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Geometric Dimensioning

and Tolerancing (GD&T)

MANAGEMENT

DESIGN
VENDORS

SALES PRICING

TOOLING

PURCHASING PLANNING
CUSTOMERS

PRODUCTION

SERVICE ROUTING

INSPECTION

ASSEMBLY

PART PRODUCTION COMMUNICATION MODEL


Three Categories of
Dimensioning

Dimensioning can be divided into


three categories:
general dimensioning,
geometric dimensioning, and
surface texture.

The following provides


information necessary to begin to
understand geometric
dimensioning and tolerancing
(GD&T)
Limit Tolerancing Applied
To An Angle Block
Geometric Tolerancing
Applied To An Angle Block
Geometric Dimensioning
& Tolerancing (GD&T)

GD&T is a means of
dimensioning & tolerancing
a drawing which considers
the function of the part and
how this part functions
with related parts.
This allows a drawing to
contain a more defined
feature more accurately,
without increasing tolerances.
GD&T contd
GD&T has increased in practice in
last 15 years because of ISO
9000.
ISO 9000 requires not only that something
be required, but how it is to be controlled.
For example, how round does a round
feature have to be?
GD&T is a system that uses
standard symbols to indicate
tolerances that are based on the
features geometry.
Sometimes called feature based
dimensioning & tolerancing or true
position dimensioning & tolerancing
GD&T practices are specified in
ANSI Y14.5M-1994.
For Example
Given Table Height
Assume all 4 legs will be
cut to length at the same
time.
However, all surfaces have a degree of
waviness, or smoothness. For
example, the surface of a 2 x 4 is much
wavier (rough) than the surface of a
piece of glass.
As the table height is dimensioned, the
following table would pass inspection.

or

If top must be flatter, you could tighten


the tolerance to 1/32.
However, now the height is restricted to
26.97 to 27.03 meaning good tables would
be rejected.
Example contd.
You can have both, by using
GD&T.
The table height may any height
between 26 and 28 inches.
The table top must be flat within
1/16. (1/32)

.06
.06
.06

28
27
26
WHY IS GD&T IMPORTANT

Saves money
For example, if large number
of parts are being made
GD&T can reduce or eliminate
inspection of some features.
Provides bonus tolerance
Ensures design, dimension, and
tolerance requirements as they
relate to the actual function
Ensures interchangeability of
mating parts at the assembly
Provides uniformity
It is a universal understanding of
the symbols instead of words
WHEN TO USE GD&T

When part features are critical to


a function or interchangeability
When functional gaging is
desirable
When datum references are
desirable to ensure consistency
between design
When standard interpretation or
tolerance is not already implied
When it allows a better choice of
machining processes to be made
for production of a part
TERMINOLOGY REVIEW
Maximum Material Condition
(MMC): The condition where a size
feature contains the maximum amount
of material within the stated limits of
size. I.e., largest shaft and smallest
hole.
Least Material Condition (LMC): The
condition where a size feature
contains the least amount of material
within the stated limits of size. I.e.,
smallest shaft and largest hole.
Tolerance: Difference between MMC
and LMC limits of a single dimension.
Allowance: Difference between the
MMC of two mating parts. (Minimum
clearance and maximum interference)
Basic Dimension: Nominal
dimension from which tolerances are
derived.
LIMITS OF SIZE

SIZE DIMENSION

WHAT DOES
THIS MEAN?

2.007
2.003
LIMITS OF SIZE
A variation in form is allowed
between the least material
condition (LMC) and the
maximum material condition
(MMC).
SIZE DIMENSION
ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE

MMC
(2.007)

LMC
(2.003)

ENVELOPE OF SIZE
Envelop Principle defines the
size and form relationships
between mating parts.
LIMITS OF SIZE

ENVELOPE PRINCIPLE

LMC
CLEARANCE

MMC
ALLOWANCE
LIMITS OF SIZE
The actual size of the feature at
any cross section must be
within the size boundary.

MMC
LMC
LIMITS OF SIZE

No portion of the feature may


be outside a perfect form
barrier at maximum material
condition (MMC).
Other Factors
I.e., Parallel Line Tolerance Zones

GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING TOLERANCE ZONES

PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES PARALLEL LINES

PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES

PARALLEL PLANES PARALLEL PLANES CYLINDER ZONE


GEOMETRIC CHARACTERISTIC CONTROLS
14 characteristics that may be controlled

TYPE OF TYPE OF
CHARACTERISTIC SYMBOL
FEATURE TOLERANCE

FLATNESS
INDIVIDUAL STRAIGHTNESS
(No Datum FORM
Reference) CIRCULARITY

CYLINDRICITY

INDIVIDUAL LINE PROFILE


or RELATED PROFILE
FEATURES SURFACE PROFILE

PERPENDICULARITY

ORIENTATION ANGULARITY

PARALLELISM
RELATED
FEATURES CIRCULAR RUNOUT
(Datum RUNOUT
Reference TOTAL RUNOUT
Required)
CONCENTRICITY

LOCATION POSITION

SYMMETRY
Characteristics & Symbols
contd.

