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PARTS OF A

RESEARCH
PAPER
Seeing Your Paper as a Whole
What are the parts of a
Research Paper?
CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM AND
ITS BACKGROUND
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF
RELATED LITERATURE AND
STUDIES
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN
AND METHODOLOGY
What are the parts of a
Research Paper?
CHAPTER 4 PRESENTATION,
ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY OF
FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Others
INITIAL PAGES
Title Page
Approval Sheet
Abstract
Acknowledgement
Dedication
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEM
AND ITS BACKGROUND
Introduction- the first chapter of
your research paper starts with the
introduction. This is where you
provide an introduction to the topic
of your thesis: you give the context
in terms of content of the research
project.
At present, collaboration is a must term to
students who aim to learn not only within
themselves but with the help of others.
There is a need to connect and work along
with other people especially now that we
are in the changing and modern world. We
must commit ourselves into globalization by
having sensitivity to other cultures or
groups as well as we need to have the
ability of collaborating with them. In order
to meet the needs of working and learning
together, teachers in our school need to
facilitate collaborative learning in the
classroom setting.
According to the research by Johnson, Johnson and
Holubec, in a collaborative learning environment, teachers serve
as navigators and guides as students work together to achieve
the objectives of the lesson. This view of the teacher as a guide
on the side instead of a sage on the stage empowers students
to make connections and meaningful applications in their work.
Collaborative learning strategies encourage students
development of critical thinking skills as well as important social
skills. Therefore, it is not only that the students are given the
chance to work with others but also; they were already developing
one of the most important skills that a learner must have, the
social skills. When a student learns to approach other people
with confidence and intelligence, it would be much easier for him
to communicate well with others as well as gain ideas from them.
It is much when a student also learn or we must say develop their
critical thinking skills aside from their social skills because
through the use of collaborative learning, they are empowered to
share what they have in mind and express it just so everybody
could know what are their ideas and so brainstorming happens
among them.
This method gives the encouragement to the
learners for them to depend on each others side
but not at all times. Such activities are given to
them from their teachers so that collaborative
learning is tested. The teachers are the ones who
guide them all throughout the activities but not as
much as feeding them all with the information
they needed to know. It is still their experience in
working with others that will fully teach them in
the process. It is the development of their
personalities in different aspects. The students
application and achievement of the objectives
must be well performed in order for them to see
progress within them.
We decided to concentrate on the implementation of
collaborative learning and what it can bring to the
3rd year college students of the Philippine Womens
University. Students who are able to bounce ideas
off each other and learn from each other learn more
effectively. When teachers incorporate collaborative
learning into their instruction, students benefit
greatly and learn comprehensively. This also
enhances a lot more of their confidence in oral
matters through expressing their thoughts while
brainstorming in the group that they belong to.
Collaboration helps students develop critical
thinking, problem-solving, and social skills that are
vital for their current and future development.
CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEM
AND ITS BACKGROUND
Background of the Study
includes purpose and reason
behind the conduct of the
study. (What made you
conduct the study?) Also
serves as the introduction.
Research Locale
This study is conducted inside the campus of The
Philippine Womens University or PWU. It is a non-
stock, non-profit, non-sectarian educational
institution duly existing under the laws of the
Republic of the Philippines.
It is an educational institution that promotes
knowledge through a holistic education that
treasures heritage, and imbues the core values of
personal integrity and spirituality, family solidarity
and community participation. It is located at 1743
Taft Avenue, Manila City, Metro Manila aligned with
other several school institutions popular in the
place.
CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEM
AND ITS BACKGROUND
Statement of the Problem the
main problem that the research is
trying to solve. It follows the
formulation of the title and should
be faithful to it. It specifically points
the important questions that the
study needs to answer. It also serves
as the bases of the questionnaire.
This study aims to determine the extent of
implementation of using the collaborative learning
method in classroom instruction among the 3rd
year college students of the Philippine Womens
University. Specifically, it seeks to answer the
following questions:
1.) What are the most common and uncommon
activities associated to showcase collaborative
learning in the classroom?
2.) To what extent do college students accept the
idea of collaborating with others?
3.) What other learning plans of activities can be
proposed to further improve students
collaborative skills?
CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEM
AND ITS BACKGROUND
Significance of the Study (Why
conduct the study?) You have to
identify who will benefit from the
research and how they will be
benefitted. This should match with
the Recommendations.
Assumptions of the Study/Hypothesis
the expected outcome of the
research.
Hypothesis/Assumption of the
study
The 3rd year college students
of Philippine Womens
University fully accept the use of
collaborative learning in their
studies especially in the
classroom instruction.
Significance of the study
Collaborative learning is defined as a situation in which two or more
people learn or attempt to learn something together. It is considered as
one of the most useful and effective methods in the teaching- learning
process.
The following will be benefited from this study:
Learners. The result of this study can give them ideas that learning can
