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Processes Involved

in Morphogenesis-
Cell Cycle M

G2 G1

Synthesis (S)

Consists of Mitosis, G1 ( Gap 1), G2

( Gap 2), S ( Synthesis) phases
Involves diploid cells ( 2n) ( somatic or
vegetative cells)
Diploid cells consists of 2C 4C DNA
M- Mitosis, G1- Gap 1, phase before DNA
synthesis occur.
S- Synthesis DNA( DNA replication)
G2- Gap 2- Phase after DNA synthesis
In the past cell division is known as mitosis &
interphase. Mitosis where the division occurs,
interphase considered as resting period.
Actually interphase is the preparation
phase for mitosis, a lot of activities taking
place, macromolecules being
1953- Howard & Pelc discovered that
interphase in cells of Vicia faba consists of 3
phases. They named as G1, G2, S.
Cells in G2 enter mitosis and after division, the
daughter cells enter G1.
The term cell cycle refers to the journey/cycling
of cells from one phase to another, beginning
at M to G1, to S and G2 finally to M again.
In meristems, duration of S is determined by
DNA quantity in the nucleus.
Cell divison and differentiation is regulated
by factors operating at G1 and G2.
Duration of S is the time taken for cell to
replicate its DNA/chromosomes.
In cells, DNA quantity in nucleus (haploid)
is defined as 1c.
c = constancy total quantity (constant) in
haploid cells for a given species (sp.)
During s-phase, nuclear DNA in cells are
doubled and this is the step (preparation)
which is important for mitosis.
Replication of DNA between cell birth and
cell division i.e. S-phase is the most
important phase in cell cycle.
When a diploid (2n) cell begins S-phase, it
contains 2c amount of DNA.
To detect cells which are synthesizing DNA,
radioactive precursor is normally used.
Methyl-thymidine (3H-tdr) is normally used in
the autoradiography technique.
Yeast is often used to identify the control points
in cell cycle, to identify the proteins involved.
Nutrition and genetic manipulation in cell
division of yeast has shown that the control
point centre is found at the end of G1 phase.
The control centre/point regulates the
beginning of cell cycle whereby DNA synthesis
is initiated.
The second control point regulates the
beginning of mitosis.
The new knowlegde regarding the cell cycle in
animals is often obtained from discoveries from
yeast (cell division genes in yeast) which are
equivalent to animals.
However, in plants, no protein involve in cell
division regulation/control which have been
Molecules which control division in plants are
different from those in yeast and animals.
This is due to hormones involve in cell division in
plants esp. higher plants are non-peptides
(small), whereas in yeast and animals the
hormones involved are peptides.
Duration of S-phase is the time needed for a cell
to replicate its DNA.
Amount of DNA replicated influence duration of
The cell cycle component which varies when c
value increased is s-phase.
Vant Hof (1965) and Evans and Rees (1971)
had shown that duration of S in diploid plants
which are not related is determined by
quantity/amount of DNA.
This statement is supported by results obtained
by Kidd et. al (1987), on studies concerning 8
monocot spp. O. sativa, z. mays, P.americanum,
A.umbellucata, H.vulgare, Tritium monoccum,
Secale cereale and Tulipa kaufmanniana.
They observed a positive correlation bet. cell
cycle duration and c values and also a positive
relationship bet S-phase and c DNA values for
the 8 spp.
(DNA , S-phase , cell cycle duration )
The same correlation was not observed in G1
and G2.
G is gap.
No DNA synthesis in this phase and G1 is the
phase before DNA synthesis.
Studies on mamalian cells in vitro have shown
that G1 is the most sensitive phase to temp., esp
> 25C.
G1 usually very long in cells having low growth
Examples, meristematic cells which are exposed
to low temp.
Duration of cell cycle becomes longer and G1
phase is the longest compared to other phases.
2c content in G1, can protect the genome of
somatic cells during low temperatures.
Temp. below 5C can damage the organs involve
in cell divison but if cells are arrested in G1, these
organs are safe/not disturbed.
When the temp. returns to normal, the cells in G1
will start to divide.
The duration of G1 increased unpropotionately
with other phases in unpropotionately.
The increment influence/affect the overall cell
cycle duration.
The variation in duration of cell cycle is normally
due to G1 and G1 also shows a lot of variations.
Eg: Expt. Done by Clowes (1976) on Zea mays, he found
that the duration of G1 can be from 0 h to of the
duration of the cell cycle.
Eg: Cell cycle duration is 24 hours. So the duration of G1
can be from 0 h 12 hours.
The same was observed in animal cells.
Almost all variations always occur at G1.
G1 can be absence in some cell cycles (G0).
Eg: in expt. done by Clowes (1976), he found that
duration of G1 was a negative value.
G1 = 0.4 hrs in cells of root cap in Z.mays grown at 23C.
He explained that the cells of the root
cap divide very fast and G1 phase
was not found/detected/traced.
DNA synthesis for the following
G2 M
mitosis is done/occur during
telophase of the previous mitosis.
This suggestion was supported by
the observation of labelled telophase. S
DNA synthesis occurred/took place
during telophase in the root cap cells
(Barlow, 1973).