Maximum Material Condition MMC


Regardless of Feature Size RFS
Least Material Condition LMC
Projected Tolerance Zone
Diametrical (Cylindrical) Tolerance
Zone or Feature
Basic, or Exact, Dimension
Datum Feature Symbol

Feature Control Frame


Feature
FEATUREControl Frame
CONTROL FRAME

GEOMETRIC SYMBOL
TOLERANCE INFORMATION
DATUM REFERENCES
COMPARTMENT VARIABLES

THE

RELATIVE TO
OF THE FEATURE
MUST BE WITHIN
CONNECTING WORDS
Feature Control Frame
Uses feature control frames to
indicate tolerance

Reads as: The position of the


feature must be within a .003
diametrical tolerance zone at
maximum material condition
relative to datums A, B, and C.
Feature Control
Frame

Uses feature control frames to indicate


tolerance

Reads as: The position of the feature


must be within a .003 diametrical
tolerance zone at maximum material
condition relative to datums A at
maximum material condition and B.
Reading Feature Control Frames
The of the feature must be within a tolerance
zone.

The of the feature must be within a


tolerance zone at relative
to Datum .

The of the feature must be within a


tolerance zone relative to Datum .

The of the feature must be within a


zone at
relative to Datum .

The of the feature must be within a


tolerance zone relative to datums .
Placement of Feature
Control Frames
May be attached to a side, end
or corner of the symbol box to
an extension line.

Applied to surface.

Applied to axis
Placement of Feature
Control Frames Contd.

May be below or closely


adjacent to the dimension or
note pertaining to that feature.

.500.005
Basic Dimension
A theoretically exact size, profile,
orientation, or location of a feature or
datum target, therefore, a basic
dimension is untoleranced.
Most often used with position,
angularity, and profile)
Basic dimensions have a rectangle
surrounding it.

1.000
Basic Dimension
contd.
Form Features
Individual Features
No Datum Reference

Flatness Straightness

Circularity Cylindricity
Form Features Examples
Flatness as stated on
drawing: The flatness of the
feature must be within .06
tolerance zone.

Straightness applied to a flat surface: The


straightness of the feature must be within .003
tolerance zone.
.003

0.500 .005

.003
0.500 .005
Form Features Examples
Straightness applied to the surface of a
diameter: The straightness of the feature must
be within .003 tolerance zone.

.003

0.500
0.505

Straightness of an Axis at MMC: The derived


median line straightness of the feature must be
within a diametric zone of .030 at MMC.

0.500
0.505 .030 M

1.010
0.990
Dial Indicator
DIAL INDICATOR

BEZEL
CASE

2 2
4 4

6 6

8 8
10 10
12

CLAMP

PROBE
Verification of Flatness
Activity 13

Work on worksheets GD&T 1,


GD&T 2 #1 only, and GD&T 3
(for GD&T 3 completely
dimension. grid.)
Features that Require
Datum Reference

Orientation
Perpendicularity
Angularity
Parallelism
Runout
Circular Runout
Total Runout
Location
Position
Concentricity
Symmetry
Datum
Datums are features (points, axis,
and planes) on the object that are
used as reference surfaces from
which other measurements are
made. Used in designing, tooling,
manufacturing, inspecting, and
assembling components and sub-
assemblies.
As you know, not every GD&T
feature requires a datum, i.e., Flat

1.000
Datums contd.
Features are identified with
respect to a datum.
Always start with the letter A
Do not use letters I, O, or Q
May use double letters AA,
BB, etc.
This information is located in
the feature control frame.

Datums on a drawing of a
part are represented using
the symbol shown below.
Datum Reference Symbols

The datum feature symbol


identifies a surface or feature
of size as a datum.

