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Millenium Development
Goals (MDG)
A set of time-bound and measurable
goals and targets for combating poverty,
hunger, diseases, illiteracy,
environmental degradation and
discrimination against women.
It consists of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48
indicators, covering the period 1990 to
When and how did MDG
Millennium Summit in September 2000
Member states affirm to commitments
towards reducing poverty and the worst
forms of human deprivation
189 countries including the Philippines
committed themselves to making the
right to development a reality to everyone
Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger
Achieve Universal Primary Education
Promote Gender Equality and Empower
Reduce Child Mortality
Improve Maternal Health
Combat HIV/Aids, Malaria and Other Diseases
Ensure Environmental Sustainability
Develop a Global Partnership for Development
Efforts done by the
Philippines (Agriculture Sector)
Extension Workers (Centralized or not)
Executive Order 710

Examination for

Licensure Examination in Agriculture

Was stipulated in Section 75 of AFMA and being implemented

for eight years now

chaired by Dr. Fortunato A. Battad

members: Dr. Gonzalo O. Catan, Jr.
Dr. Nora B. Inciong
Dr. Vicente L. Domingo
Dr. Rodolfo M. Ela
Dr. Teodoro A. Abilay

Courses taken: 2 crop science subjects; 2 crop protection subjects;

2 animal science subjects; 1 soil science; 1 ag. Economics and
marketing and 1 Ag. Extension communication

Republic Act 8435

Part 1. Production and Marketing Support
Part 2. Human Resources Development
Part 3. Research Development and Extension
Part 4. Rural Non-Farm Employment
Part 5. Trade and Fiscal Incentives
RA 8435: Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act (AFMA) of 1997

With these principles: poverty alleviation and social

equity; food security; rational use of resources; global
competitiveness and sustainable development

Was implemented in 1999 and funded by the govt till 2003

and was extended thru RA 9281 until 2010.

AFMA after 5 years

Inadequate funds
Budget Amt. released
1999 20B 9.95B
2000 17B 11.38B
2001 17B 11.38B
2002 17B 11.38B
2003 17B 7.3B
AFMA after 5 years

No institutional mechanisms established

Very poor sustainability of the programs- frequent turnovers of

leadership (5 DA Secretaries - Montemayor, Dar, Lorenzo,
Panganiban, Yap) of the dept. of agriculture
Has not done much to empower farmers and fisher folks - farmers were
not ready /prepared to take over some services

No increase in investment in research and development

Limited number of identified SAFDZs

DA still supporting large-scale irrigation systems that do not give

farmers control their water and thus fail to give them the option to
diversify crops
Latest on AFMA
(as of March, 2009)

Putting up of
Agriculture ecozones
Processing and Packaging facilities

All over the country

Ecozones will have storage facilities and
processing equipment for agricultural products.

20 zones as primary candidates include

Casiguran Bay in Aurora for mariculture and
Ifugao and Isabela for semi temperate crops.

Other potential sites are areas near Clark

and Subic as well as areas that have
existing ports and airports.

A P9M vegetable and fruit semi-processing

and packaging facility was set up in La
Trinidad , Benguet.

To reduce post harvest losses, National

cold chain program to extend thr freshness
and quality of vegetables, fruits and other
high-value crops.
Construction of tramlines in Benguet, Iloilo,
Laguna and Nueva Ecija

Tramline is a technology introduced in

isolated yet productive farming areas
where there are no farm-to-market roads or
Tramlines are used to haul agricultural
products to the nearest road

Exemption of food vehicles from the truck ban

and number-coding scheme.

Exemption of food delivery trucks and vans

fro paying the road users tax.

After WWII

Politics Business Trade


In 1946, 21 founding nations (including the Philippines) signed

the initial agreement covering about 20% of world trade a world
wide PALENGKE was set up.

Since then several rounds were conducted to expand GATT s scope

In 1986, the eight round and the largest ever, started in Punta del Este in
Uruguay, hence the name URUGUAY ROUND with two biggest decisions

1. Creation of World Trade Organization (WTO) to implement

the rules of trade and expanding the scope of rules to include
financial services (such as insurance), intellectual properties,
labor and agricultural produce

2. Rich nations are committed to cut their agricultural price

support programs (subsidies) by 20% by 2000.
Continuation of GATT

In 2003, at Cancun Mexico. Poor nations wanted subsidies reduced

further and also wanted the rich nations to open up their markets to
agricultural produce from poor nations by doing away with non-tariff
barriers such as inspections and red tape.

