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VLSI

Design

CMOS Transistor Theory

Outline
Introduction
MOS Capacitor
nMOS I-V Characteristics
pMOS I-V Characteristics
Gate and Diffusion Capacitance
Pass Transistors
RC Delay Models

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3: CMOS Transistor T 2
Introduction
So far, we have treated transistors as ideal switches
An ON transistor passes a finite amount of current
Depends on terminal voltages
Derive current-voltage (I-V) relationships

Transistor gate, source, drain all have capacitance

I = C (V/t) -> t = (C/I) V
Capacitance and current determine speed

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3: CMOS Transistor T 3
MOS Capacitor
Gate and body form MOS capacitor
Operating modes polysilicon gate
Vg < 0
silicon dioxide insulator
Accumulation +
- p-type body

Depletion (a)

Inversion 0 < Vg < V t

depletion region
+
-

(b)

Vg > Vt
Example with an NMOS +
inversion region
depletion region
capacitor -

(c)

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3: CMOS Transistor T 4
Terminal Voltages
Vg
Mode of operation depends on Vg, Vd, Vs
+ +
Vgs = Vg Vs Vgs Vgd
- -
Vgd = Vg Vd
Vs Vd
- +
Vds = Vd Vs = Vgs - Vgd Vds

Source and drain are symmetric diffusion terminals

However, Vds 0
NMOS body is grounded. First assume source may be
grounded or may be at a voltage above ground.
Three regions of operation
Cutoff
Linear
Saturation

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3: CMOS Transistor T 5
nMOS Cutoff
Let us assume Vs = Vb
No channel, if Vgs = 0
Ids = 0 Vgs = 0
g
Vgd
+ +
- -
s d

n+ n+

p-type body
b

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3: CMOS Transistor T 6
NMOS Linear
Channel forms if Vgs > Vt
Vgs > Vt
No Currernt if Vds = 0 + g +
Vgd = Vgs

- -
s d
n+ n+ Vds = 0

p-type body
b

Linear Region:
Vgs > Vt
Vgs > Vgd > Vt
If Vds > 0, Current flows + g +
- - Ids
from d to s ( e- from s to d) s d

0 < Vds < Vgs-Vt

with Vds if Vds > Vgs Vt. p-type body

b
Similar to linear resistor

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3: CMOS Transistor T 7
NMOS Saturation
Channel pinches off if Vds > Vgs Vt.
Ids independent of Vds, i.e., current saturates
Similar to current source

Vgs > Vt
g Vgd < Vt
+ +
- -
s d Ids

n+ n+
Vds > Vgs-Vt
p-type body
b

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3: CMOS Transistor T 8
I-V Characteristics
In Linear region, Ids depends on
How much charge is in the channel
How fast is the charge moving

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3: CMOS Transistor T 9
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while
operating in inversion
Gate oxide (dielectric) channel

Qchannel =

gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

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3: CMOS Transistor T 10
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while
operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel

Qchannel = CV
C=

gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

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3: CMOS Transistor T 11
Channel Charge
MOS structure looks like parallel plate capacitor while
operating in inversion
Gate oxide channel

Qchannel = CV
C = Cg = oxWL/tox = CoxWL Cox = ox / tox
V = Vgc Vt = (Vgs Vds/2) Vt
gate
Vg
polysilicon + +
gate source Vgs Cg Vgd drain
W
Vs - - Vd
channel
tox n+ - + n+
SiO2 gate oxide
Vds
L
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.9) p-type body
p-type body

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3: CMOS Transistor T 12
Carrier velocity
Charge is carried by e-
Carrier velocity v proportional to lateral E-field
between source and drain
v = E called mobility
E = Vds/L
Time for carrier to cross channel:
t=L/v

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3: CMOS Transistor T 13
NMOS Linear I-V
Now we know
How much charge Qchannel is in the channel
How much time t each carrier takes to cross
Qchannel
I ds
t
W V V Vds V
Cox gs t ds
L 2
W
= Cox
Vgs Vt ds Vds
V
2 L

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3: CMOS Transistor T 14
NMOS Saturation I-V
If Vgd < Vt, channel pinches off near drain
When Vds > Vdsat = Vgs Vt
Now drain voltage no longer increases
current

I ds Vgs Vt
Vdsat
2 Vdsat

Vgs Vt
2

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3: CMOS Transistor T 15
NMOS I-V Summary
Shockley 1st order transistor models (valid for
Large channel devices only)

