0 Votes +0 Votes -

189 vues95 pagesphysical pharmacy notes

Jul 03, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

physical pharmacy notes

© All Rights Reserved

189 vues

physical pharmacy notes

© All Rights Reserved

- The Other Einstein: A Novel
- The Field Updated Ed: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe
- Einstein: His Life and Universe
- Cosmos: A Personal Voyage
- The Black Swan
- The Lost Art of Reading Nature's Signs: Use Outdoor Clues to Find Your Way, Predict the Weather, Locate Water, Track Animals—and Other Forgotten Skills
- Wheels of Life: A User's Guide to the Chakra System
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- A Mind for Numbers: How to Excel at Math and Science Even If You Flunked Algebra
- The Application of Green Solvents in Separation Processes
- Einstein: His Life and Universe
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- When Einstein Walked with Gödel: Excursions to the Edge of Thought

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 95

By:

AMK

CONTENTS

Definition & basic concepts

Newtonian systems

Non-Newtonian systems

Thixotropy/ Anti-thixotropy/Rheopexy

Rheology of emulsions & suspensions

Determination of rheological properties- Viscometers

Application of rheology

INTRODUCTION

It is derived from Greek word rheo means to flow and logos means science as

suggested by BINGHAM.

Scientifically, it is defined as:

the study of flow of fluids under applied stress (deformation forces)

Oil and water flow in familiar, normal ways, whereas honey, mayonnaise,

peanut butter flow in complex and unusual ways. In rheology, we study the

flows of unusual or interesting materials.

The two-plates model mathematically describes this definition.

All materials range on an imaginary scale from solid to liquid. In

scientific terms, solid materials are specified as elastic, while liquids

are viscous. However, most materials are not purely elastic, nor

entirely viscous, but viscoelastic. Depending on their properties,

substances can be classified as viscoelastic solids (like e.g. gels) or

viscoelastic liquids (like e.g. hair shampoo).

Viscometry deals with ideally viscous

fluids, and - with certain limitations - also

with viscoelastic liquids, i.e. viscous

substances with an elastic portion.

If a fluid flows easily, its resistance to

deformation is low. It is a low-viscosity

fluid. Fluids with greater resistance to

deformation do not flow easily. They are

highly viscous. At the same temperature high-viscosity fluids

flow more slowly than low-viscosity fluids

But how the flow of liquids is affected by stress or

deformation forces?????

The stress may be:

Tensile stress

If the stress is applied perpendicular to the body

Shear stress

If the force is applied tangentially (at any other angle) to the

body

The deformations that result from the application of stress may be:

REVERSIBLE or ELASTIC deformations:

The work used in producing this deformation is recoverable when the

body returns to its original shape after removal of the applied stress

IRREVERSIBLE or PERMANENT deformations:

These are referred as flow and are exhibited by viscous bodies.

The work used in producing this deformation is dissipated as heat and

is non-recoverable when the stress is removed

The Two-plates Model

This model consists of two imaginary plates with the fluid in-between.

Two conditions must be met to allow for accurate calculation of the

viscosity-related variables.

The fluid adheres to both plates and does not slip or slide along them.

There are laminar flow conditions. That means the flow takes the shape

of infinitesimally thin layers, no turbulence occurs.

A stack of beer mats gives a good idea of how laminar flow works.

Shear Stress (F)

While the lower plate stands still, the upper plate very slowly moves

along. Even the slow movement causes stress that is parallel to the

fluid's surface and which is called shear stress.

The shear stress is defined as the force F applied to the upper plate

divided by this plate's area A.

The force is measured in Newton, the area in square meters.

The shear stress tau is force divided by area. This calculation results in

the unit N/m2, which is called pascal [Pa] after Blaise Pascal.

Shear Rate (G)

A second variable that can be derived from the two-plates model is

the shear rate gamma-dot. In older literature the shear rate is

sometimes given as D.

To obtain the shear rate OR velocity gradient, the velocity v (or dv) of

the upper plate, in meters per second, is divided by the distance h (or

dr) between the two plates in meters.

This gives the unit [1/s] or reciprocal second [s-1].

Or G = dv/dr

When we talk about liquid flow, concept of

viscosity comes in our mind..

VISCOSITY ()

The term 'viscosity' simply means fluid's thickness.

A measure of fluids resistance to flow by an applied stress or deformation force.

It describes the internal friction of moving liquids and therefore its thickness.

