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UNIT 33

MIELLES ADAMS-JACKSON
STOP FRAME ANIMATION

stop animation is done by using models on a certain object and taking multiple
photos of it whilst moving it a small about in between each photo so that when it
is played at a certain speed it looks like the model or object is moving.
this is a time consuming process and if anything is out of place or it doesn't look
right then it has to be done again to make sure that it looks good.
now a days there are not many stop animation films as they are they take too
long to make and with technology always developing a stop animation film wont
look as good as more modern films. A very well know company that was made
very famous by their stop frame animation films were a company called Aardman
and are know for creating films such as Wallace and gromit and is done by using
characters made out of clay which are moved very slightly then a photo is takes,
once these images are player back at a certain speed it then create a small
animation/film and it makes it look as if the clay models are moving.
FRAME RATE
FPS stands for frames per second this is how you measure the speed of the image or video being player
on a screen ranging from mobile devices to TVs to computers and to measure it they see how many
frames there are per second the more frames the better quality.
The reason frame rate is important is because it effects the speed and quality of a video or some form of
recorded content. When saving a video with in a certain file type sometimes the frame rate of the video
can be decreased and effected to make the file size smaller to allow it to be saved.
Knowing about frame rate is important as different platforms can handle different amounts of frame rate
and a creator would need to know what a certain device can handle as if they want to create something
to be viewed on a phone but the frame rate is too high then it cannot be played.
The frame rate can depend on many things one of the main ones during streaming is the quality of the
video and the playback rates meaning by lowering the frame rate the less choppy the video will be.
The speed at which images are played will effect the smoothness and over all look of the film or animation, frame
rate can be effected by many different things like slow connection or if the video runs at a higher FPS than you
monitor can handle as then the quality of the images and film will because laggy as the screen can't handle the
frame rate of the image or film that is being player. You can change the quality of the film or animation in the
setting in order for you to get a better and smoother frame rate to help make viewing the film more pleasing.
JOSEPH PLATEAU
Joseph Plaeau was the first man to demonstrate illusion by
using moving images, the way he got this effect was by
having multiple images spinning round on a disc, these
images were moving so fast that it made them look like they
were moving, on the disc there were small cuts/slits that ran
down the side of the rotating disc these slits allowed a person
to see in to the spinning discs allowing them to see the
images that looked as if they were moving. This animation
device was called a Phenakistoscope and was made in 1832
and was the very first animation device. From this many
other inventors modified this design and improved it and
without this being made we wouldn't have the animation we
all know and love today . As these were usually very small
there wants a lot of images on each disc meaning each
animation would only last about a second or too but for it's
time this was a break through as nothing like this had ever
been seen or done before. On the spinning disc there would
be a few images that all were drawn slightly different once
they spun it made the drawing look as if they were moving,
this type of style is still used today in clay nation films as the
WILLIAM HORNER
William Horner was an animation pioneer that took joseph's idea and
slightly changed it making the images slightly different each time make
it look like the images were moving to create a small animated story
He created the zoetrope in the year
1834.Azoetropeisadevicethatproducesanillusionofactionfromar
apidsuccession. It was basically a improvement on the phenkitascope.
it lead to the praxinoscope being made and also lead to animation
being viewed simpler. this made animation easier to be seen because it
had small slits on the side where the person could look inside and it
would give a better effect than a phenkitascope. the designs on the
zoetrope vary from animals to football players, and is still used today in
many very successful films and companies. What made this different to
Plateau's design was that the images were stood up and not lay flat on
a disc, this made it easier for viewing purposes but it also helped the
animations look smoother and clearer as only a small bit of each image
could be seen at one time through the little slits/cut outs in the side
meaning that you eyes merged these images together to make it look
like the images were moving in a certain way.