Diploid = 2n

G1 2c 4c


4c 2c
G2- Phase
The phase after DNA synthesis and the cells
divide after completed G2.
The cells in G2 are unique, eg in rat epidermis
(ears), cells arrested in G2 for 5 days or more.
Cells are activated during injury.
Are found in >35 plant & animal tissues, in
tumour cells & active cells.
Contains 4 C nuclear DNA when beginning to
Microdensitometry technique can detect G1, G2
When the cells are not dividing or stop dividing, they
can be in G1 or G2 & begin to differentiate.
G2 cells can be absent just like G1 cells.
This means that mitosis occur after DNA synthesis ( S-
phase). MG1SM.
G2 can not be detected because after replication mitosis
occur immediately.
Eg. In mamalian cell culture & in mitosis forming pollen
grains in angiosperms.
Most cell cycle take place in meristems, in mature
tissues, cells either stop or arrested in G1 or G2.
Overall cell cycle
Cells do not normally go through the same
cycle each time.
Cell cycle be affected/influenced by
environmental factors such as light, temp. etc.
In Tradescantia paludosa when grown at
different temp. 30 & 21, duration of S- phase
more or less the same but at 13, duration
( time spent in S), double that of plants grown
at 21 C.
Eg: at 13 C S phase 6 hrs
At 21 C S phase 3 hrs
Verma (1980) determined the duration of overall
cell cycle & the component phases in root
meristem cells of Zea mays, he found that all
the cell cycle components ( G1, G2, M) was
shortened by the increase in temp. from 20C to
Therefore when the temp. increased, the duration
of cell cycle decreased.

Cell cycle is also influenced by light especially in the

haploid (n) generation of a moss, ferns and algae. In
higher plants
Such as Silene coelirosa, during the first day of floral
induction; when the plant aged 28 days were exposed
to far red light, duration of cell cycle was shortened to
11 hours & when exposed to red light, cell cycle
duration became 12 hrs. While exposure to far red
light, followed by red light, the cell cycle duration was
found to be only 9 hrs, while in the control plant (dark),
the cell cycle was between 16-17 hrs.
The term cell cycle refers to something regular but in
actual fact, cell seldom undergo similar/exact cycle in
their lives. Since there is no regularity in duration of cell
cycle & component phases in mamalian cells cultured
in vitro, another cell cycle model/alternative model was
Transition Probability Model- Smith & Martin,1973 in
order to explain the disuniformity/irregularity for G1
phase and also to explain how cell cycle is regulated/
They suggested that G1 phase contains one
event ( critical event) which occur randomly,
whereby the probability depends on conditions
( a particular condition). The suggestion also
claimed that with the presence of this critical
event has divided cell cycle into 2 parts i.e. A-
state which found in G1, where cells
stopped/arrested but the time spent / duration
is unknown, while waiting for the critical event
or transition.
Another part is B-phase which includes
S-phase, G2, M & remaining part of G1.
B- phase is considered deterministic,
once begin it will go to completion.
Transition from A-state to B-phase is
considered as probability not

Cells stopped at G1( A state) but do not

know for long, while waiting for transition.
B- phase will go to completion once
Movement of cells from A to B was
considered as probability.
A- State & B- Phase