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CS6703 GRID AND CLOUD COMPUTING

Unit 1
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel
Professor and Head
Faculty of Information Technology
R M K College of Engineering and
Technology
UNIT I INTRODUCTION

Evolution of Distributed computing: Scalable


computing over the Internet Technologies for
network based systems clusters of
cooperative computers - Grid computing
Infrastructures cloud computing - service
oriented architecture Introduction to Grid
Architecture and standards Elements of Grid
Overview of Grid Architecture.

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Distributed Computing
Definition
A distributed system consists of multiple
autonomous computers that communicate
through a computer network.
Distributed computing utilizes a network of
many computers, each accomplishing a
portion of an overall task, to achieve a
computational result much more quickly
than with a single computer.
Distributed computing is any computing
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that involves multiple computers remote
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Introduction
A distributed system is one in which hardware or software
components located at networked computers
communicate and coordinate their actions only by
message passing.
In the term distributed computing, the word distributed
means spread out across space. Thus, distributed
computing is an activity performed on a spatially
distributed system.
These networked computers may be in the same
room, same campus, same country, or in different
continents
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Introduction
Agent Agent

Cooperation
Agent Cooperation

Distribution Distribution Cooperation

Distribution

Agent
Internet
Internet
Subscription Distribution

Job Request

Large-scale
Resource
Application
Management

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Motivation
Inherently distributed applications
Performance/cost
Resource sharing
Flexibility and extensibility
Availability and fault tolerance
Scalability
Network connectivity is increasing.
Combination of cheap processors often more cost-
effective than one expensive fast system.
Potential increase of reliability.
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History
1975 1985
Parallel computing was favored in the early years
Primarily vector-based at first
Gradually more thread-based parallelism was introduced
The first distributed computing programs were a pair of
programs called Creeper and Reaper invented in 1970s
Ethernet that was invented in 1970s.
ARPANET e-mail was invented in the early 1970s and
probably the earliest example of a large-scale distributed
application.
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History
1985 -1995
Massively parallel architectures start rising and message
passing interface and other libraries developed
Bandwidth was a big problem
The first Internet-based distributed computing project
was started in 1988 by the DEC System Research Center.
Distributed.net was a project founded in 1997 -
considered the first to use the internet to distribute data
for calculation and collect the results,

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History
1995 Today
Cluster/grid architecture increasingly dominant
Special node machines eschewed in favor of COTS
technologies
Web-wide cluster software
Google take this to the extreme (thousands of
nodes/cluster)
SETI@Home started in May 1999 - analyze the
radio signals that were being collected by the Arecibo
Radio Telescope
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel
in Puerto Rico.
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Goal
Making Resources Accessible
Data sharing and device sharing
Distribution Transparency
Access, location, migration, relocation, replication,
concurrency, failure
Communication
Make human-to-human comm. easier. E.g.. :
electronic mail
Flexibility
Spread the work load over the available machines in
the most cost effective way
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ToDr Gnanasekaran
coordinate Thangavel the use of shared resources 6/15/17
Characteristics
Resource Sharing
Openness
Concurrency
Scalability
Fault Tolerance
Transparency

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Architecture

Client-server
3-tier architecture
N-tier architecture
loose coupling, ortight coupling
Peer-to-peer
Space based

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Application
Examples of commercial application :
Database Management System
Distributed computing using mobile
agents
Local intranet
Internet (World Wide Web)
JAVA Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
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Distributed Computing Using Mobile
Agents
Mobile agents can be wandering around in a
network using free resources for their own
computations.

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Local Intranet
A portion of Internet that is separately administered &
supports internal sharing of resources (file/storage
systems and printers) is called local intranet.

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Internet
The Internet is a global system of interconnected
computer networks that use the standardized
Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP).

