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EPRI PSE

Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

EPRI 1010803
ELECTRICAL SERIES

MODULE 9
Battery Chargers and Inverters

Slide 1
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

1. DC Distribution System

2. Battery Chargers
Principle of Operation
Battery Charger Protection
Instrumentation and Control
Battery Charger Losses
Battery Charger Sizing

Slide 2
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

3. Inverters/UPS System
Principle of Operation
Configuration
Inverter Protection
Instrumentation and Control
Grounding Requirements
Inverter Sizing
Application Issues

4. Static and Manual Bypass Switch

5. Nuclear Considerations

6. Industry Operating Experience


Slide 3
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

DC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

DC System with Inverter and Static Switch


Slide 4
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Principle of Operation

Slide 5
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS
Six-Pulse Thyristor Rectifier

Slide 6
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Six-Pulse Thyristor Rectifier Waveform

Slide 7
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

DC Output Voltage vs. Firing Angle

Slide 8
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Float Voltage is the voltage required to maintain battery


in fully charged condition, compensating for internal losses
in battery.

Recharging and Equalizing is required to recharge the


battery to 95% of full charge within a period of time after
discharge.

Slide 9
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Three-Phase - are preferred for most nuclear plants. They


provide ripple voltage with a frequency of 360 Hz, which is
much easier to filter.

Single-Phase - the output contains a ripple frequency of 120


Hz, therefore it would require three times more filters.

Slide 10
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Battery Charger Protection

Voltage Sensors
Input AC Breaker
Output DC Breaker
DC Reverse-Current Protection
Ground Detection
Output Filtering
Charge-Failure Alarm

Slide 11
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS
Instrumentation
Input Voltage and Current Meters with
Phase Selector Switch
Output Voltage and Current Meters
AC Pilot Light

Controls

Equalizing Adjustment
Float Adjustment
Equalizing Charge Timer and/or Selector Switch
DC Breaker Trip Pushbutton

Slide 12
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS
Battery Charger Losses

1. Contributors
Input Transformer
SCRs
Filters
Cables

2. Losses Translate to Heat


Can be Significant
Dissipation through Convection or Forced
Air (Fans)
Slide 13
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Heat Loss Equation

BTU losses per hour = (1-Eff) x VA output x 3.42

Where,
Eff = is charger efficiency from manufacturer data
3.42 = constant used in conversion of VA to BTU/hr
VA = is charger volt-ampere output

Slide 14
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Heat Loss Calculation Example

A charger rated 130 V, 300 A, has an efficiency of 85%.


Calculate the BTU losses.

Solution

BTU losses/hr = (1-Eff) x VA output x 3.42


= (1-0.85) x 130 x 300 x 3.42 = 20,007 BTU/hr

or (20,007 BTU / hr) / (3.42 BTU/hr / W) = 5.85 kW


Slide 15
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Battery Charger Sizing

I = (Ah x C) / t +L
Where,
I = is req. min. charger rating in amperes
Ah = is total ampere-hours discharged from battery during its
specified duty cycle
C = is 1.10 (constant to allow for battery charging losses)
L = is continuous dc load (in amperes) on the system while
charging
t = is req. max. time (in hours) for charging battery to
approximately 95% of capacity

Slide 16
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Ah Determination

Ah can be derived from the Battery Load Cycle.

Recommendation from IEEE-946 is to use the 8 hour


ampere-hour rating of the battery for any duty cycle
with an overall duration of 8 hours or less.

Slide 17
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Other Factors in Charger Sizing

1. Discuss Abnormal Conditions with Charger Vendor

2. Abnormal Conditions Include


Excessive Ambient Temperatures
High Altitudes
Recharge Times Less than 8 Hours

Slide 18
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS
Battery Charger Sizing Calculation Example

A battery has a duty cycle of two steps: 1000 amperes for 1


minute and 200 amperes for 4 hours. Continuous load on
system is 55 A, and battery must be recharged in 12 hours.
The battery has an 8 hour rating of 1080 Ah. Calculate size
of battery charger needed for battery using:
a) the load profile, and
b) the battery 8 hour rating.