be more meaningful if you are working with others. This will offer them
the effects and advantages as they work with other people.
Parents. This study will inform the parents about the activities that their
children are exposed to. They will be aware of the engagements that
their children are doing when inside the classroom and how will this
help their children in the learning process.
Teachers/Professors. They can enrich the development of collaborative
learning by making it as a major method to impose learning to the
students. This will be a motivation for them to tell the learners that
learning do not just take place by yourself but also by getting input from
other people.
CHAPTER 1. THE PROBLEM
AND ITS BACKGROUND
Scope and Limitations of the Study
determines the coverage of the study and
all the things that it will not cover in order
to be specific.
Definition of Terms defines technical
terms based on how they are used in the
study, specifically in the title. This aims to
provide the readers or future researches
with the basic terminologies that are
important to understand the paper.
Scope and limitation
This study deals mainly on the effects that
collaborative learning method can bring to
the 3rd year college students of The
Philippine Womens University Manila.
The researchers focused on the identifying
the benefits that collaborative learning can
give to college students. Also, it tackles on
the performance of the collaborative
activities and its enhancement through the
facilitation and initiation of the teacher. This
will also show statements of various activities
relevant to use when collaborative method is
presented.
Definition of terms
These are lists of terms that are conceptually and
operationally defined for the convenience and better
understanding of the reader.
Collaborative Learning. It is a type of learning that is based
on the idea that learning is a naturally social act in which the
participants talk among themselves. It is through the talk that
learning occurs (Gerlach, 1994).
Communication skill. It refers to the fluency on expressing
information and ideas to others clearly and effectively.
Critical thinking skills. These are skills wherein a person
started in creating or making well thought and reasoned
judgment.
Curriculum. It is a planned instruction that focuses on the
students experiences that happened in the educational
process. Curriculum is also known set of learning goals that is
constructed based on the needs of the students.
CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This is where you will use your note cards
and will serve as the foundation of your
research.
This is your own work and therefore
should not directly lift words from other
sources. This will require your command
of language and writing skills such as
summarizing, paraphrasing and writing
indirect speeches.
CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF RELATED
LITERATURE AND STUDIES
Step 1 Organize your note cards on how
you would want them to appear in the
chapter.
Step 2 Begin writing the chapter while
including the surnames of authors who
provided sources for your study and the
publication date of their work in
parentheses.
Step 3 Edit. Rewrite.
This chapter presents the
reviews of related literature and
studies that are relevant to the
present study and have given the
researchers enough insight on
how collaborative learning
strategy can be beneficial to the
students to further improve their
learning experiences.
The Historical Perspective of Collaborative
Learning
Over two-hundred years ago, George Jardine, a
professor of logic and philosophy at the
University of Glasgow from 1774 to 1826,
designed a method of peer review to help
prepare his students for full participation in
British society. He created an extensive practical
plan for using modern concepts such as free
writing, sequenced essay assignments, writing
as discovery, writing across the curriculum, and
peer review, as well as traditional lectures, to
teach philosophy to underprepared students
and to train them for careers in business and
science. He was able to assess the needs and
learning habits of his non-traditional students
and tailored his teaching style accordingly.
Collaborative Learning Enhances Critical
Thinking
The concept of collaborative learning, the
grouping and pairing of students for the
purpose of achieving an academic goal, has
been widely researched and advocated
throughout the professional literature. The
term "collaborative learning" refers to an
instructional method in which students at
various performance levels work together in
small groups toward a common goal. The
students are responsible for one another's
learning as well as their own; they have to
learn from one another (Anuradha A. Gokhale,
1995).
CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Research Design the kind of
research used by your study. This
answers why the method used is
appropriate for the study.
Participants of the study describes
your respondents: who they are, what
their profile is, where they are from,
etc.
Quantitative methods include experiments, surveys,
and statistical analysis, among others. Qualitative
methods include participant observation, interviews,
and content analysis.
Qualitative research is a method of inquiry employed
in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in
the social sciences, but also in market research and
further contexts. Qualitative researchers aim to gather
an in-depth understanding of human behavior and the
reasons that govern such behavior. The qualitative
method investigates the why and how of decision
making, not just what, where, and when. Hence,
smaller but focused samples are more often needed
than large samples.
Quantitative methods are
generally useful when a
researcher seeks to study large-
scale patterns of behavior, while
qualitative methods are often
more effective when dealing
with interactions and
relationships in detail .
This study involves only three of the twelve
schools in PWU- Manila. The (School A) School of
Music has a good reputation in its field and its
own department. The (School B) Conrado
Benitez Institute of Business Education
continues to the tradition of service and
academic excellence and at the same time
produce graduates who are not only equipped
with skills for a job market but who also can lead
in raising the ethical standards and practices of
the business community. The (School C) School
of Arts and Sciences is responsible for the
freshmen program in terms of its curricular
content and implementation.
The participants of the study are sixty (60)
students from different department of Philippine
Womens University-Manila.
Gender Number of participants %

