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Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior: the process involved


when individuals or groups select,
purchase, use, and dispose of goods,
services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy
their needs and desires.
The Consumer Decision-making
Process
problem recognition

information search

evaluation of Alternatives

product choice

postpurchase evaluation
Marketers Responses to Decision
Process Stages
Problem recognition:
Encourage consumers to see that existing state
does not equal desired state

Information search:
Provide information when and where consumers
are likely to search

Evaluation of Alternatives:
Understand the criteria consumers use in
comparing brands and communicate own brand
superiority
Marketers Responses to Decision
Process Stages
Product Choice:
Understand choice heuristics used by con
sumers and provide communication that e
ncourages brand decision

Postpurchase evaluation: Encourage accu


rate consumer expectations
Internal Influences on Consumer
Decisions
Perception: the process by which people
select, organize, and interpret information
from the outside world.
Exposure
Perceptual selection
interpretation
Motivation: an internal state that drives us to
satisfy needs by activating goal-oriented
behavior.
Hierarchy of needs: an approach that
categorizes motives according to five levels of
importance, the more basic needs being on the
bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at
the top.
Learning: a relatively permanent change in be
havior caused by acquired information or expe
rience.
Behavioral learning theories: theories of lear
ning that focus on how consumer behavior is c
hanged by external events or stimuli.
Cognitive learning theories: theories of learni
ng that stresses the importance of internal me
ntal processes and that views people as probl
em solvers who actively use information from t
he world around them to master their environ
ment.
Attitudes: a learned predisposition to respond
favorably or unfavorably to stimuli based on
relatively enduring evaluations of people,
objects, and issues.
Personality: the psychological characteristics
that consistently influence the way a person
responds to situations in his or her
environment.
Innovativeness
Self-concept
sociability
Age Groups
Family life cycle: a means of characterizing cons
umers within a family structure based on differen
t stages through which people pass as they gro
w older.

Lifestyle: the pattern of living that determines h


ow people choose to spend their time, money, a
nd energy and that reflects their values, taster, a
nd preferences.
Situational Influences on Consumer
Decisions
The physical environment Its no secret
that peoples moods and behaviors are
strongly influenced by their physical
surroundings.

Timeis money
Social Influences on Consumer
Decisions
Culture: the values, beliefs, customs, and
tastes valued by a group of people.

subculture: a group within a society whose


members share a distinctive set of beliefs,
characteristics, or common experiences.
Social Class: the overall rank or social standing
of groups of people within a society according to t
he value assigned to such factors as family back
ground, education, occupation and income.
Group Behavior
Reference Group( ): an actual or imagi
nary individual or group that has a significant effe
ct on an individuals evaluations, aspirations, or b
ehavior.
Sex roles
Opinion leaders
Topic for Discussion
Core values of your culture and their
marketing implications.