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JAVA RMI
Embedded in language Java:-
Object variant of remote procedure call
Adds naming compared with RPC (Remote Procedure Call)
Restricted to Java environments

RMI Architecture
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Categories of Applications in
Science distributed computing
Life Sciences
Cryptography
Internet
Financial
Mathematics
Language
Art
Puzzles/Games
Miscellaneous
Distributed Human Project
Collaborative Knowledge Bases
Charity
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Advantages
Economics:-
Computers harnessed together give a better price/performance ratio
than mainframes.
Speed:-
A distributed system may have more total computing power than a
mainframe.
Inherent distribution of applications:-
Some applications are inherently distributed. E.g., an ATM-banking
application.
Reliability:-
If one machine crashes, the system as a whole can still survive if you
have multiple server machines and multiple storage devices
(redundancy).
Extensibility and Incremental Growth:-
Possible to gradually scale up (in terms of processing power and
functionality) by adding more sources (both hardware and software).
This can be done without disruption to the rest of the system.
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Disadvantages
Complexity :-
Lack of experience in designing, and implementing a
distributed system. E.g. which platform (hardware and OS) to
use, which language to use etc.
Network problem:-
If the network underlying a distributed system saturates or
goes down, then the distributed system will be effectively
disabled thus negating most of the advantages of the
distributed system.
Security:-
Security is a major hazard since easy access to data means
easy access to secret data as well.
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Issues and Challenges
Heterogeneity of components :-
variety or differences that apply to computer
hardware, network, OS, programming language and
implementations by different developers.
All differences in representation must be deal with if
to do message exchange.
Example : different call for exchange message in
UNIX different from Windows.
Openness:-
System can be extended and re-implemented in
various ways.
Cannot be achieved unless the specification and
documentation are made available to software
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developer.
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Issues and Challenges cont
Transparency:-
Aim : make certain aspects of distribution
are invisible to the application programmer ;
focus on design of their particular application.
They not concern the locations and details of
how it operate, either replicated or migrated.
Failures can be presented to application
programmers in the form of exceptions
must be handled.
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Issues and Challenges cont
Transparency:-
This concept can be summarize as shown in this Figure:

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Issues and Challenges cont
Security:-
Security for information resources in distributed system
have 3 components :
a. Confidentiality : protection against disclosure to
unauthorized individuals.
b. Integrity : protection against alteration/corruption
c. Availability : protection against interference with
the means to access the resources.
The challenge is to send sensitive information over
Internet in a secure manner and to identify a remote
user or other agent correctly.
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Issues and Challenges cont..
Scalability :-
Distributed computing operates at many different
scales, ranging from small Intranet to Internet.
A system is scalable if there is significant increase
in the number of resources and users.
The challenges is :
a. controlling the cost of physical resources.
b. controlling the performance loss.
c. preventing software resource running out.
d. avoiding performance bottlenecks.
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Issues and Challenges cont
Failure Handling :-
Failures in a distributed system are partial some components fail
while others can function.
Thats why handling the failures are difficult
a. Detecting failures : to manage the presence of failures cannot be
detected but may be suspected.
b. Masking failures : hiding failure not guaranteed in the worst case.
Concurrency :-
Where applications/services process concurrency, it will effect a
conflict in operations with one another and produce inconsistence
results.
Each resource must be designed to be safe in a concurrent
environment.
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Conclusion
The concept of distributed computing is the most efficient
way to achieve the optimization.
Distributed computing is anywhere : intranet, Internet or
mobile ubiquitous computing (laptop, PDAs, pagers, smart
watches, hi-fi systems)
It deals with hardware and software systems, that contain
more than one processing / storage and run in concurrently.
Main motivation factor is resource sharing; such as files ,
printers, web pages or database records.
Grid computing and cloud computing are form of
distributed computing.
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Grid Computing
Grid computing is a form of distributed computing
whereby a "super and virtual computer" is composed of
a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers,
acting in concert to perform very large tasks.

Grid computing (Foster and Kesselman, 1999) is a


growing technology that facilitates the executions of
large-scale resource intensive applications on
geographically distributed computing resources.

Facilitates flexible, secure, coordinated large scale


resource sharing among dynamic collections of
individuals, institutions, and resource
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Criteria for a Grid:
Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized
control.
Uses standard, open, general-purpose protocols and
interfaces.
Delivers nontrivial qualities of service.

Benefits
Exploit Underutilized resources
Resource load Balancing
Virtualize resources across an enterprise
Data Grids, Compute Grids
Enable collaboration for virtual organizations
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Grid Applications
Data and computationally intensive applications:
This technology has been applied to computationally-intensive
scientific, mathematical, and academic problems like drug
discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis back office
data processing in support of e-commerce
A chemist may utilize hundreds of processors to screen
thousands of compounds per hour.
Teams of engineers worldwide pool resources to analyze
terabytes of structural data.
Meteorologists seek to visualize and analyze petabytes of
climate data with enormous computational demands.
Resource sharing
Computers, storage, sensors, networks,
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Sharing always
Dr Gnanasekaran conditional: issues of trust, policy, negotiation,
Thangavel 6/15/17
payment,
Grid Topologies
Intragrid
Local grid within an organization
Trust based on personal contracts
Extragrid
Resources of a consortium of organizations
connected through a (Virtual) Private
Network
Trust based on Business to Business
contracts
Intergrid
Global sharing of resources through the
31 internet
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Computational Grid

A computational grid is a hardware and software


infrastructure that provides dependable, consistent,
pervasive, and inexpensive access to high-end
computational capabilities.

