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Employee Motivation

It is a decision making process through which the individual
employee in an organization selects desired outcomes and
sets in motion the behaviors appropriate to acquiring them
Thus: Motivation is about:
1) Decision making process which is mental
2) Selecting the desired results by an individual
3) Deciding to show particular behaviors necessary to
achieve the outcomes
This process is usually propelled by the motives
of drives
The process that makes a person undertake a
goal with intensity
Motives are learned influences on human
behavior that lead people to undertake
particular goals because they are socially
Drives or needs are innate, biological
determinants of human behavior that are
activated by deprivation.
They are innate. They come with the
body for instance, hungry, thirsty,
cold, etc.
They have physiological basis
They are activated by deprivation
They are aimed at satiation
They do not influence behavior
directly or in a predictable ways.
They are learned
They have a social basis
They are activated by the
They are aimed at stimulation

A motive is a state that energizes,

activates or moves and that directs
or channels behavior toward goals.
Motives do not come with goals that
we would like to accomplish
Different people are motivated by
different outcomes
Different organizations encourage
their members to have different
patterns of motivation in their
Important Objectives of
1) It ensures the productive use of resources (human,
time, money and equipment)
2) It ensures the efficiency of people resources it can
contribute to cost reduction if people are motivated
3) It ensures quality consciousness. A motivated
employee becomes quality conscious
4) It promotes goal directed behavior. It helps to
realise organizational objectives and goals.
5) It promotes friendly work culture
6) It ensures organizational stability by reducing
employee turnover and absenteeism.
Mechanism of Motivation
It starts with the NEEDS then DRIVES
and lastly GOAL
1) NEEDS can be either physiological
or psychological
2) DRIVES/MOTIVES denote behavior
with positive attitude
3) GOAL shows the achievement of
individual or organizational
Theories of Motivation
There are three opposing group or
theoretical camps, each dominated
by a different philosophical
perspective on human nature
1) Behaviorist or Stimulus Response
(Content) Theories.
2) Cognitive Theories (Process
3) Integrated Theory of Motivation.
Behaviorist (Content)
These are Stimulus Response
Theories of motivation
Human behavior is regarded as
reflexive and instinctive
Human behavior is driven by
unconscious and inherent drives
Human are not rational at all.
Cognitive (Process) Theories
Individuals are aware of their goals and their
Human beings are rational
Human beings are purposive
They focus on conscious human decision
processes as an explanation of motivation
The theories are concerned with how
individual behavior is energized, directed
and maintained in a self directed human
cognitive processes.
Integrated Theory of
It integrates and combines the two
major theories of motivation namely
Content and Process theories
It also takes into account the
organizational content
Motivation has three main levels:
Individual, during interaction and
Satisfaction levels.
Explanation of Theories of
Individual Theories/content theories
Maslows need theory
Alderfer ERG theory
Mc Clelland Achievement theory
Herzbergs Two factor theory
Mc Gregor- Theory X and theory Y
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Developed by Abraham Maslow, an American
He considers several needs to explain human behavior
He proposes that these needs have a hierarchy. Some
needs are lower order needs compared to other higher
order needs.
He proposes that unless the needs at the lower level is
satisfied, the higher order need will not be operative
Once the lower level need is satisfying a person it will
no longer motivate a person
He proposes five main hierarchical levels of needs.
Hierarchy of Needs Theory
Physiological needs (thirsty, hunger,
need for wages)
Safety needs (security of all kinds)
Love needs (The need to relate
closely to others)
Ego needs (need for status and
Self actualization (Achievement
Disadvantages of this Maslows
It has no empirical support
Needs cannot be placed in strictly defined
It is not a theory of work motivation
It is not culturally aligned. It is more western
value laden theory than non western culture
People or workers may like to remain
contented in the certain level of motivation
Diagnosing need deficiency for employees is
time consuming.
Maslows Hierarchy of needs Theory
and Organizational Aspects
Physiological needs Works place
conditions such as air, water,
temperature and basic wages
Safety needs
Work safety, job security, health insurance
Love needs
Cohesion, supportive co-workers, teams
ans other groups, supervision,
subordinates, customers, supplier etc.
Ego needs
Self actualization
Job challenge
Self image
Herzberg Two Factor Theory or
Motivation Hygiene Theory
Herzberg extends the work of Maslow
and developed the Content theory of
motivation. He conducted an
investigation of 200 engineers and
accountants in the Pittsburg area in
the USA. He applies the critical
incident method in his study and he
comes out with two factors namely
motivating factors and hygiene or
maintenance factors.
Motivation Hygiene theory
He wants to find out the two factor
explanation of motivation
1) When do you feel good about your
2) When do you feel exceptionally bad
about your job?
1) Recognition
2) Advancement
3) Responsibility
4) Achievement
5) Possibility of growth
6) Job contents or work itself.
Motivating factors
These are job content factors
They are the real motivators
They have a potential of yielding the
sense of satisfaction
Hygiene maintenance
1) Company policy and administration
2) Technical supervision
3) Interpersonal relation with subordinates
4) Salary
5) Job security
6) Personal life
7) Working conditions
8) Status
Hygiene factors
Their presence will not motivate
people in an organization
They must be present, yet the
dissatisfaction may arise
Motivation will not be effective if
hygiene factors are missing.
1) It is limited by its methodology
2) It is method bound
3) It focuses on job satisfaction rather
than job motivation
4) It ignores situational variables
5) It does not deal with productivity but
only job satisfaction
MC Gregors X and Y
Theory x
Theory y
Theory x
1) Average human being inherently
dislikes work
2) He/she will always try to avoid work
3) People must be coerced, controlled
and threatened with punishment to
get work from them
4) People prefer to be directed, avoid
responsibility, is less ambitious and
like security.
Theory x
Enforce strict control and restrict
motivational reinforcements only to
those areas that fulfils their lower
order needs.
Theory y
1) People exercise self control and self
direction in achieving objectives
2) Commitment to objectives is a
function of rewards associated with
3) People learn to accept and seek
4) People have the capacity of
imagination, intensity and creativity.
Process Theories
Identify the relationships among the
dynamic variables that make up
Provide understanding of dynamic
nature of motivation.
Many scholars contribute on different
Process theories
Expectancy theory- Vroom, and
Porter Lowler
Equity theory- Adams
Goal setting theory-Locke
Attribution Theory- Heider and Kelley.
Expectancy Theory
It was developed by Edward Tolman in
1930s and later developed as a model by
Vroom, and Porter and Lawler.
Human behavior is directed by conscious
expectations that people have about their
behavior leading to the achievement of
desired goal
Expectancy theory states that the strength
or force of individuals motivation to behave
in a particular way is F= E x V where
Expectancy equation
F = motivation to behave
E = the expectation (the subjective
probability) that the behavior will be
followed by a particular outcome
V = the valence of outcome

