Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 51

Slide 1 of 43

Active Listening and


Effective Notetaking
Make the most of your class time

1
Hurneys Law
Half of the final exam questions will come
from the notes you missed in lectures.

Baxters Corollary
The other half will come from the notes you
cannot decipher.

2
Lecture Note-Taking Trivia
Why arent students taking notes or why do
they take notes poorly?

- Note taking will distract from listening.


- Notes are unnecessary b/c material is in
readings or on slides.
- Never had to do it before.
- Dont know how.
Why take notes?
Instructors share info. not available in
textbooks and then make connections.

Notes serve as a file of information.


for later use i.e. preparing for an exam, writing a paper and/or
for use in a more advanced course.

Taking notes helps you become an


active listener, a critical thinker and an
effective learner.

4
Why take notes?
Notes help you remember information!
Students who do NOT take notes in lecture will lose
information as follows:

After lecture: Material forgotten:


20 minutes 47%
1 day 62%
2 days 69%
10 weeks 75%
15 weeks 95%

Walter Pauk, How to Study in College (1997)


5
Slide 6 of 43

Lecture Note-Taking

1. Before Class
2. During Class
3. After Class
Slide 7 of 43

Tip #1

Prepare to listen.
Slide 8 of 43

Are hearing and listening the same thing?

No
Hearing Listening
physiological processing
seeking to understand
involves thinking
analyzing
YOU ARE ACTIVELY
INVOLVED!
Slide 9 of 43

Pre-Class Preparation

Complete assignments
Review the last days content
Preview that days content
read or survey chapter
create a chapter map
Slide 10 of 43

In-Class Preparation

Take course materials to class


Arrive on time
Sit near the front of the class
Have/get/create a purpose for listening

Everything you do is a choice


Slide 11 of 43

Tip #2

Develop a notetaking
system and format that
works for you.
Slide 12 of 43
What kind of system and format
works for you?
Running Text? Informal Outline?

Formal Outline?

Cornell Format? Another Format?


Slide 13 of 43

Running Text

NOTES ON NOTES:
This is an example of a running text system.
Notes are used to help you identify major
and minor points in a lecture.

A variety of notetaking styles include 1.)


running text (looks like a paragraph) 2.)
Formal outline,(Roman/Arabic numerals)
3.)informal outlines (symbols, indentions)
There are also different formats to
choose from, 1.)Cornell, and 2.) Several
others.
Slide 14 of 43

Formal Outline
NOTES ON NOTES:
I. Uses of Notes
A. identify major points in a lecture
B. identify minor points in a lecture

II. 3 different notetaking systems:


A. running text
B. formal outline
C. informal outline

III. Different Formats:


A. Cornell
B. Other
Slide 15 of 43

Informal Outline

NOTES ON NOTES:
Uses of notes
identify major points in a lecture
identify minor points in a lecture
4 different notetaking systems:
running text
formal outline
informal outline
2 kinds of format:
Cornell
Other
Slide 16 of 43

Cornell Note Format


Recall NOTES ON TAKING NOTES:

Column: Uses of notes


Reduce ideas identify major points
and facts to identify minor points
concise
summaries There are 4 Kinds of
and cues for
reciting, Notes:
reviewing and Running Text
reflecting Formal Outline
over HERE. Informal Outline
Cornell Note system
Recall Clue Column Record Column
Propaganda Techniques in Advertising
Intro
Propaganda used by politicians, writers.
Define "Propaganda" Also by advertisers.
Def: Messages intended to persuade audiences to adopt a certain opinion.
List 4 common tech. used by Advertisers use propaganda. 4 techniques common.
advertisers
1. Testimonial
Def: Celebrities used to pitch idea, sell product;
Audience associate star qualities of celebrity w/ product.
Define & explain Ex. Michael Jordan sells Nike shoes
"testimonial" technique
2. Bandwagon
Def: Encourages people to buy b/c e'one is doing it.
Ads urge you to get on board; don't get left out.
Define & explain Ex. "All over America, people are switching to...."
"bandwagon" technique
3. Plain Folks
Def: Product associated with ordinary folks like you & me.
Ads use "regular", next-door-neighbor types to sell product.
Define & explain "plain folks" Ex. New mother in hospital uses Tylenol.
technique
4. Transfer
Product associated with s'thing that is attractive or respectable.
Car ads show gorgeous model - audience transfer feelings about model to car.
Ads use patriotic symbols like bald eagle - audience transfers patriotic feelings
to product, company.
Define & explain "transfer" Ex. Wal-Mart claims to sell only made-in-USA products.
technique