In 2004, at Doha, Quatar. Further talks on reduction of subsidies and

elimination of red tapes

In late 2005, at Hongkong. No agreement yet was finalized

Devolution of Extension Workers
Agricultural Extension before and after devolution

RA 680 Extension Act of 1984

RA 7160 - Local Govt Code Devolution of extension workers to LGU

Comparison of the practice of agricultural extension before and after 1991


1. Source of authority RA 680 RA 7160 Ag. Ext.
and its mandate must be devolved to
LGU. It is the
responsibility of LGU to
provide services to
2. Clientele Farmers, women and Farmers and fisherfolk
youth and silent on women
and youth
Continuation of comparison


3. Message/subjects General agriculture VAGUE just farmer and
Home management fisher folk, purely
Rural youth dev technology on
agriculture and fisheries

4. Organizational National->provincial -> VAGUE no clear

structure Municipality -> barangay structure
Can easily pinpoint

5. Processes/ Extension methods and Not followed bec they

approaches/ approaches can afford to hire subject
methods of work matter specialist and
communication networks
6. Human resources 12 -17 T 25T
7. Financing and All provided by the RA1760 does bot
funding national gov;t. RA680 provide budget for
has provision extension
Requires vehicle manufacturers and owners as well as
oil companies to use fuels diluted with sugar or starch-
derived alcohol to reduce the countrys dependence on
imported fuel and promote cleaner air.
Requires a minimum one percent of biofuel to be
blended with diesel within the first year of its affectivity,
a percentage that will be raised to four five percent
within two years.
Also mandates the blending of bioethanol in gasoline
sold locally.
Provides tax exemption, financial assistance and other
incentives to encourage investments in the biofuels
Expected to lead to the reduction of the
pollution caused by fossil fuel
Expected to realize P29 B foreign
exchange savings as a result of 657
million liters of biofuels to substitute
imported diesel and gasoline products.
Alternative Fuel Vehicles/Engines shall refer to vehicles/engines that
use alternative fuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, natural gas,
electricity, hydrogen, and automotive LPG, instead of gasoline and

Bioethanol shall refer to ethanol (C2H5OH) produced from feedstock

and other biomass;

Biodiesel - shall refer to Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) or mono-alkyl

esters derived from vegetable oils or animal fats and other biomass-
derived oils that shall be technically proven and approved by the DOE
for use in diesel engines with quality specifications in accordance with
the Philippine National Standards (PNS);
Bioethanol Fuel shall refer to hydrous or
anhydrous bioethanol suitably denatured for
use as motor fuel, with quality specifications in
accordance with the PNS;
Biofuel shall refer to bioethanol and biodiesel
and other fuels made from biomass and
primarily used for motive, thermal and power
generation with quality specifications in
accordance with the PNS
Biofuel blends shall refer to gasoline or diesel that has
been blended with biofuels such as, but not limited to,
bioethanol and biodiesel;

Biomass shall refer to any organic matter, particularly

cellulosic or lignocellulosic matter, which is available
on a renewable or recurring basis, including trees,
crops and associated residues, plant fiber, poultry litter
and other animal wastes, industrial wastes, and the
biodegradable component of solid waste.

Feedstock - shall refer to organic sources such as

molasses, sugarcane, cassava, coconut, jatropha,
sweet sorghum or other biomass used in the
production of biofuels.
Role of the Department of Energy and of other
Government Agencies

The Department of Energy.

prepare the Philippine Biofuel Program consistent with
the Philippine Energy Plan and taking into
consideration the DOEs existing biofuels program and
the programs of other government agencies.
Establish technical fuel quality standards for biofuels
and biofuelblended gasoline and diesel which comply
with the PNS;
Accredit producers and distributors of biofuels and
developers / owners

The Department of Science and Technology.

Coordinate with the DA in identifying and developing

viable feedstock
for the production of biofuels;
Develop and implement, through the Philippine Council
for Industry and Energy Research and Development
(PCIERD), a research and development program
supporting a sustainable improvement in biofuel
production and utilization technology. For this purpose,
the DOST shall establish a network of academic and
research institutions.
Publish and promote related technologies developed
locally and
The Department of Agriculture.

