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Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior: the process involved

when individuals or groups select,
purchase, use, and dispose of goods,
services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy
their needs and desires.
The Consumer Decision-making
problem recognition

information search

evaluation of Alternatives

product choice

postpurchase evaluation
Marketers Responses to Decision
Process Stages
Problem recognition:
Encourage consumers to see that existing state
does not equal desired state

Information search:
Provide information when and where consumers
are likely to search

Evaluation of Alternatives:
Understand the criteria consumers use in
comparing brands and communicate own brand
Marketers Responses to Decision
Process Stages
Product Choice:
Understand choice heuristics used by con
sumers and provide communication that e
ncourages brand decision

Postpurchase evaluation: Encourage accu

rate consumer expectations
Internal Influences on Consumer
Perception: the process by which people
select, organize, and interpret information
from the outside world.
Perceptual selection
Motivation: an internal state that drives us to
satisfy needs by activating goal-oriented
Hierarchy of needs: an approach that
categorizes motives according to five levels of
importance, the more basic needs being on the
bottom of the hierarchy and the higher needs at
the top.
Learning: a relatively permanent change in be
havior caused by acquired information or expe
Behavioral learning theories: theories of lear
ning that focus on how consumer behavior is c
hanged by external events or stimuli.
Cognitive learning theories: theories of learni
ng that stresses the importance of internal me
ntal processes and that views people as probl
em solvers who actively use information from t
he world around them to master their environ
Attitudes: a learned predisposition to respond
favorably or unfavorably to stimuli based on
relatively enduring evaluations of people,
objects, and issues.
Personality: the psychological characteristics
that consistently influence the way a person
responds to situations in his or her
Age Groups
Family life cycle: a means of characterizing cons
umers within a family structure based on differen
t stages through which people pass as they gro
w older.

Lifestyle: the pattern of living that determines h

ow people choose to spend their time, money, a
nd energy and that reflects their values, taster, a
nd preferences.
Situational Influences on Consumer
The physical environment Its no secret
that peoples moods and behaviors are
strongly influenced by their physical

Timeis money
Social Influences on Consumer
Culture: the values, beliefs, customs, and
tastes valued by a group of people.

subculture: a group within a society whose

members share a distinctive set of beliefs,
characteristics, or common experiences.
Social Class: the overall rank or social standing
of groups of people within a society according to t
he value assigned to such factors as family back
ground, education, occupation and income.
Group Behavior
Reference Group( ): an actual or imagi
nary individual or group that has a significant effe
ct on an individuals evaluations, aspirations, or b
Sex roles
Opinion leaders
Topic for Discussion
Core values of your culture and their
marketing implications.