SUMMARY:
Advertisers use propaganda.
Propaganda = Messages intended to persuade audiences to adopt a certain opinion.
4 common propaganda techniques used by advertisers:
1. Testimonial: celebrity endorses product.
2. Bandwagon: everybody is buying product.
3. Plain Folks: ordinary, non-glamorous people like us use it.
4. Transfer: transfer feelings of admiration to product.
The 7 Rs
The Keys to Good Notetaking:
Record
Recall

Reduce

Recapitulate

Recite

Reflect

Review

20
Cornell Note Taking Method (R7)
-2 inches- - 6 inches

1. RECORD
(during class)
3. REDUCE (1) write down facts and ideas in phrases
(after class) (2) use abbreviations when possible
(1) key words, phrases /
questions - cues
(2) cue phrases, questions 2. RECALL
- in your own words (after class)
(1) read through your notes
(2) fill in blanks and make scribbles more legible
5. RECITE
(1) with classroom notes 6. REVIEW & 7. REFLECT
covered, read each key (1) review your notes periodically
word /question (2) think about what you have learned
(2) recite the fact or
idea that comes to mind
by the key word /
question

4. RECAPITULATE (after class)


-2 inches - summarize each main idea
21
NOTETAKING METHODS 1. RECORD 5/28/08
3. Reduce
5. Recite: WHY?? Studied student
Why take notes? -Instructors share information retention rates,
wrote books on
-Active Learner -Serve as file of information studying i.e. How
-Effective learner? -Help you become active listener to Study in
College, 1997
-Walter Pauk? -Helps you become effective learner
-HELP YOU REMEMBER INFORMATION!! (Walter Pauk?)
Stay focused analyze think
How do you prepare? HOW TO GET READY? rapidly

-Syllabus whats there? -Review syllabus 2. Recall


-course objectives
-Test questions vs detail? -main topics + Class schedule, website, test dates, instructor
office hours, etc.
Why need to know? -assignments
-???
-Relationship of text to -Relationship between class and text
Is text important
class? -Identify testing supplement or info NOT
-types of questions discussed in class
-Why have a class buddy? -concepts vs details in notes
-ask instructor & other students
-Class buddy
-Why need/taking course (like or NOT)
-Choose effective method
4. Recapitulate
Note taking is important part of successful college studying. A students need to understand WHY and HOW good notes
will help them get good grades.

22
Edit and summarize here
Class
notes here

Your reflections, ideas & questions here


Other options for formats:
Slide 23 of 43
Slide 24 of 43
For example, notes may look
something like this:

Tip #2 Pick a notetaking system/format:


- Running Text
- Formal Outline
- Informal Outline
AND.. Pick a Format:
- Cornell
- Other
Slide 25 of 43

Tip #3

Communicate with
your instructor.
Slide 26 of 43

Professors can see you...

even in big lecture classes!


They tend to be warmest to those people who seem to
be most communicative. Professors want you to be a
thoughtful participant.

Non-verbalcommunication
Verbal communication
in class questions (see next slide)
out-of-class appointments
Slide 27 of 43

Ask questions in class

Avoid irrelevant questions


Maintain focus. Dont ask a
question about what was just
said as if you werent paying
attention
Give your instructor a place to
start. Preface what you dont
understand by what you do
understand.
Think of a question and ask it!
Slide 28 of 43

Tip #4

Avoid
Distractions!
Slide 29 of 43

External Distractions

windows/doors
other class members
seating choice
temperature
uncomfortable
clothes
noises
Slide 30 of 43

Internal Distractions

speakers delivery
worries
negative self-talk
Slide 31 of 43

Negative Mental Dialog

So, who cares?!


Im never going to
remember all of this.
I should have never
taken this class.
I wonder what I will
do after this class
What a stupid
question!
I wish I werent here.
Slide 32 of 43

Positive/Constructive Mental Dialog

I am curious about this


lecture.
How does this relate to
what I read for class?
How does this relate to
the last lecture?
Why is there this material
in the lecture?
Slide 33 of 43

Tip #5

Make your notes


efficient &
effective and
listen for the
essence of the
lecture.
Slide 34 of 43
Effective Listeners
& Ineffective Listeners
Effective listeners. . . Ineffective listeners. . .
actively look for tune out mentally
something of interest
focus on content, not judge the delivery
style
listen for main ideas & listen for facts rather than
their organization main ideas/organization
vary notetaking tools do not vary tools based
according to content on content.
work hard; maintain are passive mentally; give
active body posture up easily
Slide 35 of 43

Instructors Signals

writes on chalkboard describes a


repeats information sequence
speaks more slowly refers to information
gives a definition as a test item
lists a number of changes tone of
points/steps voice
explains why or how uses body language
things happen uses visual aids
refers to specific text
pages
Slide 36 of 43

A Bad Example of Notes


History 1202 A few tips...
World War II Record lecture date
Pearl Harbor Do not cram space;
1:00 bombing on Dec. 4
1:15
1:30
U.S. declared war ? use white space
1:45 US was not prepared after Dont fall asleep
2:00! all but..
Keep your personal
thoughts separate
duh
Keep other class
notes separate
2
(2+4)-A =???
Notetaking Tips
Keep a separate section of your notebook or binder
for each course.