EMILE REYNAUD

Emile Reynaud was a French inventor and he was the first ever inventor to project an
animated cartoon in public, it was shown at the Muse Grvinin Paris. He created the
Praxinoscope in 1877 an this is how he projected the animation, sadly during Emiles later
years in life all of his creations were forgotten when Cinematograph came around as it was
more modern and popular than Reynauds work, this then left him penniless and he threw
all of his remaining work away as all the public had just forgotten about all the shows
Emile Reynaud used to do, but because of Emiles hard work and inventions it helped to
create the film animation we love today and projections are used today in every cinema
around the world and Mr Reynaud is the reason for this. Emiles invention was a massive
break through of its times as the only type of animation people had were the ones on
spinning disks that were very very short and repetitive but this was huge as this was like a
film being shown to the public not a short animation and because of this it helped to
inspire many other creators to use this same technology to create other animated
cartoons and films for people to watch and also lead to the creation of silent films that
proved to be very popular for their time as it was a new type of entertainment as some of
the only entertainment people would get. This because very popular as members of the
public wouldn't usually get the chance to view something like this as it was usually saved
for rich and important people and this was a massive break through for many people
EADWEARD MUYBRIDGE
eadweard Muybridge was a young inventor and photographer that at the age of 20
moved to America to gain expectance in photography and was soon seen as a pioneer
for all of his work on animal locomotion in 1877, this basically means that there were
many different cameras taking pictures to help catch motion as images this was also
called stop motion photographs. He then created zoopraxiscope this allowed him to
project motion pictures and this soon became more popular than cinematography as it
used more flexible perforated film strips. These strips as well as being more flexible, the
length of them could also be changed in order to fit different length films and animations
on to them. Because of this they because very popular for creators as it allowed them to
create an animation to the length they wanted and it helped to make it more convenient
for creators. These strips were the same sort of strips that were found in old cameras,
the way is worked is all the images would be on this strip. A light would then be put on it
as the strip moved quickly, this then projected the images and made them bigger and
because they were moving quickly it made it look as if the images were moving there for
making an animation. This was a more advanced way of viewing and creating an
animation or film .
EDISON
Thomas Edison we all know for being the creator of the electric light bulb but Thomas
Edison didnt only create that he was also a very keen photographer and he also created
a motion picture camera, Thomas Edison also recreated the well known nursey rhyme
Mary had a little lam this was recorded on tinfoil around a grooved cylinder although this
didnt produce a good quality sound and the number of times you could listen to the
recording were limited this made Thomas Edison a celebrity. Edison was a keen inventor
and creator and he helped revolutionise the world we live in with his creations as his
creations still impact out lives to this day. Edison changed they way in which people
viewed motion films as he invented and created a electronically pay of projecting
images and he then used this to make money by putting them in penny arcades and
allowed people to view short films and animations, he also added soundtrack that would
play at the same time as the animation to help make the viewing experience more
enjoyable and it was something new that no one had ever experienced before. After
Edison's creation became very popular many different people and companies from
around the world became very interested in them and the animations he had created so
they started to replicate Edison's animations and selling them so Edison started to print
a copyright logo in to the strips of film which made the last longer and were often kept in
better condition as they were made by Thomas Edison.
LUMIRE BROTHERS
Lumire brothers, French inventors and pioneer manufacturers of
photographic equipment who devised an early motion-picture camera and
projector called the Cinmatographe this all started and they got the original
idea from Thomas Edison's peepshow which they just took and evolved to
make it better. Their first filmSortie de l'usine Lumire de Lyon1895 is
considered the "first true motion picture. These inventors basically created
the first video camera, this impacted the animated franchise massively as
they no longer had to use selerate images in order to create a moving
animation. They revolutionised the way in which animations were made and
created as this made the hole process a lot easier and faster for creators
meaning more animations were being made faster. They also were the first
inventors to experiment with colours images for animations as all previous
ones were in black and white, this helped to get their names bigger and they
started to get recognised for there work which many other large companies
at the time wanted to buy off them but they refused and kept all their
inventions and creations to themselves and they then built their own film
making business that because huge and very popular as they were the only
people to show coloured films and animations to the public .

