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Date:11/08/2016

SEMINAR ON

ALTERNATE FUELS
NAME: RAKESH KUMAR AMANTA
ROLL NO: ME-13-76
REGD NO: 1301230207
GROUP:ME2G1

Synergy Institute Of Engineering & Technology,Dkl


OVERVIEW
Introduction To Alternate Fuels
Why we choose Alternate Fuel ?
Different Types of Alternate Fuels
Road Block for Alternate Fuel !!!
Advantages and Disadvantages of Alcohol Fuels
Biodiesel As alternate fuel
Other possible Fuel
Conclusion
Reference
INTRODUCTION
Conventional Fuels:-
Fossil fuels (petroleum), coal, and nuclear materials such as
uranium.
Alternate Fuels:-
Also known as non-conventional fuels
Highly Oxidized, Sulphur Free, Environmental Friendly
Any materials or substances that can be used as fuels, other
than conventional fuels
Example:- Alcohol Fuel, Vegetable Oil,Biodiesel,Natural gas

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WHY WE CHOOSE ALTERNATE FUEL

Conventional Fuels are going to run out


To reduce pollution
To protect against Global Warming
To save money
Biodegradable and non-toxic
Easy to handle and store
Rural Development

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DIFFERENT TYPES OF ALTERNATE
FUELS:-
Alcohol fuels (ethanol & methanol)
Water gasoline mixture
Vegetable oil
Biodiesel
Hydrogen
LPG & CNG
Electricity
benzol etc

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ETHANOL
Ethanol is a renewable, domestically produced alcohol fuel made
From plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using
ethanol can reduce oil dependence and greenhouse gas (GHG)
emissions. Ethanol fuel use in the U.S. has increased dramatically
from about 1.7 billion gallons in 2001 to about 16.4 billion in 2016

Ethanol is also known as ethyl alcohol. Its the alcohol in beer, wine,
rum, vodka, etc.

Ethanol was used to fuel some of the first automobiles

The first production car running entirely on ethanol was the Fiat
147, introduced in 1978 in Brazil by Fiat.
ETHANOL
Alcohol-based alternative fuel produced by fermenting and
distilling starch crops or cellulose
Most commonly used to increase octane and improve the
emissions quality of gasoline.
Can be blended with gasoline to create E85, a blend of 85%
ethanol and 15% gasoline.(FLEX FUEL)
An excellent, clean-burning fuel, has a higher octane rating
(over 100) and burns cooler than gasoline.

High ethanol blends present a problem to achieve


enough vapor pressure for the fuel to evaporate and spark the
ignition during cold weather

Alternate fuels.
World country 2013 2010 2009 2008 2007
rank

1
United States 13,900.00 13,231.00 10,938.00 9,235.00 6,485.00

2 Brazil
5,573.24 6,921.54 6,577.89 6,472.20 5,019.20

4 China
554.76 541.55 541.55 501.90 486.00

7 India
91.67 66.00 52.80

Annual fuel ethanol production by country


(20072013)
Methanol
Of all the fuel being considered as an alternate to gasoline,
methanol is one of the most promising and experienced
major research and development.
Methanol, also known as wood alcohol, can be used as an
alternative fuel in flexible fuel vehicles that run on M85
The benefits include lower emissions, higher performance, and
lower risk of flammability than gasoline
Methanol can easily be made into hydrogen for hydrogen fuel cell
vehicles in the future.
Methanol is extremely corrosive, requiring special materials for
delivery and storage.

Chemical Formula: CH3OH , Density: 792 kg/m, Melting point: -97.6 C


VEGETABLE OIL
RUDOLF DIESEL Designed a diesel engine in 1984 to run on
peanut oil.

The use of vegetable oils for engine fuel may seem insignificant today. But
such oils may become in the course of time as important as petroleum an
coal tar products of the present time.
-An Extract from Diesels speech in 1912
Most diesel car engines are suitable for the use of straight
vegetable oil (SVO), also commonly called pure plant oil (PPO),
with certain modifications. Principally, the viscosity and surface
tension of the SVO/PPO must be reduced by preheating it,
typically by using waste heat from the engine or electricity,
otherwise poor atomization, incomplete combustion
and carbonization may result. One common solution is to add
a heat exchanger and an additional fuel tank for the petrodiesel
or biodiesel blend and to switch between this additional tank and
the main tank of SVO/PPO. The engine is started on diesel,
switched over to vegetable oil as soon as it is warmed up and
switched back to diesel shortly before being switched off to
ensure that no vegetable oil remains in the engine or fuel lines
when it is started from cold again
BIODIESEL
Biodiesel is a domestically produced, renewable fuel that can be
manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled
restaurant greases.
Biodiesel is safe, biodegradable, and reduces air pollutants such
as particulates, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and air toxics.
Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form but it may require
certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and
performance problems and may not be suitable for wintertime
use.
Need to heat storage tanks in colder climates to prevent the fuel
from gelling
IMPORTANCE OF BIODIESEL
Environmental friendly
Clean burning
Renewable fuel
No engine modification
Increase in engine life

Biodegradable and non-toxic


Easy to handle and store
Complete CO2 cycle
Sulphur free
Fatty acid alkyl ester prepared from any oil or fat.

TRANSESTERIFICATION

FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER IS WELL KNOWN MOILECULE FOR VEGETABLE OIL.
BIODIESEL CO2 CYCLE

BIODIESEL

NO FOSSILE CO2 RELEASED : NO GLOBAAL WARMING


HYDROGEN:-

Not occur free in nature in useful quantities,


but it is manufactured in a number of ways
Advantages
Emits only water vapour, assuming there is no leakage of
hydrogen gas
It can store up to 3x as much energy as conventional
natural gas.
Produced domestically.
Environmentally friendly.

Disadvantages
Itstill costs a considerable amount of money to run a
hydrogen vehicle
Dangerous
A potentially emissions-free alternative fuel produced from domestic resources.
Not widely used today as a transportation fuel
COMPRESSED NATURAL GAS

It is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill, because natural gas is lighter than
air and disperses quickly when released
Advantag Disadvant
es
itcan be efficiently and
safely stored.
ages
still doescreate greenhouse
gas emissions.
more environmentally highly volatile and can be
friendly due to its low dangerous is handled or
emissions after burning. transported carelessly.
most of the natural reserves they aren't as roomy as
of natural gas field are gasoline cars.
underutilized. higher overall costs of a
Improve lubrication natural-gas vehicle
because the cylinders are compared to a gasoline-
not washed by petrol powered car.
excess