0 Vgs Vt cutoff

I ds Vgs Vt ds Vds Vds Vdsat
V
linear
2

Vgs Vt
2
Vds Vdsat saturation
2

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3: CMOS Transistor T 16
Example
For a 0.6 m process (MOSIS site)
From AMI Semiconductor
2.5
tox = 100 Vgs = 5

2
= 350 cm2/V*s
Vt = 0.7 V 1.5 Vgs = 4

Ids (mA)
Plot Ids vs. Vds 1
Vgs = 3
Vgs = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 0.5
Vgs = 2
Use W/L = 4/2 Vgs = 1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Vds
W 3.9 8.85 1014 W W
Cox 350 120 A /V 2
L 100 108 L L

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3: CMOS Transistor T 17
PMOS I-V

All dopings and voltages are inverted for PMOS

Mobility p is determined by holes
Typically 2-3x lower than that of electrons n
120 cm2/V*s in AMI 0.6 m process
Thus PMOS must be wider to provide same current
In this class, assume n / p = 2

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3: CMOS Transistor T 18
Capacitance
Any two conductors separated by an insulator have
capacitance
Gate to channel capacitor is very important
Creates channel charge necessary for operation

Source and drain have capacitance to body

Across reverse-biased diodes
Called diffusion capacitance because it is
associated with source/drain diffusion

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3: CMOS Transistor T 19
Gate Capacitance
Approximate channel as connected to source
Cgs = oxWL/tox = CoxWL = CpermicronW
Cpermicron is typically about 2 fF/m

polysilicon
gate
W
tox
L SiO2 gate oxide
n+ n+ (good insulator, ox = 3.90)
p-type body

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3: CMOS Transistor T 20
Diffusion Capacitance
Csb, Cdb
Undesirable, called parasitic capacitance
Capacitance depends on area and perimeter
Use small diffusion nodes
Comparable to Cg
for contacted diff
Cg for uncontacted
Varies with process

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3: CMOS Transistor T 21
Pass Transistors
We have assumed source is grounded
What if source > 0? VDD
VDD
e.g. pass transistor passing VDD

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3: CMOS Transistor T 22
NMOS Pass Transistors
We have assumed source is grounded
What if source > 0? VDD
e.g. pass transistor passing VDD VDD
Let Vg = VDD
Now if Vs > VDD-Vt, Vgs < Vt
Vs
Hence transistor would turn itself off

NMOS pass transistors pull-up no higher than VDD-Vtn

Called a degraded 1
Approach degraded value slowly (low Ids)

PMOS pass transistors pull-down no lower than Vtp

Called a degraded 0

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3: CMOS Transistor T 23
Pass Transistor Ckts

VDD VDD
VDD

VDD

VDD
VSS

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3: CMOS Transistor T 24
Pass Transistor Ckts

VDD VDD VDD

VDD VDD
VDD
Vs = VDD-Vtn VDD-Vtn
VDD-Vtn VDD-Vtn

VDD
Vs = |Vtp| VDD-Vtn
VDD VDD-2Vtn
VSS

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3: CMOS Transistor T 25
Effective Resistance
Shockley models have limited value
Not accurate enough for modern transistors
Too complicated for much hand analysis

Simplification: treat transistor as resistor

Replace Ids(Vds, Vgs) with effective resistance R
Ids = Vds/R
R averaged across switching of digital gate
Too inaccurate to predict current at any given time
But good enough to predict RC delay

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3: CMOS Transistor T 26
RC Delay Model
Use equivalent circuits for MOS transistors
Ideal switch + capacitance and ON resistance

Unit nMOS has resistance R, capacitance C
Unit pMOS has resistance 2R, capacitance C

Capacitance proportional to width

Resistance inversely proportional to width
d
s
kC
kC
R/k
d 2R/k
d
g k kC
g k g k g
s kC kC
kC s
s
d

EE 447 VLSI Design

3: CMOS Transistor T 27
RC Values
Capacitance
C = Cg = Cs = Cd = 2 fF/m of gate width
Values similar across many processes
Resistance
R 6 K*m in 0.6um process
Improves with shorter channel lengths

Unit transistors
May refer to minimum contacted device (4/2 )
Or maybe 1 m wide device
Doesnt matter as long as you are consistent

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3: CMOS Transistor T 28
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2 Y 2
A
1 1

EE 447 VLSI Design

3: CMOS Transistor T 29
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C
2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1
C
R C

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3: CMOS Transistor T 30
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter

2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

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3: CMOS Transistor T 31
Inverter Delay Estimate
Estimate the delay of a fanout-of-1 inverter
2C

2C 2C
2C 2C
2 Y 2
A Y
1 1 R C
C
R C C

d = 6RC
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3: CMOS Transistor T 32