A A
A

ANSI ASME ISO


1982 1994
Placement of Datums
Datums are generally placed on a feature, a
centerline, or a plane depending on how
dimensions need to be referenced.
A OR A

ANSI 1982
ASME 1994

Line up with arrow only when


the feature is a feature of
size and is being defined as
the datum
Placement of Datums
Feature sizes, such as holes
A .500.005

Sometimes a feature has a


GD&T and is also a datum
A

.500.005

.500.005
TWELVE DEGREES OF FREEDOM

UP

LEFT BACK

6 LINEAR AND
6 ROTATIONAL
DEGREES OF
FREEDOM

FRONT RIGHT

DOWN
UNRESTRICTED FREE
MOVEMENT IN SPACE
Example Datums
Datums must be
perpendicular to each other
Primary

Secondary

Tertiary Datum
Primary Datum
A primary datum is selected
to provide functional
relationships, accessibility,
and repeatability.
Functional Relationships
A standardization of size is desired in
the manufacturing of a part.
Consideration of how parts are
orientated to each other is very
important.
For example, legos are made in a
standard size in order to lock into
place. A primary datum is chosen
to reference the location of the
mating features.
Accessibility
Does anything, such as, shafts, get in
the way?
Primary Datum contd.

Repeatability
For example, castings, sheet
metal, etc.
The primary datum chosen must
insure precise measurements.
The surface established must
produce consistent
Measurements when producing
many identical parts to meet
requirements specified.
Primary Datum
Restricts 6 degrees of freedom

FIRST DATUM ESTABLISHED


BY THREE POINTS (MIN)
CONTACT WITH SIMULATED
DATUM A
Secondary &
Tertiary Datums
All dimension may not be capable to
reference from the primary datum to
ensure functional relationships,
accessibility, and repeatability.
Secondary Datum
Secondary datums are produced
perpendicular to the primary datum so
measurements can be referenced from
them.
Tertiary Datum
This datum is always perpendicular to
both the primary and secondary datums
ensuring a fixed position from three
related parts.
Secondary Datum
Restricts 10 degrees of freedom.
SECOND DATUM
PLANE ESTABLISHED BY
TWO POINTS (MIN) CONTACT
WITH SIMULATED DATUM B
Tertiary Datum
Restricts 12 degrees of freedom.
THIRD DATUM
PLANE ESTABLISHED
BY ONE POINT (MIN)
90 CONTACT WITH
SIMULATED DATUM C

MEASURING DIRECTIONS FOR


RELATED DIMENSIONS
Coordinate Measuring
Machine
COORDINATE MEASURING MACHINE
BRIDGE DESIGN

PROBE

GRANITE
Z SURFACE
PLATE

DATUM
REFERENCE
FRAME
Size Datum
(CIRCULAR)

THIS ON
THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS

SIMULATED DATUM-
SMALLEST
PART CIRCUMSCRIBED
CYLINDER
DATUM AXIS
Size Datum
(CIRCULAR)

THIS ON
THE DRAWING

MEANS THIS

SIMULATED DATUM-
LARGEST
PART INSCRIBED
DATUM AXIS A CYLINDER
Orientation Tolerances
Perpendicularity

Angularity

Parallelism
Controls the orientation of
individual features
Datums are required
Shape of tolerance zone: 2
parallel lines, 2 parallel planes, and
cylindrical
PERPENDICULARITY:
is the condition of a surface, center plane, or
axis at a right angle (90) to a datum plane or
axis.
Ex:
The perpendicularity of
this surface must be
within a .005 tolerance
zone relative to datum A.

The tolerance zone is the


space between the 2
parallel lines. They are
perpendicular to the
datum plane and spaced
.005 apart.
Practice Problem

Plane 1 must be
perpendicular within .005
tolerance zone to plane 2.

BOTTOM SURFACE
Practice Problem

Plane 1 must be
perpendicular within .005
tolerance zone to plane 2

BOTTOM PLANE
Practice Problem

2.00.01

.02 Tolerance

Without GD & T this


would be acceptable

2.00.01
.005 Tolerance
Zone

.02 Tolerance

With GD & T the overall height may end


anywhere between the two blue planes. But the
bottom plane is restricted to the red tolerance
zone.
PERPENDICULARITY Contd.

Location of hole (axis)

This means the hole


(axis) must be
perpendicular within a
diametrical tolerance
zone of .010 relative to
datum A
ANGULARITY:
is the condition of a surface, axis, or
median plane which is at a specific
angle (other than 90) from a datum
plane or axis.
The surface is at a
45 angle with a
.005 tolerance zone
relative to datum A.

Can be applied to an axis at MMC.


Typically must have a basic
dimension.
PARALLELISM:
The condition of a surface or center plane
equidistant at all points from a datum plane, or
an axis.
The distance between the parallel lines, or
surfaces, is specified by the geometric
tolerance.