Female 31 51%

Male 29 49%

Number of participants %

School A 20 33.33 %

School B 20 33.33 %

School C 20 33.33 %

TOTAL 60 100 %
CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Research Instrument describes
your instrument which is the
questionnaire.
Data Gathering Procedure
narrates the process undergone
by the study that eventually leads
to the findings.
The researchers created and conducted a
survey test to determine the implementation of
collaborative learning to the 3rd year students of
the Philippine Womens University Manila. The
survey aims to learn the effects of the
implementation of group work/activity to college
students to know the suitable strategies and
methodologies for collaborative learning. Also, this
is to know the perception (can be
positive/negative) of the college students in using
collaborative learning in their class. With this test,
the researchers can come up with a clear idea on
what activities and strategies to suggest that will
be useful for the learners and teachers.
Data Gathering Procedure
The data gathered in this research came through the
use of a survey test. The test created used appropriate
questions and statements that are based from related
literature and also individual questions constructed by
the researchers. The survey test is composed of 15
statements that focused on the students idea and
perception in collaborative learning. Also, this is to know
what collaborative activities are commonly and
uncommonly used in the classroom.
Checklist type of survey. To determine what is the level
or to what extent that the collaborative learning is used
in their classes. After the professor approved the survey
test, the questionnaires were given to the 3rd year
students from different schools of Philippine Womens
University- Manila. The researchers shall respect the
decision of the participants to be anonymous in the test
questionnaire to ensure that they will give their honest
answer without the anxiety, for a more accurate and
effective data gathering. The researcher gave the
participants enough time to answer the survey test.
CHAPTER 3. RESEARCH
DESIGN METHODOLOGY
Statistical Treatment Applied/Treatment
of Data - The statistical treatment that
you will use which includes your
sampling method and formulas to come
up with findings out of the data
gathered.
In this study we used two types of formula to come up with
the accurate answer that are needed to justify the study.
The percentage formula was used to get the number for the
common and uncommon activities that are located in the
first part of the questioner (Table 1. Common and
Uncommon Cooperative Learning Activities). The
percentage for each activity identifies whether the activity is
common or uncommon to the respondents.

