev tailed)

Pair 1
PRE 33.70 2.90 61.05 28 .000
Sample of T-test Output
Independent samples
Group Statistics
N Mean Std. Dev Std. Error
of the
Exp Grp 15 40.4 4.3 1.14
Control 4 40.0 3.8 1.01
T Stat continued
T-TEST Std. t df Sig. (2-
FOR = Error tailed)

Equal .232 1.5 .264 27 .794

Sample result for
Design and Group
Comparison By T-
Difference Between the Experimental &
Control groups in the pre-test

Statistics Experimental Control Group

Mean 7.6 7.4
SD 11.1 6.0
N 50 50
t Value = 0.8972
(Probability of t = 0.4831)

Difference Between 2 Groups

The computed t-value for the difference
between the pretest scores of the control and
experimental groups shows no significant
difference since the probability of error (.4831)
is more than the target level (.05).

The two groups are equally prepared for the

experimentation as indicated by the very close
means of the control (7.6) and experimental

Comparing 3 or
More Groups By
Analysis of
Illustrating an ANOVA Table

ANOVA Statistics for Weight Difference of Three Groups of Broilers

Source of Var. df SS MS F Prob.

of F
Between G 2 0.0932 0.046 2.84
Within G 9 0.1479 0.016
Total 11 0.2411
Interpretation of
the ANOVA table
Analysis of Variance for the
Three Groups
The ANOVA table shows that the computed F
is significant at 0.04 level. The difference was
significant among the groups concerned. At
0.05 level, the null hypothesis, which states
that no difference exists among the groups,
was rejected. It means that the three groups
of broilers were significantly different in terms
of feed conversion.
(It is necessary to show the basis of the
difference, thus, the researcher must present
next the means of the three groups.
Tell the difference by
the means
Groups Mean
Group A 18.5
Group B 15.2
Group C 15.4
The difference was explicit on the weight
of the broilers. The broilers mixed fed
with corn were heavier than the rest.
The two groups, those mixed fed with
grass and camote tops had almost similar
mean weights. This shows that corn
mixed in feeds resulted to heavier
chicken because of the high protein
carbohydrate content of corn compared
to those mixed fed with plant products.

Explain the reason


To find Difference Among Groups


To find Interaction Between Variables

Problem: Is constructivism strategy
effective in teaching Analytic Geometry?

One Solution: Test it between groups

1 group given the constructivist Strategy
1 group given the traditional approach

Illustration 1
Illustration 2
Is there an interaction between method
of teaching and the ability of the

Use two-way ANOVA to compare
between groups and determine
interaction between variables.
Sample Problem
Is Constructivist Strategy In Teaching

Isthere an interaction between This

Method and the ability of the students?
Using and
Interpreting the
Group Mathematical Background
High AverageLow Total
T1 18.60 15.20 17.20 51
T2E 20.00 21.70 19.00 60.7
T3 14.50 17.10 15.00 46.6
T4E 19.20 19.60 13.90 52.7
72.30 73.60 65.10 211.0

Performance in Analytic Geometry by treatment

& Mathematical Background
Analyze mean performances and try to find
out the highest and the lowest.
Observe that for those with high math
ability group the highest mean was for the
T2 group.
For the Average and Low Math ability
groups, the highest means were also
recorded for the T2 Group.
Among the three math ability groups, the
highest recorded performance was for the
average math ability group.
Two-Way ANOVA Statistics

SV SS df X2 F F
Group 115.70 3 38.56 6.17 0.029
Math Bck 35.00 2 17.50 2.80 0.115
Interaction 7.10 6 12.85 2.05 0.045
Error 150.10 24 6.25
Total 377.90 35
To interpret the results, observe the
probability of alpha (p-value). This will
indicate whether the result is significant or
not. Since alpha is the probability of
rejecting the Ho when it is true, its value
must be less than the targeted alpha.
Thus, the table shows that the interaction
is significant. This will be the basis for
answering the problem. If it is not
significant, it follows that the researcher
should examine the significance of the row
or column differences between the means.
Since the Interaction effect is significant,
the researcher could pinpoint in the
conclusion the observe differences. The
higher means could be used as basis for
the conclusions.
Since the highest mean was observed for
the average mathematics ability group, it
could be said that the constructivist
method worked well with them.
T2 had the higher mean score compared
to T4 which is also an experimental group.
Compared to the control groups, both
experimental groups had high mean
Conceptualized Framework for
Qualitative Research
2. Conceptual Framework

This deals with the key concepts and

related literature underlying the
framework that guides the study. The
purpose of this is:
1. To expand the context and
background of the study
2. To help further define the problem
3. To provide an empirical basis for the
subsequent development/formulation
of hypothesis.
Summary of Findings
List of References
APA Style
Written Research Report
Draft Written Research Report for
Oral Presentation
Final Written Research Report for