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Presented By- Under Guidance By-

Pindoriya Rajesh M Prof. Ramesh Oruganti
D15041 IIT Mandi

Aim of project


Introduction: Off-grid solar system

Introduction: On-grid solar system

How the solar system fit together

How to choose all components

Pros and cons of off-grid solar system

Aim of Project & Motivation

Aim of project:- Day by day the price of solar

panels falls gradually, but still, installation of a
complete off-grid solar system is costly due to
lack of knowledge and information.

An off grid or stand along solar PV system is

when solar PV system is not connected to the
utility grid and we are producing own electricity
via solar is called off-grid solar system.

I decided to choose this project on how to get

all the components for our solar system
separately and assemble it all by myself.

Reference: http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/research/focus-areas/photovoltaic-solar-cells/
Introduction: Off-Grid Solar System

Introduction: On-Grid Solar System

On-Grid Solar System:

On-grid means solar system is tied to local utility
companys system.

On-grid systems are linked with power utilities,

which enable the home to use the power generated
by the solar system as well as power from the local

These systems can also feed power back into the

grid during times of low usage and high

Being grid-tied is beneficial because we dont have

to buy an expensive battery back-up system to
store any excess energy.

How the solar system fit together.

For an off-grid solar system we need DC Breaker &

Solar Panel Charge
four basic components:- Meter Controller DC Load

1. Solar Panel (PV Panel)

2. Charge Controller Meter Battery
3. Inverter
4. Battery
DC Breaker Inverter

AC Load AC Breaker
Components of Off-Grid
Charge controller
Solar System

Mounting Inverter
Solar panels

Basic Steps to Installation Off-Grid Solar PV System for Our Home

Step 1: Calculate home load (AC+DC loads)

Step 2: Battery Selection
Step 3: Solar Panel Selection
Step 4: Charge Controller Selection
Step 5: Inverter Selection
Step 6: Series and Parallel Connection
Step 7: Mounting the Solar Panel

Types of loads

1. Basic Loads
2. Large appliances
3. Special loads
Small loads LED lamp LED street lamp

Basic Loads
Large appliances Special Loads

Refrigerators Electric furnace Electric heater Air conditioner

Step 1: Calculate total DC loads

Step A: Determine average daily DC load in watt- hours

How to convert AC loads to DC loads. AC average Inverter DC average Average daily
DC loads= AC Loads/Inverter efficiency daily load efficiency daily load DC load
(Wh/day) Wh/day Wh/day
2000 /0.92 +100 = 2273

Leff= Leff= = 95.05 Ah/day

Battery bank capacity

Da: Days of autonym,
DOD: Depth of discharge
Ft: temperature function
Reference:- www.altestore.com
Step 2: Size of Battery Bank

Step B: Determine battery bank capacity (Ah)

Leff. (Ah/Day) Daily of Battery temp. Discharge Battery bank
autonomy multiplier limit capacity Ah
95.05 *3 days /1.19 /0.50 = 479.245

Days of Autonomy:

The amount of time (days) the system can operate on battery

power alone with no input from other generation sources (PV,
and generator).
The rated capacity is taken to be
DoD (Depth of discharge): specified at 25C with a C/20
Measure of maximum capacity to be withdrawn from a battery.
At higher discharge rates, the
- Common basic sizing guid:50% capacity will be lower and vice versa.
- Discharge only 10-20% to maximize battery life
- Inverse to SoC (State of charge)
- 50% DoD= 50% SoC
Step 3: Solar Panel Selection

Solar panels are generally rated under standard test

conditions (STC): irradiance of 1,000 W/m, solar
spectrum of AM 1.5 and module temperature at 25C.

During the 12hr day time the sunlight is not uniform,

and it also differ according to our location on the globe.

So we can assume 5 hours of effective sunlight which

will generate the rated power.

