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Optics on Graphene

Gate-Variable Optical Transitions in Graphene

Feng Wang, Yuanbo Zhang, Chuanshan Tian, Caglar
Girit, Alex Zettl, Michael Crommie, and Y. Ron Shen,
Science 320, 206 (2008).

Direct Observation of a Widely Tunable Bandgap in

Bilayer Graphene
Yuanbo Zhang, Tsung-Ta Tang, Caglar Girit1, Zhao
Hao, Michael C. Martin, Alex Zettl1, Michael F.
Crommie, Y. Ron Shen and Feng Wang (2009)
(A Monolayer of Graphite)
2D Hexagonal lattice
Properties of Graphene

High mobility at room temperature,
Large current carrying capability

Large Youngs modulus.

High thermal conductance.
Exotic Behaviors
Quantum Hall effect,

Barry Phase

Ballistic transport,

Klein paradox

Quantum Hall Effect

Y. Zhang et al, Nature 438, 201(2005)

Optical Studies of Graphene
Optical microscopy contrast;
Raman spectroscopy;
Landau level spectroscopy.

Other Possibilites
Spectroscopic probe of electronic structure.
Interlayer coupling effect.
Electrical gating effect on optical transitions.
Crystalline Structure of Graphite
2D Hexagonal lattice
Band Structure of Graphene
H H at H int (k )
Tight-binding calculation on bands:
u1 E p , f (k ) u1
u2 f *(k ), E p u2
f (k ) [1 eik a1 eik a2 ]
E (k ) E p | f (k ) |

E p 3 2 cos k a1 2 cos k a2 2 cos k (a2 a1 )

E p 1 4 cos 2 ( 3k x a / 2) 4 cos( 3k x a / 2) cos(3k y a / 2)

E p vF k ' near K points
P.R.Wallace, Phys.Rev.71,622-634(1947)
Band Structure of Monolayer Graphere
Electron Bands of Graphene
Band Structure in Extended BZ
Band Structure near K Points

~10 eV

Relativistic Dirac fermion.

Band Structures of Graphene
Monolayer and Bilayer near K
Monolayer Bilayer


Vertical optical transition

Van Hove Singularity

EF is adjustable
Exfoliated Graphene
Monolayers and Bilayers
Reflecting microscope images.

20 m

Monolayer Bilayer

K. S. Novoselov et al., Science 306, 666 (2004).

Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene
(Allowing ID of monolayer and bilayer)

A.S.Ferrari, et al, PRL 97, 187401 (2006)

Reflection Spectroscopy
on Graphene
Experimental Arrangement

Gold Graphene


Doped Si
Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy
to Deduce Absorption Spectrum
Differential reflection spectroscopy:
Difference between bare substrate and graphene on substrate

RA: bare substrate reflectivity

20 m A RB: substrate + graphene reflectivity
-dR/R (RA-RB)/RA versus w

dR/R = -Re[h(w)s(w)]

h(w) from substrate

s(w) from graphene: interband transitons
free carrier absorption
Re s(w)/w: Absorption spectrum
on Monolayer Graphene
Monolayer Spectrum


2EF wE
n # electrons/holes
( E ) 2 E / vF2
( E )dE EF2 / ( v F ) 2
EF v F | n |
n C (Vg V0 ) p-doped: V0 0 C: capacitance

EF can be adjusted by carrier injection through Vg .

Experimental Arrangement

Gold Graphene

Vg Silica

Doped Si
Gate Effect on Monolayer Graphene


2EF w
( E ) 2 E / v 2F Small density of states close to Dirac point E = 0
Carrier injection by applying gate voltage can
lead to large Fermi energy shift .
EF can be shifted by ~0.5 eV with Vg ~ 50 v;
Shifting threshold of transitions by ~1 eV

(d R / R )
If Vg = Vg0 + Vmod, then
should be a maximum at w 2 EF
Vary Optical Transitions by Gating

Laser beam Vary gate voltage Vg.

Measure modulated reflectivity due

to Vmod at V

(d R / R )

V V0

( Analogous to dI/dV measurement in transport)

Results in Graphene Monolayer
w = 350 meV

EF v F | n |
n C (Vg V0 )
w 2 EF
EF2 =( v F )2 C | Vg V0 |

The maximum determines Vg for the given EF.

Mapping Band Structure near K
For different w, the gate voltage Vg determined from
maximum (d R / R) is different, following the relation
, EF2 ( vF )2 C | Vg V0 |

2EF w
Slope of the line allows deduction of slope of the band structure
(Dirac cone) vF 0.83 10 m / s
V0 70 v
2D Plot of Monolayer Spectrum
Experiment Theory

Strength of Gate Modulation

Vg 0

D(dR/R) (dR/R) 60V (dR/R) 50V

Bilayer Graphene
(Gate-Tunable Bandgap)
Band Structure of Graphene Bilayer

For symmetric layers, D = 0

For asymmetric layer, D 0

E. McCann, V.I.Falko, PRL 96, 086805 (2006);

Doubly Gated Bilayer

Asymmetry: D D (Db + Dt)/2 0

Carrier injection to shift EF: dF dD = (Db - Dt)
Sample Preparation

Db b (Vb - Vb0 ) / db
0 Effective initial bias
b ,t due to impurity doping
Dt t (Vt - Vt 0 ) / dt
Transport Measurement

dD 0

Maximum resistance appears at EF = 0

d D ( Db Dt ) b (Vb - Vb0 ) / db t (Vt - Vt 0 ) / dt 0
Lowest peak resistance corresponds to Db = Dt = 0 Vb , Vt .
0 0
Optical Transitions in Bilayer
I: Direct gap transition
(tunable, <250 meV)
II, IV: Transition between
conduction/valence bands
(~400 meV, dominated by
van Hove singularity)
III, V: Transition between
conduction and valence
bands (~400 meV,
relatively weak)
If dEF=0, then II and IV do not
Bandstructure Change Induced by
D 0 (from D 0 with d D 0)


II x

Transitions II & IV inactive

Transition I active
Differential Bilayer Spectra (dD = 0)
(Difference between spectra of D0 and D=0)


Larger bandgap stronger transition I

because ot higher density of states
Charge Injection without Change
of Bandstructure (D fixed)

dD = 0 dD 0


Transition IV becomes active

Peak shifts to lower energy as D increases..
Transition III becomes weaker and shifts to higher
energy as D increases.
Difference Spectra for Different D
between dD=0.15 v/nm and dD=0
Larger D
Bandgap versus D
Strength of Gate Modulation

D(dR/R) (dR/R) 60V -(dR/R) -50V

is comparable to dR/R in value
Grahpene exhibits interesting optical behaviors:.

Gate bias can significantly modify optical transitions over a broad

spectral range.

Single gate bias shifts the Fermi level of monolayer graphene.

Spectra provides information on bandstructure, allowing
deduction of VF (slope of the Dirac cone in the bandstructure).

Double gate bias tunes the bandgap and shifts the Fermi level of bilayer

Widely gate-tunable bandgap of bilayer graphene could be useful in

future device applications.

Strong gating effects on optical properties of graphene could be useful in

infrared optoelectronic devices.