0.01
Activity 13 Contd.

Complete worksheets GD&T-


2, GD&T-4, and GD&T-5
Completely dimension.
grid
Material Conditions

Maximum Material Condition


(MMC)
Least Material Condition
(LMC)
Regardless of Feature
Size(RFS)
Maximum Material Condition
MMC
This is when part will weigh the
most.
MMC for a shaft is the largest
allowable size.
MMC of 0.240.005?
MMC for a hole is the smallest
allowable size.
MMC of 0.250.005?
Permits greater possible
tolerance as the part feature
sizes vary from their calculated
MMC
Ensures interchangeability
Used
With interrelated features with
respect to location
Size, such as, hole, slot, pin, etc.
Least Material Condition
LMC
This is when part will weigh
the least.
LMC for a shaft is the smallest
allowable size.
LMC of 0.240.005?
LMC for a hole is the largest
allowable size.
LMC of 0.250.005?
Regardless of Feature Size
RFS
Requires that the condition of
the material NOT be
considered.
This is used when the size
feature does not affect the
specified tolerance.
Valid only when applied to
features of size, such as
holes, slots, pins, etc., with
an axis or center plane.
Location Tolerances

Position

Concentricity

Symmetry
Position Tolerance
A position tolerance is the total
permissible variation in the location
of a feature about its exact true
position.
For cylindrical features, the
position tolerance zone is typically
a cylinder within which the axis of
the feature must lie.
For other features, the center plane
of the feature must fit in the space
between two parallel planes.
The exact position of the feature is
located with basic dimensions.
The position tolerance is typically
associated with the size tolerance
of the feature.
Datums are required.
Coordinate System Position
Consider the following hole dimensioned with
coordinate dimensions:

The tolerance zone for the location of the hole is


as follows:

2.000
.750

Several Problems:
Two points, equidistant from true position may not
be accepted.
Total tolerance diagonally is .014, which may be
more than was intended.
Coordinate System Position
Consider the following hole dimensioned with
coordinate dimensions:

The tolerance zone for the location (axis) of the


hole is as follows:

Center can be
anywhere along
the diagonal
line.

2.000
.750

Several Problems:
Two points, equidistant from true position may not
be accepted.
Total tolerance diagonally is .014, which may be
more than was intended. (1.4 Xs >, 1.4*.010=.014)
Position Tolerancing
Consider the same hole, but add
GD&T:

Now, overall tolerance zone is:

MMC =
.500 - .003 = .497

The actual center of the hole (axis) must lie in


the round tolerance zone. The same tolerance
is applied, regardless of the direction.
Bonus Tolerance
Here is the beauty of the system! The
specified tolerance was:

This means that the


tolerance is .010 if the
hole size is the MMC size,
or .497. If the hole is
bigger, we get a bonus
tolerance equal to the
difference between the
MMC size and the actual
size.
Bonus Tolerance Example
This means that
the tolerance is
.010 if the hole
size is the MMC
size, or .497. If the
.503
hole is bigger, we
get a bonus
tolerance equal to
the difference
between the MMC
size and the actual
size.

Actual Hole Size Bonus Tol. of Tol. Zone

.497 (MMC) 0 .010

.499 (.499 - .497 = .002) .002 (.010 + .002 = .012) .012

.500 (.500 - .497 = .003) .003 (.010 + .003 = .013) .013

.502 .005 .015

.503 (LMC) .006 .016

.504 ? ?

This system makes sense the larger the hole


is, the more it can deviate from true position
and still fit in the mating condition!
.497 = BONUS 0
Hole
TOL ZONE .010

Shaft

.499 - .497 = BONUS .002


BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .012
.501 - .497 = BONUS .004
BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .014

.503 - .497 = BONUS .006


BONUS + TOL. ZONE = .016
What if the tolerance had been specified as:

Since there is NO material modifier, the


tolerance is RFS, which stands for regardless
of feature size. This means that the position
tolerance is .010 at all times. There is no
bonus tolerance associated with this
specification.

VIRTUAL CONDITION: The worst case


boundary generated by the collective effects of
a size features specified MMC or LMC
material condition and the specified geometric
tolerance.

GT = GEOMETRIC
TOLERANCE
PERPENDICULARITY Contd.

Means the hole (AXIS) must


be perpendicular within a
diametrical tolerance zone of
.010 at MMC relative to datum
A.

Actual Hole Bonus Tol. of Tol.


Size Zone
1.997 (MMC)
1.998
1.999
2.000
2.001
Vc =
2.002
2.003
Activity 13 Contd.

Worksheet GD&T 6