Thus, F = (E x V)
Equity Theory
Fairness in treatment of an individual
as compared to others
Social relationships involve an
exchange process
Exchange involve several inputs and
People weigh various inputs and
outcomes according to how they
perceive their importance.
Consequences of inequity
Presence of inequity motivates the
person or reduce level of tension and
the perceived inequity.
Changes in inputs i.e. reduce quality
of work, absenteeism, or working
Changes in outcomes.
Goal Theory
Peoples goals or intentions play an
important part in determining
Goal -setting is important
motivational technique than a formal
theory of motivation.
Goals direct work behavior and
Goals guide individual and peoples
responses and actions.
Practical implications
Individuals lacking motivation do not have
clear goals
Goals should be challenging but realistic
They should be complete, accurate and
timely feedback and deliver high
Goals can be determined by supervisor or
individual. Goals set by other people
require participation to be accepted. E.g.
MBO system.
Attribution theory
The process by which people
interpret the perceived causes of
Integrated Theories or Approaches
to Motivation
Type-Environment fit theory (TEFT):
work requirements and human
values are consistent. People
respond to opportunities for personal
development and are more
successful to work. If working
conditions are not compatible with
the social character type the
outcome will be the feelings of
frustration, resentment,
Maccobys approach to work
The study by Maccoby (1988) identifies 5 types
of people with different motivation needs
1) Expert
2) Helper
3) Defender
4) Innovator
5) Self-developer
Each of these types has a unique motivation
Type Environment Fit Theory
Type Dominant values
Expert - Mastery, control, autonomy,
excellent in making
Helper - Relatedness, caring for people
survival, sociability
Defender - Protector, dignity, power, self
Innovator - Creating, glory, competitor,
Self developer - Balancing, mastery and
play, knowledge and fun
Each of these social character types must
be motivated differently in terms of their
key drives. For instance, to motivate an
expert -needs to design work that
promotes autonomy, control over others
and expanded sense of expertise
To motivate helpers one needs to provide
working conditions with opportunities for
meaningful relationships.
Problems with motivating
Not easy to accept to learn from
Not easy to share from what they
know with colleagues

What shall we do in organizations in

order to motivate experts??
Motivating experts
Make them control their work
Make them accountable to what they
Problems with helpers
Costly to the organization
Time consuming
More relationship oriented
How to motivate helpers
Maintain relationships
They are willing to learn new skills
and behaviors
Test 1
There are Five (5) types of employees in
organizations (Maccoby, 1988)
1) Select any one of the following three
types of employees namely a defender,
an innovator or a self developer and
then in not more 1000 words show how
such an employee can effectively be
motivated within an organization.
Discussion question
2) What difficulties or bottlenecks
does an organization experience
when she tries to motivate