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Study of

underground
drainage system

Kanakamedala Meghana (13UQ1A0124)


Komirisetty Rohit Kumar (13UQ1A0126)
S. Praveen (13UQ1A0148)
P. Karthik Goud (13UQ1A0136)
Contents
Introduction
Sewers
Layout and Construction of Sewers
Design procedure of sanitary sewer
Conclusion
introduction
The flow of waste liquids through a well
defined channel is known as Drainage and the
network of such channels is known as
Drainage system.
The drainage pattern of an area is the result of
the geological time period, nature, and
structure of rocks, topography, slope, etc.
Introduction
Drainage pattern

Following are the major drainage patterns


Dendritic
Radial
Centripetal
Trellis
dendritic
radial
centripetal
trellis
sewers

It is the pipe or conduit for carrying sewage. It


is generally closed and flow takes place under
gravity (Atmospheric Pressure).
sewers
Types of sewers

Sanitary Sewers
Storm Sewer
Combined Sewer
House Sewer
Lateral sewer
Sanitary sewer
Strom sewer
Combined sewer
House sewer
Lateral sewer
Procedure & construction of sewers
Setting out
Alignment and Gradient
Excavation
Pipe laying
Protection
Back filling
Man holes and chambers
Inspection chambers
Drainage connectors
Setting out
Alignment and Gradient
Excavation
Pipe laying
Factors considering for the
underground drainage are:
Rate of water supply
Population growth
Type of area served
Infiltration of ground water
Design procedure of sanitary sewer
1. Forecast the design population (P) of the area;
2. Find the sewage flow per day by multiplying population with flow
per day per capita of sewage. The sewage is taken as (70-80)% of
average water supply
3. Select a peaking factor (P.F) to find the peak sewage flow
4. Calculate the allowance for industrial and commercial sewage at the
rate of 3734 m3/km2/day
5. Calculate infiltration allowance of (5-10)% of average sewage flow
as
Qinf = (0.05 0.1) Qavg
6. Find the design sewage flow by adding Peak Flow industrial
allowance and infiltration flow
Qdesign = Qpeak + Qind + Qinf
Design procedure of sanitary sewer
Manning's Formula of Sanitary Sewer Equation
Normally, Mannings formula is used for design of sanitary sewer,
which is

Where
V = Velocity of sewage flow
R = Hydraulic radius= A/P
S = Slope of sewer
n = roughness co-efficient (0.013 0.015)
n = 0.01 (for smooth inside surface like PVC etc)
n = 0.013 (for brick masonry, concrete, RCC Pipe)
n = 0.017 (for stone masonry)
n = 0.025 (for earthen channels)
Design procedure of sanitary sewer
Chezys Formula for Sanitary Sewer

Where
C= Chezy constant value of c can be obtained by using either Kutters
formula or Bazins formula
According to Kutter Sanitary Sewer

According to Bazin Sanitary Sewer

Where
k = constant depending upon the nature of sewer
Design Procedure of Sanitary Sewer
What is the use of velocity ?
We know that Q=A.V
By this we will find the following components
Area of cross section
Wetted perimeter
Hydralic mean depth
What is the minimum velocity ?
it is better to say self cleaning velocity

8
Vs= ( 1)s

Wich is use to fix gradient or slope


Hydraulic design
What are the forces acting on sewear ?
Internal pressure of sewage


pt =
2

Temperature stresses
f=Ep..t
Back fill loads
Wc=C.2
Conclusion
A drainage system will include all the components needed to
ensure that the substructure is properly drained, and may be
formed of components such as open ditches, closed ditches with
pipe drains and drainage through storm water drainage pipes,
channels and culverts. Where there are changes in the terrain or
water flow (e.g. where streams are diverted), the drainage system
must be planned with particular care. Overloading can result in
major damage in the form of erosion and landslides.

It is important to select the right drainage system for particular


soil types as their different characteristics require different drainage
methods. Surveys have found that some farmers are unsure of the
characteristics of their soil types and so cannot determine which
method of drainage is best suited to their soils.