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CHAPTER 21

COORDINATION

21.1 Nervous
System
PREVIOUS LECTURE
The
The Nervous
Nervous System
System

Central
Central Nervous
Nervous Peripheral
Peripheral Nervous
Nervous
System
System (CNS)
(CNS) System
System (PNS)
(PNS)

Brain
Brain Spinal
Spinal Cord
Cord Motor
Motor Neurons
Neurons Sensory
Sensory
Neurons
Neurons

Somatic
Somatic Autonomic
Autonomic
Nervous
Nervous Nervous
Nervous
THE System
System System
System
ORGANIZATION OF
THE NERVOUS Sympathetic
Sympathetic Parasympatheti
Parasympatheti
Division
Division cc Division
Division
SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES
Explain the generation of action
potential, transmission and
characteristics of nerve impulse
along axon.
Action Potential

The changes in electrical potential that


occur across the cell membrane of
neuron during the passage of the
impulse.

Membrane potential of neuron changes


in response to a variety stimuli.
Action Potential

Changes in the membrane potential


resulting from ion movement through
voltage-gated ion channels

Na+/K+ pumps and passive ion channels


stop operating

Only the voltage-gated ion channels are


operating
Action potential involves:

Depolarization

Repolarization

Hyperpolarization
An action potential is generated
when the voltage reaches a certain
critical point
Threshold level

> -55 mV
Depolarization

A stimulus opens some


Voltage-gated sodium
channels
Na+ ions rush slowly
into the axon down
their electrochemical
gradient
Membrane
potential becomes
slightly positive
Voltage-gated
potassium channels Resting
remain close Potential
Depolarization
Depolarization

When threshold
level is reached,
action potential
is triggered
Depolarization

Voltage-gated
sodium channels
are sensitive to
voltage changes
Triggers more Na+
gated channels to
open
Becomes more
positivePositive
(+40mV) feedback
Repolarization

Membrane
becomes
impermeable to
Na+
Voltage-gated
sodium ion
channel inactive.
Repolarization

Voltage-gated
potassium channels
open
K+ diffuse out of the
cell
Down their
electrochemical
gradient
Restoring negative
charge inside of
the cell
Hyperpolarization

Voltage-gated
potassium channels
begins to close slowly

An excess of K+ ions
leave the axon
Inside of the
membrane
becomes more
negative
Below -70 mV
undershoot
Voltage-gated
potassium channels
eventually close

Resting potential of
(-60 - -80) mV is
reestablished by:
Na+/K+ pumps
Passive ion channels
Na+
K+

Na+
K+
3 Additional Na+ channels open,
K+ channels are closed; interior of
4 Na+ channels close and
cell becomes more positive. inactivate. K+ channels
open, and K+ rushes
Na+
out; interior of cell more
Action
potential negative than outside.
3

4
2 5 The K channels close
+
Na+ Threshold
potential relatively slowly, causing
2 A stimulus opens some Na+ 1 1 a brief undershoot.
channels; if threshold is reached, 5
action potential is triggered. Resting potential

Neuron
Neuron
interior
interior
1 Resting state: voltage gated Na+
and K+ channels closed; resting
potential is maintained. 1 Return to resting state.

Figure 28.4
Characteristics of An
Impulse
All-or-none event

Size of a nerve impulse is not


determined by the size of the
stimulation received

Action potential is triggered only if the


depolarization of the membrane is
above the threshold level
Below the threshold level,
Stimulation is not sufficient to depolarize
the membrane
Action potential is not triggered

If an action potential is achieved,


A stronger intensity of a stimulus wont
increase the size of it
Below threshold level Above threshold level
No action potential triggered - Action potential triggered
The Refractory Period.

The brief recovery phase after the


response of a neuron during which it cannot
respond to another stimulus
Can be divided into 2:
Absolute refractory period
During the milisecond or so in which it
is depolarized,
Axon cannot transmit another action
potential no matter how great the
stimulus is
The period when the majority of
sodium channels remain in the
inactive state (closed)
Depolarization and Repolarization
Relative refractory period
The axon can transmit impulses but
with higher threshold level

During this period the axon


membrane goes through
hyperpolarization

The membranes permeability to K+


ions increases dramatically
These ions diffuse out very highly
The charge within the neuron becomes too
negative

Membrane is at a lower threshold

Require a greater stimulus to cause


action potentials to fire.
Analogy
Imagine.In the toilet.

When you pull the handle, water


floods the bowl.
Takes a couple
of seconds and
you cannot stop
it in the middle.
Once the bowl empties, the flush is
complete.
The upper tank is empty.
If you try pulling the handle at this
point, nothing happens (absolute
refractory).

Wait for the upper tank to begin


refilling.
You can now flush again, but the
intensity of the flushes increases as the
upper tank refills (relative refractory)
Speed of Conduction
Depends on:

Presence
The of of
presence myelin
myelinsheath
sheath

Diameter
The ofofaxon
diameter axon
Presence of myelin sheath

Act as an electrical insulator

Myelinated neurones conduct action


potential faster tha non-myelinated
neurones
Depolarization only occurs at the
nodes of Ranvier
No myelin sheath is present
Ions gated channel present

The action potential will jump from


one node of Ranvier to another

Saltatory Conduction
Diameter of axon

The larger the diameter, the faster


the speed of action potential
transmission
Propagation of Nerve
Impulse Along The Axon
Action potential is produced locally in
the axon
Depolarization occurs at a specific area

Once an action potential is


generated,
Will be propagated along the axons
nerve impulse
During depolarization,
The affected area of the membrane is
more positive
The adjacent area is still at resting
potential

Difference in potentials between active


and resting membrane regions
Causes Na+ ions to flow between them
Local current
The flow of Na+ ions into the adjacent
region
Induces the opening of Na+ gated
channels in the adjacent area
Permitting Na+ ions to enter the
adjacent region
Generating new action potential

The process is repeated until the end


of the axon
- Influx of Na+ ions exceeds
threshold level
- Initiates an action potential
- Depolarisation of the membrane
cause a local current
- Local current stimulates the
adjacent region causing
depolarization
- Initiating a 2nd action potential
- At the site of the 1st action
potential,
-The local current at one region
therefore induces a new action
potential in the next region
- Keeps moving in a forward
direction
NEXT LECTURE