The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing


Infrastructure, Kesselman & Foster
Example : Science Grid (US Department of Energy)
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Data Grid
A data grid is a grid computing system that deals
with data the controlled sharing and
management of large amounts of distributed
data.

Data Grid is the storage component of a grid


environment. Scientific and engineering applications
require access to large amounts of data, and often this
data is widely distributed. A data grid provides
seamless access to the local or remote data required to
complete compute intensive calculations.
33Example : Thangavel
Dr Gnanasekaran 6/15/17
Methods of Grid Computing
Distributed Supercomputing
High-Throughput Computing
On-Demand Computing
Data-Intensive Computing
Collaborative Computing
Logistical Networking

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Distributed Supercomputing

Combining multiple high-capacity resources on


a computational grid into a single, virtual
distributed supercomputer.

Tackle problems that cannot be solved on a


single system.

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High-Throughput Computing

Uses the grid to schedule large numbers of


loosely coupled or independent tasks, with the
goal of putting unused processor cycles to work.
On-Demand Computing
Uses grid capabilities to meet short-term requirements for
resources that are not locally accessible.
Models real-time computing demands.

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Collaborative Computing
Concerned primarily with enabling and enhancing
human-to-human interactions.
Applications are often structured in terms of a virtual
shared space.
Data-Intensive Computing
The focus is on synthesizing new information from data that is
maintained in geographically distributed repositories, digital
libraries, and databases.
Particularly useful for distributed data mining.

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Logistical Networking
Logistical networks focus on exposing storage
resources inside networks by optimizing the
global scheduling of data transport, and data
storage.
Contrasts with traditional networking, which
does not explicitly model storage resources in
the network.
high-level services for Grid applications
Called "logistical" because of the analogy it
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P2P Computing vs Grid Computing

Differ in Target Communities


Grid system deals with more complex,
more powerful, more diverse and highly
interconnected set of resources than
P2P.
VO
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A typical view of Grid environment
Grid Information ServiceGrid Information Service
system collects the details of Details of Grid resources
the available Grid resources
and passes the information to
the resource broker.
1

2 Computational jobs
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Grid application
3 Processed jobs
Computation result

User
A User sends computation or
Resource Broker
A Resource Broker distribute the jobs
data intensive application to
Global Grids in order to speed
in an application to the Grid resources Grid Resources
based on users QoS requirements and Grid Resources (Cluster, PC,
up the execution of the details of available Grid resources for Supercomputer, database,
application. further executions. instruments, etc.) in the Global Grid
execute the user jobs.

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Grid Middleware
Grids are typically managed by grid ware -
a special type of middleware that enable sharing and manage
grid components based on user requirements and resource
attributes (e.g., capacity, performance)
Software that connects other software components or
applications to provide the following functions:
Run applications on suitable available resources
Brokering, Scheduling
Provide uniform, high-level access to resources
Semantic interfaces
Web Services, Service Oriented Architectures
Address inter-domain issues of security, policy, etc.
Federated Identities
41 Provide application-level status
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel 6/15/17
Middleware
Globus chicago Univ
Condor Wisconsin Univ High throughput
computing
Legion Virginia Univ virtual workspaces-
collaborative computing
IBP Internet back pane Tennesse Univ
logistical networking
NetSolve solving scientific problems in
heterogeneous env high throughput & data
42intensive
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel 6/15/17
Two Key Grid Computing Groups
The Globus Alliance (www.globus.org)
Composed of people from:
Argonne National Labs, University of Chicago, University of
Southern California Information Sciences Institute, University of
Edinburgh and others.
OGSA/I standards initially proposed by the Globus Group

The Global Grid Forum (www.ggf.org)


Heavy involvement of Academic Groups and Industry
(e.g. IBM Grid Computing, HP, United Devices, Oracle, UK e-
Science Programme, US DOE, US NSF, Indiana University, and
many others)
Process
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Meets three times annually
Some of the Major Grid Projects
Name URL/Sponsor Focus