So total power output of Panels = 24V * 479.245 Ah = 11


Power to be generated per hour = 11000 / 5= 2.2 kW

Step 4: Charge Controller Selection
A solar charge controller is a device which is placed between a solar panel and a battery.
It regulates the voltage and current coming from solar panels.
It is used to maintain the proper charging voltage on the batteries.
As the input voltage from the solar panel rises, the charge controller regulates the charge to the batteries
preventing any over charging.

Rating of Charge Controller:

Since our system is rated at 24 V, the charge
controller is also 24 V.

Current rating = Power output of Panels / Voltage =

2200 W / 24V = 91.67 A

So choose a Charge Controller of 24 V and more

than 91.67 A.
Step 5: Inverter Selection

Inverter Types
1. Square Wave
2. Modified Sine Wave
3. Pure Sine Wave (SPWM)

Square wave inverters are the cheapest but not suitable for all appliances.
Modified Sine Wave output is also not suitable for certain appliances, particularly those with capacitive
and electromagnetic devices such as: a fridge, microwave oven and most kinds of motors.
Typically modified sine wave inverters work at lower efficiency than pure sine wave inverters.
Mostly SPWM type inverter use in off grid solar system.
Rating of Inverter
The power rating should be equal or more than the total load in watt at any instant.

In our case the maximum load at any instant = A.C. (630 W)+ Refrigerator (530 W) + T.V. (200W) + Fan
(6*80W) + CFL (6*11W) = 2000 W
By taking some margin we can choose a 2000 W inverter.

As our system is 24 V we have to select a 24V DC to 230V/50Hz AC pure sine wave inverter.
Step 6: Mounting the Solar Panel

After designing the solar system, buy all the components with
appropriate rating as per the previous steps.

Now it is time to mount the solar panel. First choose a suitable location
on the roof top, or on the ground, where there is no obstruction of

The tilt of the stand is nearly equal to the latitude angle of our location.

Tilting : To get the most from solar panels, we need to point them in the
direction that captures the maximum sun light, i.e. south if we are in the
northern hemisphere or north if we are in the southern hemisphere.
Metering and Data logging

We are interested to know how much energy is produced by our

solar panel or how much energy being consumed by our
appliances we have to use energy meters.

the meter combines accurate 1-phase and 3-phase energy and

power measurements with data logging, power quality analysis,
alarming and I/O capabilities are typically available in such a
compact meter.

It provides a high degree of visibility to data and assets that

allows for cost savings, rapid response time, and better

Improve operations and profitability of our facility with this

easy-to-install, easy-to-operate meter.

Reference: http://clarkpowerproducts.com/products/metering
Pros and cons of off-grid solar system

Pros Cons
No electricity bills We will need a room to store large solar
batteries and a battery bank
No electric rate hikes You must closely monitor energy usage so you
dont run out of power.
We will have access to power when grid-reliant The high costs of setup and maintenance.
customers face power outages, grid outages and
rolling blackouts.
We will reduce our carbon footprint and We dont have access to power if weather,
decrease our dependence on energy through natural disasters or accidents damage or
more efficient use of power. destroy solar panels or solar system.
Solar Power Now a Reality at Jaipur Railway Station

Jaipur railway station's rooftop installed

solar panels produced 260 units of
electricity on the maiden day on Friday
(20/05/2016), which was 35 units more
than its daily capacity.

The operation was inaugurated by the

general manager of North Western
Railways (NWR), Anil Singhal, who said,
"The energy harnessed from the solar
panels will help Jaipur railway station
save Rs 7.2 lakh on power bills, annually.

projection is to produce 50 kW power in a



Solar energy is a resource that is not only sustainable for energy consumption, it is indefinitely renewable.

Solar panels also require little maintenance; after installation and optimization they are very reliable due
to the fact that they actively create electricity in just a few millimeters.

Off-grid Solar systems are also a silent producer of energy.

Off-grid Solar system energy output is maximized when the panel is directly facing the sun. This means
that panels in a fixed location, such as the building above, will see a reduced energy production when the
sun is not at an optimal angle.

The primary disadvantage of off-grid solar power is that it obviously cannot be created during the night.

The power generated is also reduced during times of cloud cover

Thanks for your attention

Any Questions????