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American Revolution

[American War of Independence]


(1775-1783)
Revolution
=a struggle for a complete change in the existing
(1)political, (2) economic, (3)social and even (4)cultural system.

Political revolution
= overthrows the old government and starts up a new one,
resulting in violence and bloodshed
Background
People wanted
independence Rule of
Glorious Revolution The Enlightenment
absolute monarchs
& freedom

after the voyages of discovery 17th 18th centuries


Mid 17th century 1688

1)Britain / France/ Portugal/ Spain 1) Emphasized importance of reason


1)Absolute monarchs ruled most 1) Glorious Revolution in Britain succeeded
set up colonies nation-states in Europe
in American /Africa /Asia 2)Enlightenment thinkers ****
2) Good example for fighting against
2)people criticize this absolute monarchs
2)People in the colonies did not like 3) Enlightenment ideas encouraged revolutions
foreign rules

3)wanted independence & freedom


American
declaration
of
independence

Right of
Right Government
life, property and liberty
to revolt against tyranny protect
peoples right
American
Constitution

People should have Power should be separated into Republican form of government
political & religion Freedom the executive, legislative & judicial branches is ideal!
Inspired the French Revolution
& some monarchs to carry out reforms

Should be
Freedom of speech Constitutional monarchy
no oppression & religious intolerance
is ideal!
in France
Declaration of the Right of Man Social contract
<<>> <<>>
Theres a social contract between
government and people

Society based on justice, People have right to make law Everyone is equal before the law
everyone should
respect and enjoy Monarchs right to rule is given by the people,
freedom not by god
Cause
Influence of
Love for Discontent with the Taxation the
freedom British policies problem enlightenment

1)People came to 1)In order to get 1) After the Seven years War, 1) Spread of
American to escape cheap materials & a big market, Britain collect tax Enlightenment ideas
absolute monarchs Britain controlled trade to pay for new army to North America
in the American colonies
2) The British parliament
2)Britains control is passed a number of acts
2)Colonists know they
viewed as taking away 2)lead to discontent to tax the colonies had the right to
their freedom among colonies (Sugar Act/ Stamp Act/ Townshend Acts) overthrow British rules

3)colonists thought there should be


no taxation without
representation,
(they have no representative in the
British parliament)
Course
Turning
Conflicts Outbreak points End

3/1770 4/1775 4 July 1776 1781


Boston Massacre Fighting at Lexington Declaration of Independence Battle of Yorktown
(Surrender of Britain)
12/1773 5/1775 10/1777
Boston Tea Party Second Continental Congress Battle of Saratoga 1783
(American won) Treaty of Paris
9/1774 (Britain recognized the
First Continental Congress independence of American)
Results
Birth of the American Constitution Spread of revolutionary ideas
Unites States of America

1783
The United States of America Federal government
was officially born (representatives of states)

(13 states unite into a country) First President: George Washington

Separation of power