Fluids with high viscosity resist motion because its structure and morphology results in lot of

internal friction between neighboring molecules that are moving with different velocities. E.g

Honey

In case of less viscous liquids, there is very little internal friction (between layers) when the

liquid is in motion. E.g. Water

Relationship between shear stress (F) is shear rate (G) is the basis of viscosity .i.e.

= F/G

where is the coefficient of viscosity, usually referred to simply as viscosity.

Fluidity, , a term sometimes used, is defined as the reciprocal of

viscosity:

= 1/

to the two-plates model) and also in specifying a substance's flow

behavior.

The vital question is whether a change of shear rate does or does

not change a fluid's viscosity. This question draws the line between

Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.

TYPES OF RHEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS:

1) Newtonian systems

2) Non- Newtonian systems

a. Plastic systems

b. Pseudoplastic systems

c. Dilatant systems

Newtonian Liquids

If a fluid's internal flow resistance is independent of the shear rate acting upon the fluid, it is

ideally viscous.

Such fluids are named Newtonian liquids after Sir Isaac Newton, Newtonian fluids are the

simplest type of fluid.

A Newtonian fluid is a fluid or dispersion whose rheological behaviour is described by

Newtons law of viscosity. He recognized that the higher the viscosity of a liquid, the greater

is the force per unit area (shearing stress) required to produce a certain rate of shear.

Newtonian flow is characterized by constant viscosity, regardless of the shear rates applied.

In an Newtonian fluid, such as water or oil, the shear stress is directly proportional to the

shear rate, while the fluid is in laminar flow.

A viscosity function means plotting the

viscosity over the shear rate. The

viscosity function of a Newtonian

liquid is a straight line.

Examples: water or salad oil.

Non-Newtonian Liquids

If a substance is not ideally viscous, its viscosity changes with the shear

rate. Such substances are called Non-Newtonian Liquids

Non-Newtonian flow is characterized by a change in viscosity

characteristics with increasing shear rates.

Non-Newtonian substances are those that fail to follow Newtons

equation of flow.

Example: materials include colloidal solutions, emulsions, liquid

suspensions, and ointments.

There are three general types of Non-Newtonian materials:

a. Plastic

b. Pseudoplastic

c. Dilatant

RHEOGRAM

A rheogram is a plot of shear rate (G) as a function of shear stress (F).

Rheograms are also known as consistency curves or flow curves.

The rheologic properties of a given material are most completely

described by its unique rheogram.

The simplest form of a rheogram is produced by Newtonian systems,

G=fF

The slope, f, is known as fluidity and is the reciprocal of viscosity, :

f = 1/

Therefore, the greater the slope of the line, the greater is the

fluidity or, conversely, the lower is the viscosity.

The rheogram of Newtonian systems can easily be obtained with a

single-point determination.

A non-Newtonian system can only be fully characterized by

generating its complete rheogram, which requires use of a multipoint

rheometer.

The majority of fluid pharmaceutical products are not simple liquids and do not

follow Newtons law of flow. These systems are referred to as non-Newtonian.

Non-Newtonian behavior is generally exhibited by liquid and solid

heterogeneous dispersions such as colloidal solutions, emulsions, liquid

suspensions, and ointments.

When non-Newtonian materials are analyzed and results are plotted, various

consistency curves, representing three classes of flow, are recognized:

a. Plastic

b. Pseudoplastic

c. Dilatant

a. Plastic Flow

In Figure, the curve represents a body that exhibits

plastic flow.

Such materials are known as Bingham bodies.

Plastic flow curves do NOT pass through the origin but

rather intersect the shearing stress axis at a particular

point referred to as the yield value.

IMPORTANT A Bingham body requires

certain amount of shear stress (Yield value) before it

begins to flow.

The slope of the rheogram is termed the

Mobility, and its reciprocal is known as the

plastic viscosity, U.

The equation describing plastic flow is:

Where:

f = yield value, or intercept, on the shear stress

axis

(dynes/cm2), and

F = Shear stress

G = Shear rate

At stresses below the yield value, the substance

acts as an elastic material.

Those substances that exhibit a yield value

(Bingham bodies) Solids,

Substances that begin to flow at the smallest

shearing stress and show no yield value Liquids.

shear stresses above the yield value.

further increase in shearing stress (i.e., F f )

brings about a directly proportional increase

in G, rate of shear.

Example:

Plastic flow is associated with the presence of flocculated particles in

concentrated suspensions.

The more flocculated the suspension, the higher will be the yield value.

exists because of:

The contacts between adjacent particles (brought about by Van

der Waals forces), which must be broken down before flow can

occur.

