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Literature Review
Importance of thesis
fulfilling the requirement of the master or
doctoral degree programs
indicating their ability to understand the specific
topic of their selected field in depth. (Yale, 1975)
suggesting the new ideas in the specific fields
(Oliver, 2004).
Problems in writing thesis

Contents problems Language problems

highly complex layers of using discipline-specific
content in their academic rhetorical and linguistic
writing (Zhu, 2004). conventions to serve
synthesizing the content their purposes as writers
systematically (Maimon, (Berkenkotter, Huckin &
Belcher, Hearn, Nodine, & Ackerman, 1991)
Oconnor, 1981).
Writing strategies
a tool which is used for planning, competition,
conscious manipulation, and movement toward a
gold (Oxford, 1990)

helping writers mental processes to conceptualize

a framework of their writing (Riazi, 1997)

A Taxonomy of ESL Writing Strategies from Mu

(2005) based on five theories was used to
investigate writing strategies in the present study.
Purposes of the study

1. To investigate writing strategies used in writing

thesis by M.A. English major students from faculty
of Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon Kaen

2. To study how to use each writing strategy in the

M.A. English major students from faculty of
Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon Kaen
Research questions

1. What are writing strategies used in writing thesis

by M.A. English major students from faculty of
Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon Kaen

2. How writing strategy was used by M.A. English

major students in their writing thesis?
Scope of the study

1.The participants in the present study will be

thirty English major students who are enrolled for
the course - Thesis (411899) - in both regular and
special programs from faculty of Humanities and
Social Sciences of Khon Kaen University.

2. The study focuses on writing strategies used by

the English major students in their writing thesis.
Significance of the study

1. The findings will be useful for the English major

students to be aware of their writing strategies for
improving their writing thesis.

2. The findings will be useful for instructors from

faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of Khon
Kaen University to teach writing strategies to the
students for enhancing the academic writing skills.
Literature review
1. Classification of writing strategies
Language Learning Strategies Oxford (1990)
Learning Strategies OMalley and Chamot (1990)
- Writing strategies based on Meta-cognitive and
cognitive theories by Wenden (1991)

Metacognitive strategies Cognitive strategies

planning, Clarification
evaluation Retrieval
monitoring Resourcing
Composing strategies by Riazi (1997).
Writing Strategies Definition

1. Planning
1.1 Global planning Detailed planning of overall organization
1.2 Thematic planning Less detailed planning of overall organization
1.3 Local planning Planning what to write next
1.4 Organizing Organizing the generated ideas
1.5 Conclusion planning Planning of the conclusion

strategies 2. Retrieving
2.1 Plan retrieving
2.2 Information retrieving
Retrieving the already constructed plan
Retrieving appropriate information from long-term memory

developed from 3. Generating ideas

writing processes 3.1 Naturally generated

3.2 Description generated
Generating an idea without any stimulus
Generating an idea related to the previous description

by Sasaki (2000) 4. Verbalizing

4.1 Verbalizing a proposition Verbalizing the content the writer intends to write
4.2 Rhetorical refining Refining the rhetorical aspect(s) of an expression
4.3 Mechanical refining Refining the mechanical or (L1/L2) grammatical aspect(s) of an
4.4 Sense of readers Adjusting expression(s) to the readers

5. Translating Translating the generated idea into L2

6. Rereading Rereading the already produced sentence

7. Evaluating
7.1 L2 proficiency evaluation Evaluating one's own L2 proficiency
7.2 Local text evaluation Evaluating part of the generated text
7.3 General text evaluation Evaluating the generated text in general

8. Others
8.1 Resting Resting
8.2 Questioning Asking the researcher a question
8.3 (3) Impossible to categorize Impossible to categorize
Mu (2005) proposed A Taxonomy of ESL Writing
Strategies based on five theories.
Theory Definition of the strategies

1. Contrastive Rhetoric Theory Organizing and presenting their ideas with the
appropriate writing styles to native writers
2. Metacognitive Theory Using the mental process consciously to control
their writing processes.
3. Cognitive Theory Using mental process consciously to manage
information or knowledge and to structure writing

4. Communication Theory Expressing their ideas to be the most

understandable for readers.
5. Social Constructionism Interacting with people in discourse community to
Theory help their writing achieved.
2. Related research
Xia and Luxin (2012) investigated strategies used in
writing a thesis proposal by Chinese six graduate
students. negotiations with their supervisors
strategies were the most frequently used.

Mu and Carrington (2007) and Nor, Hua and

Ibrahim (2012) investigated writing strategies in
graduate students and found that the participants
used rhetorical, cognitive, meta-cognitive,
communicative, and socio-affective strategies.
Dehghan and Razmjoo (2012) found different results
from investigating of writing strategies used by 11
graduate students in Iran. Socio-affective strategies
were used frequently than other strategies.

In Thailand, Peeravudhi (2006) investigated writing

strategies adopted from Oxford (1990) in 58 graduate
students. Cognitive strategy was used the highest
frequency from all writing strategies. In addition, the
proficient group tended to use more strategies than
the less proficient group.