Coordinate with the DOST in identifying and developing viable feedstock for
the production of biofuels;
Develop a national program for the production of crops for use as feedstock
For this purpose, the Administrators of the SRA and the PCA, and other DA-
related agencies shall, within their authority, develop andimplement
policies in support of the Philippine Biofuel Program and submit the
same for consideration by to the Secretary of the DA
Ensure increased productivity and sustainable supply of biofuel feedstocks.
The DA shall institute a program that would guarantee that a sufficient
and reliable supply of feedstocks is allocated for biofuel production; and
Publish information on available and suitable areas for cultivation and
production of biofuel crops.
In cooperation with SRA, PCA, other attached agencies, and bureaus, shall
undertake, the identification and publication of potential areas suitable for
the expansion and production of raw materials as
feedstocks for biofuels.
The Sugar Regulatory AdministrationSection and The
Philippine Coconut Authority

Review and assess the policies, projects and activities of

all other
government agencies related to the National Biofuel
Program and
integrate/adopt them into the National Coconut Industry
development program;

Pursuant to its mandate under Executive Order No. 18

and the Act, the SRA shall Ensure that the supply of
sugar is sufficient to meet the domestic demand and
that the price of sugar is stable.
The Local Government Units.

The Local Government Units shall assist the DOE in monitoring the
distribution, sale and use of biofuels and biofuel-blends by:
1.ensuring strict implementation of local permitting requirements
pertaining to
businesses engaged in the distribution and sale of biofuels and
biofuel blends;
2.order the closure of any business engaged in the distribution
and sale of biofuel and biofuel blends found to be operating
without the necessary permits and licenses;
3.reporting to the DOE violations of the Act being committed by
any personinvolved in the distribution, sale, and use of biofuels
and biofuel-blends;
4.revoke local permits previously issued to business entities found
to have violated pertinent rules and regulations of the DOE and
other concerned government
agencies, upon the recommendation of the DOE or the concerned
agency, as thecase
Oil Companies
1 Blending of Biofuels
2 Supply and Distribution
3. In the event of supply shortage of locally-produced
bioethanol during
the first four-year period of the Act, oil companies may
seek accreditation to import
bioethanol from the DOE in accordance with existing
Biofuel Producers

1 Accreditation of Biofuels Producer

a) Any individual or entity intending to engage in the production of
biofuels shall apply for accreditation as biofuel producer with
the DOE.
The DOE shall, in consultation with the stakeholders, issue
the appropriate guidelines for this purpose, which shall
indicate the requirements for quality assurance, quality
management system, and analogous quality
production standards.
b) Pending the issuance of these guidelines, only those biofuel
producers who have existing accreditation under existing
DOE guidelines shall be allowed to produce and sell biofuels
to the public.
Importer End-Users
End users who are direct importers of diesel or
gasoline shall also be subject to the required use of
the mandated biofuel blend. To determine their
compliance, such entities shall submit the following, in
addition to what may be
required under detailed guidelines that may be issued
by the DOE:
a) Monthly report to the DOE of its importation
and consumption of gasoline/diesel;
b) Monthly report on the purchase and
consumption of biofuels
Executive Order 710

Nationwide adoption of the corn-based

farmer-scientists research, development
and extension (RDE) training program
for sustainable agricultural development
to liberate poor farmers from the
bondage of poverty and hunger
First piloted in Argao, Cebu in 1994

Expanded province-wide in Cebu in all six towns of

Siquijor, some towns in Negros Oriental and Leyte in
the Visayas, San Jose Occidental Mindoro in Luzon
and Laak in Compostela Valley province in Mindanao

Has successfully demonstrated that small marginalized

farmers can be empowered with scientific knowledge of
farming to produce more than enough corn for food with
a surplus for sale, along with their production of
vegetables, fruits and livestock, resulting in farmers
increased income by more than 100 percent
Scope and coverage of FSTP

All upland areas where most farmers grow corn

and other crops for food

Priority are those living in 6th,5th and 4th class

municipalities in the ten priority provinces under
the Hunger Mitigation Program
Climate Change Act of 2009.



Climate Change refers to a change in climate that can be identified by

changes in the mean and/or variability of its properties and that persists for an
extended period typically decades or longer, whether due to natural variability
or as a result of human activity.
Adaptation refers to the adjustment in natural or human systems in response
to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or
exploits beneficial opportunities.

