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SEMISOLIDS

Definition

Semisolid dosage forms are dermatological preparations


intended to apply externally on the skin to produce local or
systemic effect.

Example: Ointments, Creams, pastes and gels etc..


Ideal Properties Of Semisolid Dosage forms

Smooth texture
Non dehydrating
Non gritty and non greasy
Elegant in appearance
PHYSIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
Non irritating
Do not alter membrane or skin functioning
Miscible with skin secretion

APPLICATION PROPERTIES
Easily applicable with efficient drug release.
High aqueous wash ability.
Semisolid dosage forms:

Ointment
Paste
Cream
Gel
Adhesive plaster
Transdermal therapeutic systems
Suppositories
Semisolid dosage forms:

Ointments:

A highly viscous or semisolid substance used on the skin


as a cosmetic, emollient, or medicament

Ointments are greases with the permissible addition of up


to 25% of powder by weight.

Ointments are useful in any condition


characterized by dry skin (e.g. atopic dermatitis).
Semisolid dosage forms:

Pastes:
Pastes are semi solid dosage forms that contain one or
more drug substances intended for topical applications.

Pastes are greases containing more than 25% powder by


weight

They are useful for dry surfaces

Pastes are very difficult to remove


Semisolid dosage forms:

Creams :
Are semisolid emulsion systems with opaque
appearance.
These are either oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O)
emulsions and contain preservatives to prevent bacterial
and fungal growth.
The commonest preservatives are parabenes.
Oil-in-water emulsions rub into the skin and are easily
washed off.
Water-in-oil emulsions are greasier.
Semisolid dosage forms:

Gels:
Gels are semisolid systems in which a liquid phase is
constrained within a three dimensional polymeric matrix in
which a high degree of physical cross linking has been
introduced.
Gels liquefy on contact with the skin

For use on the scalp and face gels or lotion are acceptable

Gels are a common form for acne preparations (e. g.


Acnederm)
Equipments used

Equipments used for mixing of phases:

1. Agitator mixers :Sigma mixer and planetary mixer.

2. Shear mixers: Triple roller mill and Colloidal mill.


Equipments used

Agitator mixers:
Becomax:
Its having a jacketed pan having a mixer in its base (bottom) and a
set of stationary and rotating blades.
Teflon pads are attached to the rotating blades used for scrubbing
purposes.
Equipments used

Planetary Mixer:
Its having a main central shaft (main mixer) to which a set of small
blades or baffles are attached.
A scrubber is there and also the assembly is movable in up and down
direction.
Equipments used

Sigma Mixer:
Central shaft in container having blades attached to it and
the mixing is done due to the movement of the shaft.
Equipments used

Shear mixers:

Colloidal Mill:
It consists of two steel discs. Here one disc rotates and
another one is stationary. When the material is passed
through these discs it bears strong physical actions like
friction, shear and high frequency vibration. Thus coarse
particles are break down to small particles due to shear.
Equipments used
Equipments used

Triple Roll Mill:


is a machine that uses shear force created by three
horizontally positioned rolls rotating in opposite directions
and different speeds relative to each other, in order to mix,
refine, disperse, or homogenize viscous materials fed into
it.
In this machine scrappers are also used to remove dead
spots (sticky material) from the roll.
Equipments used
Packaging of Ointments

1) Filling ointment jars

Ointment jars are filled on a small scale in the pharmacy by


carefully transferring the weighed amount of ointment into
the jar with a spatula.
The ointment is packed on the bottom along the sides of
the jar, avoiding entrapment of air.
In large-scale manufacture of ointments, pressure fillers
force the specified amount of ointment into the jars.
Packaging of Ointments
Packaging of Ointments

2) Filling ointment tubes

Tubes are filled from the open back end of the tube,
opposite from the cap end.
On a small scale, the tube may be filled manually or with a
small scale filling manually.
After filling, the tube is closed and sealed.
Packaging of Ointments

Industrially, automatic tube-filling, closing, crimping, and


labeling machines are used for the large-scale packaging of
semisolid pharmaceuticals.
Depending on the model, machines are available which have
the capacity to fill from about 1000 to up to 6000 tubes per
hour.