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BASIC HYDRAULICS

BASIC HYDRAULICS VISHWAJEET PANDEY B.Tech.(M.E.) 1303040117
BASIC HYDRAULICS VISHWAJEET PANDEY B.Tech.(M.E.) 1303040117

VISHWAJEET PANDEY B.Tech.(M.E.)

1303040117

Fluid Power System

Fluid Power Systems are power transmitting assemblies employing pressurised liquid or gas to transmit energy.

Fluid power can be divided into two basic disciplines

> Hydraulics

– Employing pressurised

liquid

> Pneumatics - Employing

Compressed gas

Definition of Hydraulics

In simple language:

Confined liquids under pressure made to do work. OR Science of transmitting force / motion through medium of confined liquid

Definition of Hydraulics In simple language: Confined liquids under pressure made to do work. OR Science

DoDo you

you remember

remember Pascal’s

Pascals

Law?

Law?

ItIt states

states that

that ““ Pressure

Pressure exerted

exerted anywhere

anywhere inin aa

confined fluid

confined

fluid isis transmitted

transmitted equally

equally inin all

all directions

directions

throughout the

throughout

the fluid.

fluid.

The basic

The

basic idea

idea behind

behind all

all hydraulic

hydraulic system

system isis based

based upon

upon

that principle

that

principle && can

can bebe simply

simply stated

stated as:

as:

Force applied

Force

applied atat one

one point

point isis transmitted

transmitted toto another

another

point using

point

using anan incompressible

incompressible fluid.

fluid.

Force that

Force

that isis applied

applied atat one

one point

point

isis transmitted

transmitted toto another

another point

point

using anan incompressible

using

incompressible fluid

fluid

InIn this

this drawing,

drawing, two

two pistons

pistons (green)

(green) fit

fit into

into two

two

glass cylinders

glass

cylinders filled

filled with

with oil

oil (blue)

(blue) and

and

connected

connected toto one

one another

another with

with anan oil-filled

oil-filled pipe.

pipe. IfIf

you apply

you

apply aa downward

downward force

force toto one

one piston

piston (the

(the

left

left one

one inin this

this drawing),

drawing), then

then the

the force

force isis

transmitted toto the

transmitted

the second

second piston

piston through

through the

the oil

oil

inin the

the pipe

pipe

Functions of

Functions

of Hydraulic

Hydraulic Oil

Oil

ItIt transmits

transmits power

power..

ItIt lubricates

lubricates moving

moving parts

parts

ItIt seals

seals clearances

clearances

between moving

between

moving parts

parts

ItIt dissipates

dissipates heat

heat

Hydraulic

Hydraulic System

System

Reservoir

Reservoir

Filter

Filter

Hydraulic

Hydraulic Pump

Pump

Directional

Directional Control

Control Valve

Valve

Pressure

Pressure Control

Control Valve

Valve

Actuator

Actuator (Cylinder/Motor)

(Cylinder/Motor)

Reservoir- Properties

First a tank is needed to store the hydraulic oil

Tank / Reservoir

Storing oil

Compensates difference in volume when actuators are used

It dissipates heat

It allows foreign particles to settle down

Baffle separates inlet line with the return line and allows the air bubbles to escape

More Properties

More

Properties of

of

Reservoirs

Reservoirs

ItIt allows

allows condensed

condensed water

water toto settle

settle atat the

the

bottom of

bottom

of the

the tank

tank

Breather

Breather onon the

the top

top of

of the

the tank

tank allows

allows toto

and avoid

avoid

maintain atmospheric

maintain

creation of

creation

atmospheric pressure

of vacuum

vacuum

pressure and

Sight

Sight glass

glass will

will indicate

indicate the

the level

level of

of the

the oil.

oil.

Mercury bulb

Mercury

bulb indicates

indicates the

the oil

oil temperature

temperature

Oil

Oil filling

filling inlet

inlet will

will have

have aa filter

filter for

for avoiding

avoiding

contamination.

contamination.