GEORGE PAL

George pal was a very well known and successful animator and film
producer, he was originally from Hungary but moved to American where he
made a name for himself. George pals work was normally science fiction
films and he is known as one of the classic si-fi film creators and he was
nominated for an academy award for creating the best short subject
cartoon films and he kept this going for 7 years in a row making him very
well known in the animation industry. Although George wasn't an inventor
like the others he did use their inventions and work to create his own and to
get himself famous in the film industry as he brought a hole new genre Of
film to the public and this is what made him famous as he created
something no one had ever done before and this helped to make him very
successful and popular with the public.
WILLIS OBRIEN
Willis was an American motion picture special effects
andstop-motion animationpioneer who according
toHollywoodwas responsible for some of the best-known
images in cinema history and is best remembered for his
work in such well known films asThe Lost World 1925,King
Kong1933 andMighty Joe Young1949, for which he won
the 1950 Academy Award for Best Visual Effects because of
all of his hard work on such big and well known films this
made Willis wanted by many film creators for the kind of
work that he did as he was the best in the business for his
time.
RAY HARRYHAUSEN
Ray Harryhausen was mentored by Willis OBrien and helped him
with visual and special effects during the making of many films
he was also a writer and he created a form of stop-motion
animation and he named it Dynamation, he is best know for his
work on the film Mighty Joe Young with Willis and Ray like Willis
was nominated for an award for best visual effects. Because of
Rays work in visual effects it helped inspired well known
filmmakers we know and love today like George Lucas, Steven
Spielberg and Tim burton and thats just to name a few.
JAN VANKMAJER
Jan vankmajer has worked in many
different types of media but is very well
known for is work in films and
animations as his work has gone on to
inspire Terry Gilliam and the Brothers
Quary and Jan has influenced their work.
Jan has worked on many different films
including different styles like Feature
length films, short films and animated
films. To this day Jan vankmajer is still
one of the most famous animators and
film creators and is best known for his
work in the film Alice and because he
has inspired so many talented creators
that we all love the work of today.
BROTHERS QUARY
The Brothers Quary are 2 brothers Stephen and
Timothy Quary that studied art at London's
royal college of art and have gone on to create
a company well known for their stop-motion
work on films and very famous set designs, this
is a list of the short films they have worked on
including very big film names such as The
summit, The phantom museum and through the
weeping glass just to name a few. The Brothers
quary have worked with many companies to
creat well known films that us as the public just
seem to love and they have been keeping up
the good work by making films that are very
successful.
TIM BURTON
Tim Burton is a very well known and loved film creator and
animator, he is loved because of his style of work and the films he
creates all have a very dark and gothic feel and style to them that
has become very popular with the nation as they all know his
work, some of Tim's most famous pieces of work Edward
scissorhands, sleepy hollow, Sweeney tod and the nightmare
before Christmas which all follow his theme of dark and gothic
films that the world have become to love. Tim Burton is known for
creation blockbuster films that are very successful with the public
and are loved by many.
AARDMAN ANIMATION
Aardman Animations are a very well know company and are a big part of many films that
are loved by the nation with one of the biggest and well known being Wallace and Gromit
and they specialise in clay animation. They make things from films to programs and even
adverts, as they created an animated advert for reggae reggae sauce and they also created
the films chicken run and Shawn the sheep that since then has become well known in
childrens TV and is regularly aired. Their first major job they got was to make the film
flushed away for DreamWorks, they created flushed away by using little clay models and
they then added In effects called CG this helped make the film look more smooth and it also
allowed them to add a background to the moving image. To help increase the quality of
their animations Aardman animations started to employ more people which then were
assigned a certain job, the reason for this was because if one person just had one job to do
then that one job will be done perfectly making the quality of the clay models and the
animations go better.