EuroGrid, Grid eurogrid.org Create tech for remote access to super comp resources
Interoperability (GRIP) European Union & simulation codes; in GRIP, integrate with Globus
Toolkit
Fusion Collaboratory fusiongrid.org Create a national computational collaboratory for fusion
DOE Off. Science research
Globus Project globus.org Research on Grid technologies; development and
DARPA, DOE, NSF, support of Globus Toolkit; application and deployment
NASA, Msoft
GridLab gridlab.org Grid technologies and applications
European Union
GridPP gridpp.ac.uk Create & apply an operational grid within the U.K. for
U.K. eScience particle physics research
Grid Research Integration grids-center.org Integration, deployment, support of the NSF Middleware
Dev. & Support Center NSF Infrastructure for research & education

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Grid Architecture

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The Hourglass Model
Focus on architecture issues
Applications
Propose set of core services as basic
Diverse global services
infrastructure
Used to construct high-level, domain-
specific solutions (diverse)
Design principles
Keep participation cost low Core
services
Enable local control
Support for adaptation
IP hourglass model

Local OS
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Layered Grid Architecture
(By Analogy to Internet Architecture)

Application

Internet Protocol Architecture


Coordinating multiple resources: ubiquitous
infrastructure services, app-specific distributed Collective
services Application

Sharing single resources: negotiating access,


controlling use Resource

Talking to things: communication (Internet


protocols) & security Connectivity Transport
Internet
Controlling things locally: Access to, & control
of, resources Fabric Link

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Example:
Data Grid Architecture
App Discipline-Specific Data Grid Application

Collective Coherency control, replica selection, task management, virtual data catalog,
(App) virtual data code catalog,

Collective Replica catalog, replica management, co-allocation, certificate authorities,


(Generic) metadata catalogs,

Resource Access to data, access to computers, access to network performance data,

Connect Communication, service discovery (DNS), authentication, authorization,


delegation

Fabric Storage systems, clusters, networks, network caches,

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Simulation tools
GridSim job scheduling
SimGrid single client multiserver scheduling
Bricks scheduling
GangSim- Ganglia VO
OptoSim Data Grid Simulations
G3S Grid Security services Simulator
security services

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Simulation tool

GridSim is a Java-based toolkit for modeling, and


simulation of distributed resource management and
scheduling for conventional Grid environment.

GridSim is based on SimJava, a general purpose discrete-


event simulation package implemented in Java.

All components in GridSim communicate with each other


through message passing operations defined by SimJava.

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Salient features of the GridSim
It allows modeling of heterogeneous types of
resources.
Resources can be modeled operating under space-
or time-shared mode.
Resource capability can be defined (in the form of
MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second) benchmark.
Resources can be located in any time zone.
Weekends and holidays can be mapped depending
on resources local time to model non-Grid (local)
workload.
Resources can be booked for advance reservation.

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Applications with different parallel application 6/15/17
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel
models can be simulated.
Salient features of the GridSim
Application tasks can be heterogeneous and they can be
CPU or I/O intensive.
There is no limit on the number of application jobs that can
be submitted to a resource.
Multiple user entities can submit tasks for execution
simultaneously in the same resource, which may be time-
shared or space-shared. This feature helps in building
schedulers that can use different market-driven economic
models for selecting services competitively.
Network speed between resources can be specified.
It supports simulation of both static and dynamic schedulers.
Statistics of all or selected operations can be recorded and
they can be analyzed using GridSim statistics analysis
methods.
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A Modular Architecture for GridSim Platform and Components.
Application, User, Grid Scenarios input and Results
Appn Conf Res Conf User Req Grid Sc Output

Grid Resource Brokers or Schedulers

GridSim Toolkit

Appn Res entity Info serv Job mgmt Res alloc Statis
modeling
Resource Modeling and Simulation
Single CPU SMPs Clusters Load Netw Reservation

Basic Discrete Event Simulation Infrastructure


SimJava Distributed SimJava

Virtual Machine
53 PCs Workstation
Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel SMPs Clusters Distributed Resources
6/15/17
Web 2.0, Clouds, and Internet of Things

HPC: High - Performance Computing HTC: High - Throughput Computing

P2P: Peer to Peer MPP: Massively Parallel Processors

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What is a Service Oriented Architecture?