PUMPS

PUMPS

Hydraulic

Hydraulic Pump

Pump isis the

the most

most important

important

component inin the

component

the hydraulic

hydraulic system.

system.

Function

Function of

Mechanical

of the

the Hydraulic

Hydraulic Pump

Pump isis toto convert

convert

Mechanical Energy

Energy toto Hydraulic

Hydraulic Energy

Energy

Hydraulic

Hydraulic Pump

Pump are

are classified

classified inin two

two categories:

categories:

-- Hydro-dynamic

Hydro-dynamic

-- Hydro-static

Hydro-static

Pump

Now we need a pump to create flow

Tank
Tank
Pump
Pump

Two types of hydraulic pumps are most commonly used:

  • - Rotary Pumps

  • - Reciprocating Pumps

ROTARY && RECIPROCATING

ROTARY

RECIPROCATING

TYPES

TYPES

Common

Common Pumps

Pumps inin Rotary

Rotary type

type are:

are:

-- Gear

Gear Pumps

Pumps

-- Vane

Vane Pumps

Pumps

Common

Common Pumps

Pumps inin Reciprocating

Reciprocating type

type

are:

are:

Axial

Axial Piston

Piston Pump

Pump

Radial Piston

Radial

Piston Pump

Pump

ACTUATORS

ACTUATORS

AnAn actuator

actuator isis aa mechanical

mechanical device

device for

for

moving

moving or

or controlling

controlling aa mechanism

mechanism or

or

system. AnAn actuator

system.

actuator typically

typically isis aa

mechanical device

mechanical

device that

that takes

takes energy

energy &&

converts itit toto aa desirable

converts

desirable form

form for

for

or application.

application.

Actuator

usage or

usage

Tank
Tank

Pump

ACTUATORS ACTUATORS actuator isis aa mechanical device for moving or controlling aa mechanism or AnAn actuator

ACTUATORS Contd…

ACTUATORS

Contd…

There

There are

are mainly

mainly two

two types

types of

of

Actuators:

Actuators:

-- Linear

Linear actuators

actuators (single

(single acting

acting

cylinders, double

cylinders,

double acting

acting cylinders)

cylinders)

-- Rotary

Rotary actuators

actuators (vane

(vane motors,

motors,

gear motors,

gear

motors, piston

piston motors

motors etc.)

etc.)

Types of

Types

of Valves

Valves

There

There are

Valves:

Valves:

are three

three main

main types

types of

of

-- Pressure

Pressure Control

Control Valves

Valves (relief

(relief

valves,

valves, pressure

pressure regulating

reducing valve

regulating valve,

valve,

valve etc.)

etc.)

pressure reducing

pressure

-- Directional

Directional Control

Control Valves

Valves (check

(check

valve, axial

valve,

etc.)

etc.)

axial spool

spool valve,

valve, ball

ball valve

valve

-- Flow

Flow Control

Control Valves

Valves (needle

(needle valve,

valve,

throttle check

throttle

check valve

valve etc.)

etc.)

Hydraulic System – some applications of

the basic components

Actuator

Hoses to connect the components

Pump

Tank
Tank

Piston reverse movement is not possible

We need a direction control valve to change the direction of flow as

per requirement

Hydraulic System

Actuator

two for valves Direction Control Valve valves Pump
two
for
valves
Direction
Control Valve
valves
Pump
Tank
Tank

There are mainly

design principles

  • - Spool valves

  • - Poppet

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Direction Control Valve Pump
Direction
Control Valve
Pump
Tank
Tank

The control valve is at

neutral position

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Direction Control Valve Now the control valve is shifted to left Pump Tank
Direction
Control
Valve
Now the control valve
is shifted to left
Pump
Tank

Hydraulic System

Actuator
Actuator
Direction Control Valve Pump Tank
Direction
Control Valve
Pump
Tank

To change the piston

movement in opposite

direction the control valve is now shifted to right

Hydraulic System

Actuator
Actuator
Direction Control Valve Pump Tank
Direction
Control Valve
Pump
Tank

Is it a complete circuit ? OR

We need

some thing more

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Piston at end -No room to move