TV
Since the creation of animation there has been many different shows
created for TV that are all animated and all aimed at different age groups
many are for children but there are aimed at adults, some of the most
popular animations there is for children is Wallace and Gromit that was
created by Aardman animations and is done by using Claymation which
means the program is made by taking photos of clay models that get
moved slightly and once they are all played together it makes it look like
the clay models are moving, they have also created another popular one
called Shawn the sheep, their style of making films is very time consuming
but because of it, it has made them one of the most well known animation
companies in the world.
CHANNEL IDENTS
A channel idents is basically the animated logo that appears before a show is
about to start on that channel, these logos usually change every so often and
they normally change on special occasions like Christmas, Halloween and
Christmas. The logo is what makes the channel unique and it is what is used
to show the public what channel they are watching, the small logo will usually
be in the top left hand corner of the screen during the TV program that is on
at the time. Having the logo animated helps to keep the channel and the
brand interesting to the public and it also helps the logo become more
memorable to people as the animation will be played before each show and
during the adverts. As you can see by the photo the 4 is made up of different
coloured blocks when watching this on TV the animation makes each of the
blocks making it more visual and interesting for the person watching.
CLAYMATION IN FILM
clay animation involves stop frame animation which it when an image is taken then the
clay model is moved then another image is taken then when all the images are played it
looks like they are moving.
A good thing about using clay models is that they can be changed and molded easily in to
different shapes making it easier for the creator to move each character meaning they
can make the character move or look however they want.
the way the models are made is by putting clay round bendy wire this helps the creators
to move the models without them breaking.
because of the way clay animation is made it is very time consuming and can take many
years for them to be made with then normally lasting about 30 minutes.
the most famous clay animation characters are Wallace and Gromit as it took 5 years for
the film to be made and it lasted 85 minutes.
ADVERTISING
There has been many animated adverts used by companies to
promote their product as well as making their adverts unique and
memorable, one very popular one was when Aardman worked with
regge regge Sauce which was a Jamaican spiced Sauce, Aardman
used Claymation to create the advert in which they had the
creator of the sauce singing about the product with a guitar, what
made this advert so successful and memorable was because it
was made using Claymation along with a catch song and this
helped to get the sauce brand more well known and noticed.
MUSIC VIDEO
There has been many chases of animation being used in music videos
with one of the most notorious being the band the gorillaz as all of their
music videos were animated and had an animated character for each
one of the band members, it became so popular that at their concerts
the band werent really seen on stage as in front of them were their
animated characters playing to the crowd and because of animation it
allowed the band to do things in their videos that reflected their music
and them as a band, so animation helped this band gain the image
they were going for as well as getting them known for being the only
bad to use animation in every music video they made.
COMPUTER GAMES
All games created use animation and with so many different types of
games consoles throughout the year its save to say that we all love video
games with some one the old classics being Mario and Crash bandicoot,
these were the most popular games of their time with Mario still to this
day being one of the biggest and most popular game in the world. There
an many different types of game developers and companies around the
world all producing different style of video games but with technology
getting better and better the graphics of the games also improve along
with it as game creator and developers have more software to work with
which allows them to create very detailed and amazing looking video
games.
MOBILE PHONES
On many smartphones today there is many different little effects and
thing they can do and these are little animations to make your
experience with the product that little bit better, as well as having little
features many smartphones have access to the internet and stores
where you can download games and play on the go, all these games
are animated and because of technology the graphics in which our
phones can handle just keep getting better and better making the
animated games look more and more realistic. Our phones are full of
little animates like even unlocking your phone has an animation as it
take you to you home screen and reveals all of your apps.
WEBSITES
Many websites now a days use animation for advertisement this is usually
done on a thing called an animated banner that is normally placed at the
top of a website where everyone can see it and it can include adverts for
new products or information abut the website and what it includes or
whatever the designer wants. Websites that use a lot of animation regally
are shoe websites as they use them to promote new products that they
have instore the reason why this is good is because banners and
animations catch people attention as soon as the visit the website and
you can also add it images and information as well as a short video of the
product to help promote it and to chow I off to the person viewing the
website.