Notes for each lecture should begin on a new page.

Date your lecture notes and number all pages.


Never use a sentence when you can use a phrase, or a
phrase when you can use a word.

Use abbreviations & symbols wherever possible.


37
Notetaking Tips (cont.)
Use indentations to distinguish major & minor points.

Put most notes in your own words. However, the following


should be noted exactly:

Formulas , Definitions, and Specific facts

Note down unfamiliar vocabulary and unclear areas.

If you should miss something completely, leave a blank


space and get it later.

Clear up misunderstandings / fill in missing info. by


consulting the lecturer, classmates, texts, additional readings.
38
Reviewing Notes: Slide 39 of 43

A Research Finding
Students who
reviewed within 1
hour after class...

recalled 70-80%

48 hours later!
(and you can maintain this
kind of retention when
you continue to review!)
Slide 40 of 43

Tip #6

Transform raw
notes into a
finished
product.
(after class)
Example of Raw Notes:
9/11
Psychology Class, Ch.3,
Self Knowledge
thoughts, values, emotions (focus of lecture)
(pg. 41-44) understanding what we are feeling.. What is
emotionally healthy??
A B C s - Albert Ellis
Activating Event, Belief (When you do something
for someone, they owe you a thank you.), Emotional
Consequence
Our reaction to event depends on our
assessment (beliefs) of the event.
Emotional Health
Life is like waves that keep rolling in
To handle problems we need to: recognize them,
accept them, and respond appropriately
Example of Refined Notes: Recopied Notes
thoughts Psych, Ch.3, 7/11/98
Self Knowledge values
emotions (focus of lecture)

Albert Ellis- A B C s of Emotion


A = Activating Event
B = Belief (When you do something for someone, they
owe you a thank you.)
C = Emotional Consequence
Emotional Health
The goal of life should NOT be waiting for problems to end.
(waves example)
To handle problems we need to:
recognize them
accept them
respond appropriately
Slide 43 of 43

Mapping

Notetaking Styles/Formats

Modified Outline
Running Text

your own
paragraph Formal Outline symbols

Roman
numerals
Slide 44 of 43

A Story Map

Title

Settings Characters Plot

Name Problem

Traits
1. Complications
2.
3.

Conclusion
Slide 45 of 43

Another kind of map:


Actor

Purpose Action

Title

Scene of the
Agency
Action
Slide 46 of 43

Make it memorable

Geographical Area

Murder in the U.S.

Economic Conditions Murder Rates:


Slide 47 of 43

Chart Example

Term Definition Connotation Personal Example


or Association
Slide 48 of 43

Tip #7

Review frequently
and take
responsibility for
your own success.
PRACTISE
References:

STUDY SKILLS TEXTS:
Ellis, Dave. Becoming a Master Student. St. Charles, Il.: Houghton Mifflin. (editions 9th- 12th)
2005 through 2009

Gardner, J. N. and Jewler, A.J. Your College Experience: Strategies for Success. Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth. 2005.

WEB SITES:
Academic Resources: Notetaking. Retrieved April 1, 2008 from Eastern Illinois
University, Student Success Center Web site: http://www.eiu.edu/~success/

Lecture Note Taking. Retrieved April 1, 2008 from College of Saint Benedict/Saint
Johns University, academic Advising web site:
http://www.csbsju.edu/academicadvising/help/le

Learning Consultant Services - Studying and Writing Effectively: Notetaking During


Class. Retrieved April 1, 2008 from Mount Royal College, Learning Skills Centre Web site:
http://www.mtroyal.ca/learningskills

Mind Maps: a Powerful Approach to Note Taking. Retrieved July 3, 2008 from Mind Tools:
Essential skills for an excellent career Web site:
http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newISS_01.htm

Note Taking System. Retrieved April 3, 2008 from California Polytechnic State
University, Student Academic Services Web site: http://sas.calpoly.edu/asc/ssl.html

Learning Strategies: Taking lecture and Class Notes. Retrieved October 15, 2008 from
Dartmouth College, Academic Skills Center Web site:
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~acskills/success/notes.html
50
The End!

51