Frictional forces between moving particles

An example of a plastic material is toothpaste. It is necessary that

toothpaste will stay on the brush but it must be easily extrudable.

b. Pseudoplastic Flow

As seen in Figure, the consistency curve for a pseudoplastic material

begins at the origin therefore NO yield value.

NO part of the curve is linear, therefore the viscosity of a

pseudoplastic material cannot be expressed by any single value.

(entire consistency curve is used)

increasing rate of shear. (Shear THINNING systems) i.e.

the more stress is applied, the more freely it flows

molecules begin to align their long axes in the direction of

flow. This orientation reduces internal resistance of the

material.

Some of the solvent associated with the molecules may be

released, resulting in further decrease in viscosity.

The most frequently used exponential formula for

pseudoplastics is given as:

--------(1)

Where;

F = Shear stress

G = Shear rate

= viscosity coefficient

N = exponent

N rises as flow becomes increasingly non-Newtonian.

When N = 1, the above equation reduces to equation (

) and flow is Newtonian.

Following rearrangement, we can write the previous equation in the

logarithmic form:

--------(1)

plotted as a function of log F.

Example:

Pseudoplastic flow is typically exhibited by polymers in

solution.

Many pharmaceutical products, including liquid dispersions

of natural and synthetic gums (e.g., tragacanth, sodium

alginate, methylcellulose, and sodium carboxymethyl

cellulose) exhibit pseudoplastic flow.

follows:

The decrease in apparent viscosity is due to the

disentangling of aggregates of dispersed particles

of the systems.

Modern paints are examples of pseudoplastic materials.

When modern paints are applied the shear created by the brush or

roller will allow them to thin and wet out the surface evenly. Once

applied the paints regain their higher viscosity which avoids drips and

runs.

Quick sand.?

c. Dilatant Flow

Certain suspensions with a high percentage of dispersed solids exhibit an increase in

resistance to flow with increasing rates of shear.

Such systems actually increase in volume when sheared and are hence termed

dilatant or Shear THINKENING systems.

Inverse of pseudoplastic systems.

When stress is removed, a dilatant system returns to its original state of fluidity.

Equation (1) can be used to describe dilatancy:

In this case,

N is always less than 1 and decreases as degree of dilatancy increases.

As N approaches 1, the system becomes increasingly Newtonian in behavior.

In short, the value of n or N indicates the type of flow:

N = 1 (Newtonian flow)

N > 1 (Pseudoplastic flow)

N < 1 (Dilatant flow)

Dilatant behavior can be explained as follows:

At rest; particles are closely packed with minimal

interparticle volume (voids). The amount of vehicle in

the suspension is sufficient, however, to fill voids and

permits particles to move relative to one another at low

rates of shear. Thus, a dilatant suspension can be poured

from a bottle because under these conditions it is

reasonably fluid.

At increased shear stress; As shear stress is increased,

the bulk of the system expands or dilates; hence the

term dilatant. The particles, in an attempt to move

quickly past each other, take on an open form of

packing, as depicted in Figure 193.

Such an arrangement leads to a significant increase in interparticle void

volume. The amount of vehicle remains constant and, at some point,

becomes insufficient to fill the increased voids between particles.

Accordingly, resistance to flow (viscosity) increases because particles are no

longer completely wetted, or lubricated, by the vehicle. Eventually, the

suspension will set up as a firm paste.

Behavior of this type suggests that appropriate precaution be used during

processing of dilatant materials.

IMPORTANT PRECAUTION Processing of dispersions containing solid particles

is facilitated by the use of high-speed mixers, blenders, or mills.

Although this is advantageous with all other rheologic systems, dilatant materials

may solidify under these conditions of high shear, thereby overloading and

damaging processing equipment.

Example:

Substances possessing dilatant flow properties

are suspensions containing a high concentration

(about 50% or greater) of small, deflocculated

particles.

This can readily be seen with a mixture

Oobleck.????

Corn starch and water (oobleck)

Cornstarch is a common thickening agent used in cooking. It is also a

very good example of a shear thickening system. When a force is

applied to a 1:1.25 mixture of water and cornstarch, the cornstarch

acts as a solid and resists the force.

Quicksand

Quicksand is a natural case of a shear thinning, non-Newtonian fluid.

This is the opposite of a dilatant. As its strain rate increases, its

resistance to shear will decrease causing the system to act more like a

liquid than a solid. Hence, as one thrashes about in quicksand one

sinks faster as the mixture's resistance decreases.