Slide 19
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS

Battery Charger Sizing Calculation Example

Solution
a) Using equation and the load profile, the battery charger
size is:

A = (Ah x C) / t +L = {[1000/60 + (200 x 4)] x 1.1} / 12 +


55 = 129.86 A

The charger capacity should be 150 A which is the next-


higher standard rating above 129.86 A.

Slide 20
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

BATTERY CHARGERS
Battery Charger Sizing Calculation Example

Solution
b) Using equation and the rated battery capacity, the charger
size is:

A= (Ah x C) / t + L = 1080 x 1.1 / 12 + 55 = 154 A

The charger capacity should be 200 A which is the next-


higher standard rating above 154 A.

Slide 21
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Provide AC Power to Important Loads

Powered from the Battery System

Regulated Output Voltage

Reliable No Interruption of Power to Vital Loads

Slide 22
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Principles of Operation

Inverter Output Waveforms

Silicon Controlled Rectifier Inverter

Ferroresonant (Saturable Reactor) Inverter

Slide 23
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Output Waveforms

Square-Wave Quasi Sine-Wave

Slide 24
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Output Waveforms

Stepped-wave Sine Wave

Slide 25
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Silicon Controlled Rectifier Square-Wave Output
Inverter

Block Diagram
Slide 26
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Silicon Controlled Rectifier Square-Wave Output Inverter

Configuration

Slide 27
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Silicon Controlled Rectifier Six-Pulse Thyristor
Inverter

Schematic Diagram
Slide 28
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Silicon Controlled Rectifier Six-Pulse Thyristor
Inverter

Waveforms
Slide 29
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Ferroresonant (Saturable Reactor) Inverter

Voltage Regulating Transformer


Slide 30
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Configuration

DC to AC Conversion
Conversion to a Fixed Frequency Output Voltage
A Sinusoidal Waveform with a Limited Amount of
Distortion
Output Voltage Regulation for Variations of Both DC
Input Voltage and AC Load
Means of Protection from Overloads on the Output

Slide 31
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


UPS System

Switching Arrangements
Slide 32
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Inverter / UPS Protection
AC Input and Output Breaker
DC Input Breaker
Bypass Breaker (when Bypass Switch is Built-in)
SCRs Fuses
AC Input Transient Protection
SCRs Output Current Limiting
DC Fuses
Output Filter Fuses
DC Overvoltage
Logic Power Fuses
Slide 33
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Instrumentation
AC Input Voltage and Current Meters with Phase
Selector
DC Current and DC Voltmeter
AC Output Volt Meter with Selector Switch (monitor
inverter output and bypass)
Output and Bypass AC Ammeter
Output Frequency

Slide 34
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Inverter Indications
Input Fault High/Low Voltage, Frequency
DC Bus Overvoltage
Output High Voltage
Output Overload
Fuse Blown (any fuse)
High Temperature
Static Switch in Bypass Position
Excess Temperature (Automatic Shut-Off)
Fan Failure, if applicable

Slide 35
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Controls
Inverter On / Off
AC Output Voltage Adjustment 5%
AC and DC Breaker Trip Pushbutton
Lamp Test/Reset Pushbutton
Audio Alarm Test/Reset Pushbutton
Static Switch: Off-Enable-Bypass

Slide 36
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Grounding Objectives


Protect personnel for electrical shocks exposure
Provide a return path of the fault current to the source
Reduce static charge
Reduce electrical signal noise
Reduce electrical field coupling
Provide a path for currents caused by lightning

Slide 37
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Grounded Conductor - system or circuit conductor that is


intentionally grounded, e.g., an insulated neutral conductor
(white) that is grounded at the service entrance.

Grounding Conductor - conductor used to connect


equipment or the grounded circuit of a circuit to earth
represented by grounding electrode, a grounded metal
structure, or an electrode. The grounding conductor may be
insulated (green) or bare.