Pressure increases yes Direction Control Valve some Pump Tank
Pressure
increases
yes
Direction
Control Valve
some
Pump
Tank
Hydraulic System Actuator Piston at end -No room to move Pressure increases yes Direction Control Valve

We need

thing more

We need to

control the system pressure

Hydraulic System

Actuator Direction Control Valve Pressure relief valve Pump Tank
Actuator
Direction
Control Valve
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Tank

Hydraulic System

Actuator Direction Control Valve Pressure relief valve Pump Tank
Actuator
Direction
Control Valve
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Tank

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Direction Control Valve Pressure relief valve Pump Tank
Direction
Control Valve
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Tank

Stops pressure increasing

beyond the preset value

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Direction Control Valve Pressure relief valve Pump Tank
Direction
Control Valve
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Tank

Now we have a system

which can work

But is this system protected

from dirt ?

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Direction Control Valve Pressure relief valve Pump Filter
Direction
Control Valve
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Filter
Tank
Tank

We need to protect the system

from dirt by installing a FILTER

in the system

We have a system now which

can work safely

FILTERS

FILTERS

There

There are

types of

types

are basically

of Filters

Filters

basically three

three

-- Suction

Suction line

line filters

filters

-- Pressure

Pressure line

line filters

filters

-- Return

Return line

line filters

filters

Hydraulic System

Actuator Now we know : • A Reservoir contains oil • Filter cleans the system •
Actuator
Now we know :
A Reservoir contains oil
Filter cleans the system
Pump creates flow
Direction
Control Valve
Resistance creates pressure
Actuators perform the work
Hoses transmit the oil
Pressure
relief valve
D.C. Valves change direction of
Pump
oil flow
Relief valves control the
Filter
Tank
maximum system pressure.

Hydraulic System

Actuator

Few more facts: • Pressure increases the system capacity Direction Control Valve • Flow increases the
Few more facts:
Pressure increases the system
capacity
Direction
Control Valve
Flow increases the system
speed
Pressure
relief valve
Pump
Filter
Tank

Transmission of

Transmission

of Hydraulic

Hydraulic

Power

Power

The engine

The

engine isis connected

connected toto aa pair

pair of

of pumps

pumps that

that

can generate

can

generate 140

140 gallons

gallons per

per minute

minute at

at 4,500

4,500

psi

psi..

You

You can

can see

see from

from the

the picture

picture that

that the

the armarm

has aa pair

has

pair of

of pistons

pistons working

working inin unison

unison at

at the

the

"shoulder"

"shoulder" ---- one

one at

at the

the "elbow"

"elbow" and

and then

then one

one toto

rotate the

rotate

the bucket.

bucket.

Transmission of Transmission of Hydraulic Hydraulic Power Power • The engine The isis connected toto aa

DUMP TRUCKS

DUMP

TRUCKS or

or TIPPERS

TIPPERS

DUMPERS

DUMPERS WITH

WITH TELESCOPIC

TELESCOPIC

CYLINDERS && HYDRAULIC

CYLINDERS

HYDRAULIC STEERING

STEERING

DUMP TRUCKS DUMP TRUCKS or or TIPPERS TIPPERS • DUMPERS DUMPERS WITH WITH TELESCOPIC TELESCOPIC &&
Hydraulic Symbols Hydraulic Symbols Definitions of Definitions of LINES LINES continuous line - flow line dashed

Hydraulic Symbols

Hydraulic

Symbols

Definitions of

Definitions

of LINES

LINES

Hydraulic Symbols Hydraulic Symbols Definitions of Definitions of LINES LINES continuous line - flow line dashed

continuous line - flow line

Hydraulic Symbols Hydraulic Symbols Definitions of Definitions of LINES LINES continuous line - flow line dashed

dashed line - pilot, drain

Hydraulic Symbols Hydraulic Symbols Definitions of Definitions of LINES LINES continuous line - flow line dashed

envelope - long and short dashes around two or more component symbols

Hydraulic Symbols Hydraulic Symbols Definitions of Definitions of LINES LINES continuous line - flow line dashed