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Optics on Graphene

Gate-Variable Optical Transitions in Graphene


Feng Wang, Yuanbo Zhang, Chuanshan Tian, Caglar
Girit, Alex Zettl, Michael Crommie, and Y. Ron Shen,
Science 320, 206 (2008).

Direct Observation of a Widely Tunable Bandgap in


Bilayer Graphene
Yuanbo Zhang, Tsung-Ta Tang, Caglar Girit1, Zhao
Hao, Michael C. Martin, Alex Zettl1, Michael F.
Crommie, Y. Ron Shen and Feng Wang (2009)
Graphene
(A Monolayer of Graphite)
2D Hexagonal lattice
Properties of Graphene

Electrically:
High mobility at room temperature,
Large current carrying capability

Mechanically:
Large Youngs modulus.

Thermally:
High thermal conductance.
Exotic Behaviors
Quantum Hall effect,

Barry Phase

Ballistic transport,

Klein paradox

Others
Quantum Hall Effect

Y. Zhang et al, Nature 438, 201(2005)


Optical Studies of Graphene
Optical microscopy contrast;
Raman spectroscopy;
Landau level spectroscopy.

Other Possibilites
Spectroscopic probe of electronic structure.
Interlayer coupling effect.
Electrical gating effect on optical transitions.
Others
Crystalline Structure of Graphite
Graphene
2D Hexagonal lattice
Band Structure of Graphene
Monolayer
H H at H int (k )
Tight-binding calculation on bands:
u1 E p , f (k ) u1
H
u2 f *(k ), E p u2
f (k ) [1 eik a1 eik a2 ]
E (k ) E p | f (k ) |

E p 3 2 cos k a1 2 cos k a2 2 cos k (a2 a1 )

E p 1 4 cos 2 ( 3k x a / 2) 4 cos( 3k x a / 2) cos(3k y a / 2)


E p vF k ' near K points
P.R.Wallace, Phys.Rev.71,622-634(1947)
Band Structure of Monolayer Graphere
Electron Bands of Graphene
Monolayer
Band Structure in Extended BZ
Band Structure near K Points

~10 eV

Relativistic Dirac fermion.


Band Structures of Graphene
Monolayer and Bilayer near K
Monolayer Bilayer

x
K
K
x

Vertical optical transition


Van Hove Singularity

EF is adjustable
Exfoliated Graphene
Monolayers and Bilayers
Reflecting microscope images.

20 m

Monolayer Bilayer

K. S. Novoselov et al., Science 306, 666 (2004).


Raman Spectroscopy of Graphene
(Allowing ID of monolayer and bilayer)

A.S.Ferrari, et al, PRL 97, 187401 (2006)


Reflection Spectroscopy
on Graphene
Experimental Arrangement
Det
OPA

Gold Graphene

290-nm
Silica

Doped Si
Infrared Reflection Spectroscopy
to Deduce Absorption Spectrum
Differential reflection spectroscopy:
Difference between bare substrate and graphene on substrate

RA: bare substrate reflectivity


20 m A RB: substrate + graphene reflectivity
B
-dR/R (RA-RB)/RA versus w

dR/R = -Re[h(w)s(w)]

h(w) from substrate


s(w) from graphene: interband transitons
free carrier absorption
Re s(w)/w: Absorption spectrum
Spectroscopy
on Monolayer Graphene
Monolayer Spectrum

dR/R
x

2EF wE
n # electrons/holes
( E ) 2 E / vF2
EF
=
0
( E )dE EF2 / ( v F ) 2
EF v F | n |
n C (Vg V0 ) p-doped: V0 0 C: capacitance

EF can be adjusted by carrier injection through Vg .


Experimental Arrangement
Det
OPA

Gold Graphene

290-nm
Vg Silica

Doped Si
Gate Effect on Monolayer Graphene

dR/R
X XX

2EF w
( E ) 2 E / v 2F Small density of states close to Dirac point E = 0
Carrier injection by applying gate voltage can
lead to large Fermi energy shift .
EF can be shifted by ~0.5 eV with Vg ~ 50 v;
Shifting threshold of transitions by ~1 eV

(d R / R )
If Vg = Vg0 + Vmod, then
Vmod
should be a maximum at w 2 EF
Vary Optical Transitions by Gating

Laser beam Vary gate voltage Vg.

Measure modulated reflectivity due


to Vmod at V

(d R / R )

V V0

( Analogous to dI/dV measurement in transport)


Results in Graphene Monolayer
w = 350 meV

EF v F | n |
n C (Vg V0 )
w 2 EF
EF2 =( v F )2 C | Vg V0 |

The maximum determines Vg for the given EF.


Mapping Band Structure near K
For different w, the gate voltage Vg determined from
maximum (d R / R) is different, following the relation
Vmod
, EF2 ( vF )2 C | Vg V0 |
dR/R

2EF w
Slope of the line allows deduction of slope of the band structure
(Dirac cone) vF 0.83 10 m / s
6
V0 70 v
2D Plot of Monolayer Spectrum
Experiment Theory

w
Strength of Gate Modulation

Vg 0

D(dR/R) (dR/R) 60V (dR/R) 50V


Bilayer Graphene
(Gate-Tunable Bandgap)
Band Structure of Graphene Bilayer

For symmetric layers, D = 0


For asymmetric layer, D 0

E. McCann, V.I.Falko, PRL 96, 086805 (2006);


Doubly Gated Bilayer

Asymmetry: D D (Db + Dt)/2 0


Carrier injection to shift EF: dF dD = (Db - Dt)
Sample Preparation

Db b (Vb - Vb0 ) / db
V
0 Effective initial bias
b ,t due to impurity doping
Dt t (Vt - Vt 0 ) / dt
Transport Measurement

dD 0

Maximum resistance appears at EF = 0


d D ( Db Dt ) b (Vb - Vb0 ) / db t (Vt - Vt 0 ) / dt 0
Lowest peak resistance corresponds to Db = Dt = 0 Vb , Vt .
0 0
Optical Transitions in Bilayer
I: Direct gap transition
(tunable, <250 meV)
II, IV: Transition between
conduction/valence bands
(~400 meV, dominated by
van Hove singularity)
III, V: Transition between
conduction and valence
bands (~400 meV,
relatively weak)
If dEF=0, then II and IV do not
contribute
Bandstructure Change Induced by
D 0 (from D 0 with d D 0)

x
IV

II x

Transitions II & IV inactive


Transition I active
Differential Bilayer Spectra (dD = 0)
(Difference between spectra of D0 and D=0)
I I

IV

Larger bandgap stronger transition I


because ot higher density of states
Charge Injection without Change
of Bandstructure (D fixed)

dD = 0 dD 0
x
IV

III

Transition IV becomes active


Peak shifts to lower energy as D increases..
Transition III becomes weaker and shifts to higher
energy as D increases.
Difference Spectra for Different D
between dD=0.15 v/nm and dD=0
Larger D
Bandgap versus D
Strength of Gate Modulation

D(dR/R) (dR/R) 60V -(dR/R) -50V


is comparable to dR/R in value
Summary
Grahpene exhibits interesting optical behaviors:.

Gate bias can significantly modify optical transitions over a broad


spectral range.

Single gate bias shifts the Fermi level of monolayer graphene.


Spectra provides information on bandstructure, allowing
deduction of VF (slope of the Dirac cone in the bandstructure).

Double gate bias tunes the bandgap and shifts the Fermi level of bilayer
graphene.

Widely gate-tunable bandgap of bilayer graphene could be useful in


future device applications.

Strong gating effects on optical properties of graphene could be useful in


infrared optoelectronic devices.