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Why Discuss Assessment?
SINI & DINI Root Cause Analysis
A review of the data shows that there is a lot of
testing happening in, but that assessment does
not necessarily drive curriculum and instruction.
District educators indicated that the timeliness
of receiving data impacts their ability to use it
Educators expressed a frustration related to
their ability to analyze and synthesize the data.
What is assessment ?

Assessment is the ongoing process of gathering,

analysing and reflecting on evidence to make
informed and consistent judgements to improve
future student learning.
What is Assessment?

The word assess comes from the Latin verb

assidere meaning to sit with.

In assessment one is supposed to sit with the

learner. This implies it is something we do
with and for students and not to students
(Green, 1999).
Assessment in education is the process of
gathering, interpreting, recording, and using
information about pupils responses to an
educational task. (Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot,
The State of Assessment

A wealth of research a poverty of practice.

(Black and Wiliam, 1998)
Shift from teaching to learning
Preservice and inservice training
Confusion of terms and conditions
Formative and summative assessment are
interconnected. They seldom stand alone in
construction or effect.
The vast majority of genuine formative assessment is
informal, with interactive and timely feedback and
It is widely and empirically argued that formative
assessment has the greatest impact on learning and
Values and Attitudes about Assessment

1. Teachers value and believe in students.

2. Sharing learning goals with the students.
3. Involving students in self-assessment.
4. Providing feedback that helps students recognize
their next steps and how to take them.
5. Being confident that every student can improve.
6. Providing students with examples of what we
expect from them.
Types of assesment

FORMATIVE Final evaluation of

the success in study

Stimulating study
and self-assesment

Initial ability for the
ASSESMENT success in study
External conditions



methods of professional
financing targets

In pairs or small groups, brainstorm the

assessment strategies used in your
Formative Assessment

The goal of formative assessment is to

gather feedback that can be used by the
instructor and the students to guide
improvements in the ongoing teaching
and learning context.
Key Elements of Formative Assessment
1. The identification by teachers & learners of learning
goals, intentions or outcomes and criteria for
achieving these.
2. Rich conversations between teachers & students that
continually build and go deeper.
3. The provision of effective, timely feedback to enable
students to advance their learning.
4. The active involvement of students in their own
5. Teachers responding to identified learning needs and
strengths by modifying their teaching approach(es).
Black & Wiliam, 1998
Three main purposes for assessment

Assessment for learning occurs when

teachers use inferences about student progress
to inform their teaching. (formative)

Assessment as learning occurs when

students reflect on and monitor their progress to
inform their future learning goals. (formative)

Assessment of learning occurs when teachers

use evidence of student learning to make
judgements on student achievement against
goals and standards. (summative)
Assessment for learning:

establishes a classroom culture that encourages interaction and

the use of assessment tools
occurs throughout a learning sequence and is planned when
teachers design teaching and learning activities
involves teachers sharing learning intentions and explicit
assessment criteria with students
involves teachers and students setting and monitoring student
progress against learning goals
requires teachers to ascertain students' prior knowledge,
perceptions and misconceptions
Assessment for learning:

involves teachers focusing on how students learn and how to

scaffold their learning
involves teachers adapting teaching practice to meet student needs
provides sensitive and constructive feedback to students on their
involves teachers making formative use of summative assessment

In pairs or small groups, select two

characteristics of Assessment for learning and
discuss how these may be demonstrated in
your classroom.
Assessment as learning:

involves students monitoring their learning and using feedback

from this monitoring to make adjustments and changes to their
skills and understandings
establishes students role and responsibility in relation to their
learning and assessment
empowers students to consider strategies for learning and taking
involves students in self-assessment and peer-assessment
Assessment as learning:


promotes students self-esteem and self-confidence through an

understanding of how they learn to learn
develops students capacity to reflect on the learning and to
contribute to their future learning goals
enhances students life-long learning skills
emphasises the process of learning as it is experienced by the

In pairs or groups of three, use a venn

to discuss the relationship between
assessment for learning and
assessment as learning.
Summative Assessment
Assessment of learning
Generally taken by students at the end of a unit or
semester to demonstrate the "sum" of what they
have or have not learned.
Summative assessment methods are the most
traditional way of evaluating student work.
"Good summative assessments--tests and other
graded evaluations--must be demonstrably reliable,
valid, and free of bias" (Angelo and Cross, 1993).
Formative Summative

often means no more than that assessment (that) has increasingly

the assessment is carried out been used to sum up learning(Black
frequently and is planned at the and Wiliam, 1999)
same time as teaching. (Black and
Wiliam, 1999) looks at past achievements adds
procedures or tests to existing work ...
provides feedback which leads involves only marking and feedback
to students recognizing the grades to student is separated from
(learning) gap and closing it it is teaching is carried out at intervals
forward looking (Harlen, 1998) when achievement has to be
summarized and reported. (Harlen,
includes both feedback and self- 1998)
monitoring. (Sadler, 1989)

is used essentially to feed back

into the teaching and learning
process. (Tunstall and Gipps, 1996)
Assessment of learning:

enables students to demonstrate what they know and can do

describes the extent to which a student has achieved the
learning goals, including the Standards
uses teacher judgements about student achievement at a point
in time
is supported by examples or evidence of student learning
ensures consistent teacher judgements through moderation
is used to plan future learning goals.

In pairs or small groups discuss the types of

assessment of learning used in your school.

How is the information/data from these used?


Consider your brainstorm list of assessment


Can you now categorise these into the 3

purposes for assessment? (for, as, of)
Questions for future consideration

Do our assessment practices make use of all three main

purposes for assessment?
Do our assessment processes allow for a balance of
assessment for, as and of learning?
How can assessment for and as learning (formative) assist
students when it comes to assessment of learning (summative)?
What processes could our school use to align its assessment
processes to the assessment advice provided by the Department?
Summative Assessment

The goal of summative assessment is to

measure the level of success or proficiency
that has been obtained at the end of an
instructional unit, by comparing it
against some standard or benchmark.
Summative Assessment

Assigning a grade to a final exam
Critique of a recital
Course Evaluations
The Garden Analogy
If we think of our children as plants

Summative assessment of the plants is the process of simply

measuring them. It might be interesting to compare and
analyze measurements but, in themselves, these do not
affect the growth of the plants.

Formative assessment, on the other hand, is the equivalent

of feeding and watering the plants appropriate to their needs
- directly affecting their growth.
Factors Inhibiting Assessment
A tendency for teachers to assess quantity and
presentation of work rather than quality of learning.

Greater attention given to marking and grading,

much of it tending to lower self esteem of students,
rather than providing advice for improvement.

A strong emphasis on comparing students with each

other, which demoralizes the less successful learners.
Where would you place your assessment practice on the
following continuum?

The main focus is on:

Quantity of work/Presentation Quality of learning

Marking/Grading Advice for improvement

Comparing students Identifying individual

Forms of Summative Assessment
Performance Assessment
Traditional Tests
Implications for classroom practice

Share learning goals with students.

Involve students in self-assessment.
Provide feedback that helps students recognize
their next steps and how to take them.
Be confident that every student can improve.
Formative Assessment

1. Write a summary of the story that you

like most.
2. Make an outline of the story.
3. Formulate five (5) questions using
Summative Assessment

1. Formulate well defined test questions

(50 items) .
2. Prepare a score key.