Slide 38
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Grounding Separately Derived Source - A premise wiring


system whose power is derived from generator, transformer,
or converter windings and has no direct electrical
connection, including a solidly connected grounded circuit
conductor, to supply conductors originating in another
system.

Slide 39
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Grounding UPS with Manual and Bypass Switches and


Distribution Center
Slide 40
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Grounding UPS with Manual and Bypass Switch and


Distribution Center & Isolation Transformer
Slide 41
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Grounding Guidelines
Avoid use of overhead cables for intra-building power or
communication wiring to reduce lightning susceptibility.
Use dedicated feeders for sensitive load equipment to
minimize the effects of other loads on sensitive loads.
Use separate insulated equipment grounding conductors to
reduce common-mode noise pickup.
Use adequately sized ground wiring to reduce ground
system impedance.
Use a single-point radial grounding scheme for sensitive
loads.

Slide 42
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS

Inverter Sizing

Sum of loads volt-amperes + Load growth

Inverter Rating

Slide 43
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Inverter Sizing Example

Select a single-phase inverter to supply power to the


following equipment at 120 Vac, single-phase, 60 Hz:
1. 1-single-phase motor rated 120 V ac, 1/3 hp, 7.2 FLA,
40 A inrush current.
2. 2-relays, rated 120 Vac, 0.2 A each.
3. 2-receptacles rated 120 Vac, 10 A, loaded at 300 VA each.

Slide 44
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Inverter Sizing Example

Solution

VA = (40 x 120) + 2(0.2 x 120) + 2 x 300 = 5448 VA or


5448/120 = 45.4 A

Assume 25% load growth:


5448 VA x 1.25 = 6810 VA
Select a 120 V, 7 kVA single-phase inverter.

Slide 45
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INVERTERS / UPS SYSTEMS


Inverter Application Issues

Phase Rotation Considerations pay attention to control


source transfer.

Minimum Required Voltage typically 21 volts for 24 volt


system, 42 volts for 48 volt systems, 105 volts for 125 volt
system, and 210 volts for 250 volt systems.

Slide 46
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

STATIC AND MANUAL BYPASS SWITCH

Static Switch is a fully electronic, extremely


fast switching device that transfers the load from
the output of the inverter to the alternate source
which is usually the station service supply.

Slide 47
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

STATIC AND MANUAL BYPASS SWITCH


When Needed?
Data processing and communication equipment can not
tolerate a line-voltage interruption of more than a half
cycle.

High-pressure mercury arc fixtures require several


minutes to cool and restart following a momentary loss
of power.

Electrical motors used for air conditioning and MG sets


may be required to maintain the facility.

Slide 48
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

STATIC AND MANUAL BYPASS SWITCH

Advantages
No Moving Parts
Requires Minimal Maintenance
Efficiency in Excess of 99%
Contains Circuitry that Monitors the Load
Current and Voltages
Most Static Switches are able to Effect Transfer
within 4 ms (One Quarter Cycle)

Slide 49
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

STATIC AND MANUAL BYPASS SWITCH

Static Transfer Switch Controlling Vital AC Load


Slide 50
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

NUCLEAR CONSIDERATIONS

Most Nuclear Station Batteries are Class 1E

Safety Related Battery Chargers And Inverters Must Withstand The


Collapse Of Other Non-Safety Equipment During Seismic Event

Maintain Separation Criteria Between Redundant Equipment

Comply With Plant Technical Specification

Rectifier Section of UPS Should Be Isolated from DC System By A


Blocking Diode

Slide 51
EPRI PSE
Electrical, Module 9 Battery Chargers and Inverters

INDUSTRY OPERATING EXPERIENCE

Significant Operating Experience Reports (SOERs)

NRC Information Bulletins

10CFR21 Reports

NRC Bulletins and Generic Letters

Licensing Commitments

Plant Specific Calculations and/or Procedures


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