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Environmental Overview

Market
Use of TPE in a variety of fields is still
Production of Tetraphenylethylene Significant environmental risks exist in the
proposed TPE production route. Small
being researched further. In the Bradley Siefker, Raymond Schratz, amount of chemical release poses a risk to
biomedical imaging field TPE has the
potential to be used as a metal-free
David Devlin, Trevor Langton have disastrous and long term effects on the
environment. Any solid or liquid component
fluorescent biomarking chemical Dr. Amy Ciric released must be quarantined immediately to
backbone. Additional applications may prevent runoff and exposure to animal life.
exist as a coating to improve solar cell Project Criteria All chemicals used may pose some
efficiencies and in OLED TVs. Mostly Production Rate: 10,000 tons/year Purity: >99.5% Constraints: Metal-Free Product significant environmental risk and
a commodity chemical at present with emphasize the need for proper release
unit costs of $657/kg. Proposed Production Flow Sheet controls.
List Significant Chemical Hazards
Hazard Code Hazard Meaning Relevant Chemicals
H300 Fatal if swallowed PCl3 , POCl3
H301 Toxic if swallowed Nickel-Glyme
H330 Fatal if inhaled PCl3 , PCl5 , POCl3
H331 Toxic if inhaled Cl2
H350/H351 May cause cancer Nickel-Glyme , Benzophenone
H372/H373 Damage to organs from PCl3, PCl5 , POCl3
repeated exposure
List of Acute Chemical Exposure Hazard Limits
Toxicity Test Cl2 PCl3 PCl5 Benzophenone POCl3
LC50 Inhalation 293 ppm 0.586 ppm 24 ppm - 32 ppm
1 hour 4 hours 4 hours 4 hours
LD50 Dermal - - - 3,535 -
(mg/kg)

Reaction Chemistry LD50 Oral


(mg/kg)
- 18 660 >10,000 36

Phosphorous Pentachloride Reaction Economics


0.5 Hour Residence Time 50 C, 1 atm Cost Type
Manufacturing Cost
Percentage Cost
85 $ 25,750,000
Direct Production Costs 73 $ 22,100,000
>99.9% Conversion Raw Materials
Operating Labor
60 $ 18,300,000
5 $ 1,520,000
Supervisory and Clerical Labor 1 $ 228,000
Utilities 0.3 $ 87,000
Maintenance and Repairs 2 $ 660,000

Equipment Information Operating Supplies


Laboratory Charges
Patents and Royalties
0.3 $ 82,000
1 $ 304,000
3 $ 910,000

Reactors Fixed Charges


Depreciation
Local Taxes
8 $ 2,440,000
2 $ 550,000
1 $ 440,000

Dichlorodiphenylmethane Production Reactors 3


Volume (m ) Material Heat Duty (MJ/hr) Source Insurance
Rent
0.4 $ 110,000
0.1 $ 14,000

4 Hour Residence Time 220 C, 1 atm


Financing 4 $ 1,320,000
PCl5 Reactor 0.36 Monel -351 Cooling Water Plant Overhead Costs 4 $ 1,210,000
General Expenses 15 $ 4,500,000
DPCM Reactor 11 Hastelloy C276 930 Fuel Fire Heater Adminstrative Costs 2 $ 490,000
POCl3 Byproduct TPE Reactor 3.46 Glass Lined Steel 666 Bottoms Product
Distribution
R&D
10 $ 3,100,000
3 $ 910,000
Total Product Cost 100 $ 30,250,000
>99.99% Conversion Heat Exchangers
ID Description 2
POCl3 unit price is $1.10/kg. At TPE
Area (m )
HX1 DPCM Condenser 2 price of $2.79/kg the DCFROR is 15%
HX2a Column Condenser 1.41
HX2b Column Condenser 4.53
HX3 POCl3 (Stream 7) 7.77 Conclusions & Future
HX4 TPE Reactor Heating 2.23

Tetraphenylethylene (TPE) Production HX5 Reboiler N/A


Work
2 Hour Residence Time 35 C, 1 atm Heat exchangers sized as shell and tube exchangers and Project financially viable even as
Nickle Glyme Catalyst constructed of Hastelloy C276. emerging market. Further analysis on
99.5% Conversion Separation Systems reaction kinetics, particularly in scale-
up. Finalize heat transfer equipment
Packed Distillation Column: 6.0mm Glass Raschig rings, Hastelloy Shell
dimensions. Conduct laboratory research
Magnetic Drum Separator: Nickel-glyme removal and recycle (Right)
on less environmentally hazardous
Centrifuge: Removal of DPCM from final product
reaction pathways.