Adaptive capacity refers to the ability of ecological, social or

economic systems to adjust to climate change including climate
variability and extremes, to moderate or offset potential damages and
to take advantage of associated opportunities with changes in climate
or to cope with the consequences thereof.

Anthropogenic causes refer to causes resulting from human activities or

produced by human beings.
Climate Variability refers to the variations in the average state and in other
statistics of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of
individual weather events.

Climate Risk refers to the product of climate and related hazards

working over the vulnerability of human and natural ecosystems.

Disaster refers to a serious disruption of the functioning of a

community or a society involving widespread human, material,
economic or environmental losses and impacts which exceed the
ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own
Disaster risk reduction refers to the concept and practice of reducing disaster risks
through systematic efforts to analyze and manage the causal factors of disasters,
including through reduced exposure to hazards, lessened vulnerability of people
and property, wise management of land and the environment, and improved
preparedness for adverse events.

Gender mainstreaming refers to the strategy for making womens as well

as mens concerns and experiences an integral dimension of the design,
implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of policies and programs in all
political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit
equally and inequality is not perpetuated. It is the process of assessing the
implications for women and men of any planned action, including
legislation, policies, or programs in all areas and at all levels.

Global Warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the

Earths near-surface air and oceans that is associated with the increased
concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Greenhouse effect refers to the process by which the absorption of infrared
radiation by the atmosphere warms the Earth.

Greenhouse gases (GHG) refers to constituents of the atmosphere

that contribute to the greenhouse effect including, but not limited to,
carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons and sulfur hexafluoride.

Mitigation in the context of climate change, refers to human intervention to

address anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all
GHG, including ozone- depleting substances and their substitutes.
Mitigation potential shall refer to the scale of GHG reductions that could be
made, relative to emission baselines, for a given level of carbon price
(expressed in cost per unit of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions avoided or

Sea level rise refers to an increase in sea level which may be

influenced by factors like global warming through expansion of sea
water as the oceans warm and melting of ice over land and local
factors such as land subsidence.

Vulnerability refers to the degree to which a system is susceptible to, or unable

to cope with, adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and
extremes. Vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of
climate change and variation to which a system is exposed, its sensitivity, and its
adaptive capacity.
Climate Change Commission.
Powers and Functions

(a) Ensure the mainstreaming of climate change, in synergy with disaster risk
reduction, into the national, sectoral and local development plans and
(b) Coordinate and synchronize climate change programs of national
government agencies;
(c) Formulate a Framework Strategy on Climate Change to serve as the basis
for a program for climate change planning, research and development,
extension, and monitoring of activities on climate change;
(d) Exercise policy coordination to ensure the attainment of goals set in the
framework strategy and program on climate change;
(e) Recommend legislation, policies, strategies, programs on and
appropriations for climate change adaptation and mitigation and other related
(f) Recommend key development investments in climate- sensitive sectors
such as water resources, agriculture, forestry, coastal and marine resources,
health, and infrastructure to ensure the achievement of national sustainable
development goals;
Climate Change Commission

g) Create an enabling environment for the design of relevant and appropriate risk-
sharing and risk-transfer instruments;
(h) Create an enabling environment that shall promote broader multi-stakeholder
participation and integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation;
(i) Formulate strategies on mitigating GHG and other anthropogenic causes of
climate change;
(j) Coordinate and establish a close partnership with the National Disaster
Coordinating Council in order to increase efficiency and effectiveness in reducing
the peoples vulnerability to climate-related disasters;
(k) In coordination with the Department of Foreign Affairs, represent the
Philippines in the climate change negotiations;
(l) Formulate and update guidelines for determining vulnerability to climate change
impacts and adaptation assessments and facilitate the provision of technical
assistance for their implementation and monitoring;
(m) Coordinate with local government units (LGUs) and private entities to address
vulnerability to climate change impacts of regions, provinces, cities and
(n) Facilitate capacity building for local adaptation planning, implementation and
monitoring of climate change initiatives in vulnerable communities and areas;
(o) Promote and provide technical and financial support to local research and
development programs and projects in vulnerable communities and areas; and
(p) Oversee the dissemination of information on climate change, local
vulnerabilities and risks, relevant laws and protocols and adaptation and mitigation