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What is a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA)?
A method of design, deployment, and
management of both applications and the
software infrastructure where:
All software is organized into business services
that are network accessible and executable.
Service interfaces are based on public
standards for interoperability.

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Key Characteristics of SOA
Quality of service, security and
performance are specified.
Software infrastructure is responsible for
managing.
Services are cataloged and discoverable.
Data are cataloged and discoverable.
Protocols use only industry standards.
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What is a Service?

A Service is a reusable component.


A Service changes business data from one
state to another.
A Service is the only way how data is
accessed.
If you can describe a component in WSDL, it
is a Service.
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Information Technology is Not SOA
Business Mission

Information Management

Information Systems
SOA
Systems Design
Information
Computing & Communications Technology

59
Why Getting SOA Will be Difficult
Managing for Projects:
Software: 1 - 4 years
Hardware: 3 - 5 years;
Communications: 1 - 3 years;
Project Managers: 2 - 4 years;
Reliable funding: 1 - 4 years;
User turnover: 30%/year;
Security risks: 1 minute or less.
Managing for SOA:
Data: forever.
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Infrastructure: 10+ years.
Why Managing Business Systems is Difficult?

40 Million lines of code in Windows XP is unknowable.

Testing application (3 Million lines) requires >10 15 tests.

Probability correct data entry for a supply item is <65%.

There are >100 formats that identify a person in DoD.

Output / Office Worker: >30 e-messages /day.

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How to View Organizing for SOA
Pr i v a t e A p p l i c a t i o n s a n d Fi l e s PER SO N A L LEV EL
P r i v a cy an d
I n d i v i d u al
S ecu r i t y B a r r i er VARIETY HERE
G r a p h i c I n f o W i n d o w , Pe r so n a l To o l s, I n q u ir y La n gu a ge s
C u st o m i z e d A p p l i c a t i o n s, Pr o t o t y p i n g To o l s, Lo c a l LO C A L LEV EL
A p p l i c a t i o n s a n d Fi l e s
A p p l i ca ti o n s
S e cu r i t y B ar r i er

A p p l ic a t i o n s D e v e l o p m e n t & M a i n t e n a n c e A PP LI C A T I O N LEV EL
B u si n e ss
S ecu r i ty B a r r i er

Service A Service B OSD B U SI N ESS LEV EL


P r o cess
S ecu r i ty B ar r i e r
Fu n c t i o n a l Pr o c e ss A
Fu n c t i o n a l Pr o c e ss B
Fu n c t i o n a l Pr o c e ss C PR O C ESS LEV EL
Fu n c t i o n a l Pr o c e ss D
C o r p o r a t e P o l i c y, C o r p o r a t e St a n d a r d s, R e f e r e n c e M o d e ls,
D a t a M a n a ge m e n t a n d To o l s, I n t e gr a t e d Sy st e m s
C o n f igu r a t i o n D a t a B a se , Sh a r e d C o m p u t i n g a n d EN T ER P R I SE LEV EL
Te l e c o m m u n i c a t io n s
STABILITY HERE
I n d u st r y St a n d a r d s, C o m m e r c i a l O ff- t h e - Sh e l f
Pr o d u c t s a n d Se r v i c e s G LO B A L LEV EL

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SOA Must Reflect Timing
Private Applications and Files PERSONAL

Graphic InfoWindow, Personal Tools, Inquiry Languages


Customized Applications, Prototyping Tools, Local
Applications and Files
LOCAL SHORT TERM
ADAPTABILITY &
TECHNOLOGY
Applications Development & Maintenance APPLICATION SIMPLICITY

Infrastructure
Business A Business B Support BUSINESS

Functional Process A
Functional Process B
PROCESS
Functional Process C
Functional Process D
LONG TERM
Corporate Policy, Corporate Standards, Reference Models,
STABILITY &
Data Management and Tools, Integrated Systems
Configuration Data Base, Shared Computing and ENTERPRISE TECHNOLOGY
Telecommunications, Security and Survivability COMPLEXITY
Industry Standards, Commercial Off-the-Shelf
Products and Services
GLOBAL

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SOA Must Reflect Conflicting Interests

Personal

Local

Organizations

Missions

Enterprise

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Organization of Infrastructure Services

Infrastructure
Services
(Enterprise Information)

Data Security Computing Communication Application


Services Services Services Services Services

65
Organization of Data Services

Data
Services

Discovery Management Collaboration Interoperability Semantic


Services Services Services Services Services

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Data Interoperability Policies
Data are an enterprise resource.

