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WATER MANAGEMENT
WATER MANAGEMENT
  • Integrated process of applying needed amount of water at the proper time, the removal of excess water from the field and the

employment of water-conserving practices

SOURCES OF WATER

1.

Rainfall

  • 2. Surface water from streams and rivers

  • 3. River diversion systems huge dam infrastructure

  • 4. Small farm reservoir

water collected from rainfall and surface run-off

300-2000 m 2 can service 0.5 ha or more

elevation higher than the farm

  • 5. Ground water through tubewells Philippines has about 6-20 m depth of ground water

Pump irrigation

  • hydraulic ram gravity operated

  • axial flow pump lifting of water to 4 m

  • shallow well pump limited to 7 m depth

  • deep well pump operated at depth beyond 100 feet

Water requirement of crops total amount of water for a plant to complete its growth and development (germination to maturity)

Consumptive Use of Water:

  • a) Evaporation confined to 10 cm depth

  • b) Transpiration 99% of water absorbed by plant (cooling) DETERMINANTS:

Independent of stage of crop growth (E>T at early stage;

E<T after canopy closure) Dependent on:

o solar radiation o relative humidity o wind turbulence o temperature

o crop growth duration

  • c. Seepage lateral movement of water

  • d. Percolation vertical subsurface water movement DETERMINANTS:

o

soil texture / structure

o

soil permeability

o

depth of hardpan / impervious layer

o

extent of soil puddling

Critical Growth Stages (For Annuals) Seedling stage not too critical stage for water; adequate water for germination Vegetative accelerated growth rate at 3-5 weeks after germination; adequate moisture w/in 3-5 weeks after germination Reproductive - most critical period; deficiency affects fertilization, pollination and cell differentiation Seed /grain filling implication on yield; affects number of filled seeds and seed weight Ripening irrigation not needed usually 2 weeks before harvesting

Critical Growth Stages (For Perennials) Early stage small amount of water needed for growth Flowering to fruit development critical stage for water Water sensitive phases:

o

flowering

o

fruiting

o

seed development

Irrigation after a dry spell > 1 month induces flowering in

citrus

lanzones

durian

lychee

rambutan

coffee ( 7-12 days stress)

Determination of Irrigation Schedule (Big Farms)

  • based on soil water measurements

    • - gravimetric

    • - tensiometer

  • based on evapotranspiration

    • - use of potometer

    • - evaporation pan

  • based on calculations

    • - Field capacity amount of water held by soil at maximum capacity after excess water is drained

    • - Permanent wilting point soil moisture level when permanent wilting in plant occurs

    • - available water amt of water held between FC and PWP divided by 100

  • Determination of Irrigation Schedule (for small farms)

    o

    temporary wilting symptoms shown when plants lose their

    o

    turgidity (usually at midday) color of foliage temporary wilting

    o

    rate of plant growth visual observation

    o

    feel the soil soils taken from root zone depth

    Methods of Irrigation (for annuals)

    • 1. Border strip irrigation field divided into strips bounded by low levees or dikes

     

    - dimension:

    5-15 m in width; 75-300 m in length

    slope along strips: <3% (3 ft deep/100 ft)

    - across strips: <1 % (1 ft deep/100 ft) water is spread over the land but not allowed to accumulate

    applicable to pastures, upland grain crops, upland rice

    • 2. Basin or paddy irrigation

    water is applied to plots surrounded by levees/dikes

    plots are leveled, variable shapes and follow the topography

    used in lowland rice areas

    • 3. Furrow irrigation in drylands water runs down the furrows between plant rows use of gated pipes or open ditch in introducing water to the furrows

    applicable to row crops like potatoes, vegetables, corn ,legumes, etc

    • 4. Aerial irrigation sprinkler irrigation system ; wide range of topography; needs pumping equipment to provide pressure

    • 5. Trickle or drip irrigation water is slowly applied directly to the soil immediately surrounding the plant; for vegetables, flowering plants grown in screenhouses

    Methods of Irrigation ( for perennials )

    o

    Surface irrigation water is applied in small channels or furrows

     

    -

    requires abundant water

    o

    Overhead or aerial irrigation water is applied in the form of fine

    mist (spraying) or simulated rain (sprinkling)

    -

    requires series of pipes and nozzles

    o

    Drip or trickle irrigation consists of pipe distributing network

    Frequency of irrigation is a function of soil type and crop type during the dry season

    As a function of soil type, crop being the same:

    1)

    open, shallow soils call for frequent irrigation

    2)

    fine, deep soils do not require it so often

    As a function of crop type- the optimum soil-moisture condition for any given crop should be well-known by the irrigator for most successful irrigation

    DRAINAGE

    removal of excess water from root zone; main purpose is to the lower table to increase the depth of rooting

    good drainage provides the necessary oxygen to root tips

    which are regions of rapid cell division and elongation

    Waterlogging predisposes the plants to diseases:

    • root-infectious diseases e.g. bacterial wilt in tomato

    • two days of flooding for papaya and avocado could result in the death of the tree

    • waterlogging in tomatoes reduces stem growth, yellowing of leaves, twisting of petiole and production of adventitious roots

    • in anthuriums, too much water results in the promotion of suckers at the expense of flowering

    Solutions:

    • 1. Construction of drainage canals

    • 2. Use of raised beds especially when planting in low-lying areas

    ADDITIONAL NOTES:

    • 1. It is estimated that a hectare of rice plants uses at least eight million liters (8 M) of water during the plant’s life or equivalent to 400,000 big kerosene cans.

    • 2. Crop forcing use of special structures to shield plants from too much rain plastic house, tunnels or greenhouses