The formula used in getting the percentage is:


N=(Total number of respondent)
_______________________________ X 100
(Total number of respondents) (60)
Interpretation of mean
Mean Interpretation

Always 3.52-4.00 Large extent

Often 2.51-3.50 Moderate extent

Sometimes 1.51-2.50 Little extent

Rarely 1.00-1.50 Very little extent

In this study, the mean was used to identify the level of


interpretation of the sentences in the second part of the
questionnaire (Table 2. Concept to the Strength and
Weaknesses of Cooperative Learning) belongs to. In order to
categorize, it is through the use of mean that we have
arranged and assigned them to with the corresponding
interpretation from the table above that have the range of
mean to assume the for the computation.
The formula in getting the mean is:
Given:
R= Respondents
N=Total respondents

1(r) +2(r) +3(r) +4(r)


Mean = ______________
N=60
CHAPTER 4. PRESENTATION,
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF
DATA
Results of the Study presents all the
data gathered using the questionnaire
by tabulating all the gathered
information. Aside from the tables, an
interpretation of each presented data
should follow. These will serve as the
bases of your Summary of Findings.
The table shown below shows
different collaborative learning
activities which are labeled in
common and uncommon
manner, this reveals the data we
have gathered through our
procedure and analysis.
Table 1. Common and uncommon
collaborative learning activities
Common Uncommon
N=60 N=60

F % f %

1. Brainstorming 53 88 % 7 12 %

1. Case studies 44 73 % 16 27 %

1. Group reports 57 94 % 3 6%

1. Guided reciprocal peer questioning 26 43 % 34 57 %

1. Team work 52 86 % 8 14 %

1. Double-entry journal/ paired annotations 23 38 % 37 62 %

1. Dyadic essays 29 48 % 31 52 %

1. Jigsaw 16 27 % 44 73 %

1. Online collaboration 40 67 % 20 33 %

1. Group Problem-solving 51 85 % 9 15 %

1. Send a problem 35 58 % 25 42 %

1. Think-pair-share 43 72 % 17 28 %

1. Knotty problem 20 33 % 40 67 %

1. Discussion leader 46 77 % 14 23 %

1. Uncommon commonalities 25 42 % 35 58 %
The Table above presents the common and uncommon
collaborative activities. As percentage in the table, the
following activities have the most checked like group
reports (94%), brain storming (88%), team work (86%),
group problem-solving (85%), discussion leader (77%)
most likely these are the activities that a 3rd year college
student encounter. These are the activities they are very
familiar with, which also means that the teacher
commonly use these group activities as an aid in their
teaching.
The 5 lowest activities are jigsaw (27%), knotty
problem (33%), double entry journal (38%), uncommon
commonalities (42%), and think-pair-share (43%). These
following activities are the uncommon activities for the 3rd
year college students. In this case it means that these are
the unexplored activities that the teacher can apply to the
class. The unfamiliarity of the game itself can be a good
way to motivate the learners.
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY,
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Summary of Findings
summarizes the interpretation of
data given in Chapter 4. These
should directly answer your
statement of the problem.
This chapter presents the
summary, findings, conclusions and
recommendations of the research
study. After gathering the data,
researchers have analyzed the data
in the study. Based on the research
data findings and conclusions was
made and after which
recommendations was formulated.
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY,
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Conclusions Out of your
findings, your conclusions are
based. This provides the answers
for every statement of the
problem. This is where you will
prove your hypotheses and
assumptions.
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY,
CONCLUSIONS AND
RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendations should be
directly based on the significance of
the study. This also includes the
recommended actions that should be
done after the conduct of the study
such as further assessment of the
subject, focus on other factors, etc.
Others

Title Page consists of the research title,


names of the researchers and name of
the English teacher.
Acknowledgement a personal page
where the researchers are given the
privilege to extend gratitude to all people
who helped in accomplishing the
research.
Others

Table of Contents contains the accurate


paging of each part of the research paper.
List of Tables/Figures contains the accurate
paging of the tables/figures used in the study.
Bibliography where you will use your source
cards. Presents the sources using APA or MLA
format.
Appendix (e.g., survey questionnaire,
interview questions) attachments