Single-point entry of unique data.

Enterprise certification of all data definitions.

Data stewardship defines data custodians.

Zero defects at point of entry.

De-conflict data at source, not at higher levels.

Data aggregations from sources data, not from


67
Data Concepts
Data Element Definition
Text associated with a unique data element within a
data dictionary that describes the data element,
give it a specific meaning and differentiates it from
other data elements. Definition is precise, concise,
non-circular, and unambiguous. (ISO/IEC
11179 Metadata Registry specification)
Data Element Registry
A label kept by a registration authority that
describes a unique meaning and representation of
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data elements, including registration identifiers,
Data and Services Deployment Principles
Data, services and applications belong to the
Enterprise.
Information is a strategic asset.
Data and applications cannot be coupled to each
other.
Interfaces must be independent of
implementation.
Data must be visible outside of the applications.
Semantics and syntax is defined by a community
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Organization of Security Services
Security
Services

Transfer Protection Certification Systems Authentication


Services Services Services Assurance Services

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Security Services = Information Assurance
Conduct Attack/Event Response
Ensure timely detection and appropriate
response to attacks.
Manage measures required to minimize the
networks vulnerability.
Secure Information Exchanges
Secure information exchanges that occur on
the network with a level of protection that is
matched to the risk of compromise.
Provide Authorization and Non-Repudiation
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Organization of Computing Services
Computing
Services

Computing Resource Control & Configuration Financial


Facilities Planning Quality Services Management

72
Computing Services
Provide Adaptable Hosting Environments

Global facilities for hosting to the edge.

Virtual environments for data centers.

Distributed Computing Infrastructure


Data storage, and shared spaces for

information sharing.
Shared Computing Infrastructure Resources
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Organization of Communication Services
Communication
Services

Interoperability Spectrum Connectivity Continuity of Resource


Services Management Arrangements Services Management

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Network Services Implementation
From point-to-point communications (push
communications) to network-centric
processes (pull communications).
Data posted to shared space for retrieval.
Network controls assure data
synchronization and access security.

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Communication Services
Provide Information Transport

Transport information, data and services anywhere.

Ensures transport between end-user devices and

servers.
Expand the infrastructure for on-demand capacity.

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Organization of Application Services
Application
Services

Component Code Binding Maintenance Experimental


Portals
Repository Services Management Services

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Application Services and Tools
Provide Common End User Interface Tools
Application generators, test suites, error identification,
application components and standard utilities.
Common end-user Interface Tools.
E-mail, collaboration tools, information dashboards, Intranet
portals, etc.

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Example of Development Tools
Business Process Execution Language, BPEL, is an
executable modeling language. Through XML it enables code
generation.

Traditional Approach BPEL Approach


- Hard-coded decision logic - Externalized decision logic
- Developed by IT - Modeled by business
analysts
- Maintained by IT - Maintained by policy
managers
- Managed by IT
79 - Managed by IT
A Few Key SOA Protocols

Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration,


UDDI. Defines the publication and discovery of web
service implementations.
The Web Services Description Language, WSDL, is an
XML-based language that defines Web Services.
SOAP is the Service Oriented Architecture Protocol.
It is a key SOA in which a network node (the client)
sends a request to another node (the server).
The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, or LDAP is
protocol for querying and modifying directory
80
services.
References
1. Kai Hwang, Geoffery C. Fox and Jack J. Dongarra, Distributed and Cloud
Computing: Clusters, Grids, Clouds and the Future of Internet, First
Edition, Morgan Kaufman Publisher, an Imprint of Elsevier, 2012.
2. Distributed Computing. http://distributedcomputing.info/index.html
3. Jie Wu, Distributed System Design, CRC Press, 1999.
4. Distributed Computing, Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distributed_computing
5. www.psgtech.edu/yrgcc/attach/GridComputing-an%20introduction.ppt
6. www.cse.unr.edu/~mgunes/cpe401/cpe401sp12/lect15_cloud.ppt
7. csnotes.upm.edu.my/kelasmaya/web.nsf/.../$FILE/Distributed
%20Computing.ppt
8. www.strassmann.com/pubs/gmu/2007-11-slides.ppt

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83 Dr Gnanasekaran Thangavel 6/15/17