THIXOTROPY

Viscosity of a system not only depends on shear rate but is also time

dependent.

It may have been assumed that if the rate of shear were reduced

once the desired maximum had been reached, the down curve

would be identical with, and superimposable on, the up curve.

Although this is true for Newtonian systems, the down curve for

non-Newtonian systems can be displaced relative to the up curve.

Typical rheograms for plastic and

pseudoplastic systems exhibiting this

behavior are shown in Figure.

With shear-thinning systems (i.e.,

pseudoplastic), the down curve is

frequently displaced to the left of the

up curve (as in figure)

This indicates a breakdown of

structure (and hence shear thinning)

that does not reform immediately

when stress is removed or reduced.

The discussed phenomenon is known as thixotropy or shear duration

thinning, and can be defined as:

material) of a consistency lost through shearing.

systems.

At rest, such structure confers some degree of rigidity on the system,

and it resembles a gel.

As shear is applied and flow starts, this structure begins to break

down. The material undergoes a gel-to-sol transformation and

exhibits shear thinning.

On removal of stress, the structure starts to reform. This process is

NOT instantaneous; rather, it is a progressive restoration of

consistency as asymmetric particles come into contact with one

another by undergoing random Brownian movement.

Rheograms obtained with thixotropic

materials (thixotropic curve or hysteresis

loop) is not unique but are highly

dependent on

Changes in rate of shear

Duration of time involved (at a particular

rate of shear)

In other words, the previous history of the

sample has a significant effect on the

rheologic properties of a thixotropic

system.

For example, suppose that in Figure 195 the shear rate of a

thixotropic material is increased in a constant manner from point a to

point b and is then decreased at the same rate back to e.

Typically, this would result in the so-called hysteresis loop abe.

If, however, the sample was taken to point b and the shear rate held

constant for a certain period of time (say, t1 seconds), shearing stress,

and hence consistency, would decrease to an extent depending on

time of shear, rate of shear, and degree of structure in the sample.

Decreasing the shear rate would then result in the hysteresis loop

abce and so on

Difference..

Rapid recovery of viscosity after disturbance classic shear-thinning

or pseudoplasticity.

Measurable time taken for the viscosity to recover thixotropic

behavior.

When describing the viscosity of liquids, however, it is therefore

useful to distinguish shear-thinning (pseudoplastic) behaviour from

thixotropic behaviour, where the viscosity at all shear rates is

decreased for some duration after agitation: both of these effects can

often be seen separately in the same liquid.

Measurement of thixotropy

This area of hysteresis has been proposed as a measure of thixotropic

breakdown.

With plastic (Bingham) bodies, two approaches are frequently used to

estimate degree of thixotropy:

i. The first is to determine structural breakdown with time at a constant rate

of shear. (Time is varied)

ii. The second approach is to determine the structural breakdown due to

increasing shear rate (Shear rate is varied)

i) The first is to determine structural breakdown with time at a

constant rate of shear.

Where,

B = Thixotropic coefficient (which indicates the rate

of break down with time at constant shear rate)

U1, U2 = Plastic viscosities

t1, t2 = time duration

ii) The second approach is to determine the structural breakdown

due to increasing shear rate

Where,

M = Thixotropic coefficient

U1, U2 = Plastic viscosities

V1, V2 = shear rates

Bulges & Spurs

Dispersions employed in pharmacy may yield complex

hysteresis loops when sheared in a viscometer. Two such

complex structures Includes:

Bulges

A concentrated aqueous bentonite gel (10% to 15% by

weight), produces a hysteresis loop with a characteristic

bulge in the up-curve.

It is presumed that the crystalline plates of bentonite form

a house-of-cards structure that causes the swelling of

bentonite magmas.

This three-dimensional structure results in a bulged

hysteresis loop as observed in Figure.

Bulges & Spurs

Spur

In still more highly structured systems, such as a procaine

penicillin gel, the bulged curve may actually develop into a

spur-like protrusion.

The structure demonstrates a high yield or spur value, ,

that traces out a bowed up-curve when the three

dimensional structure breaks in the viscometer, as observed

in Figure.

The spur value represents a sharp point of structural

breakdown at low shear rate.

It is difficult to produce the spur, and it may not be

observed unless a sample of the gel is allowed to age

undisturbed in the cup-and-bob assembly for some time

before the rheologic run is made.

Negative thixotropy or Antithixotropy

Generally, thixotropic systems are shear thinning i.e.

with a decrease in consistency in the down curve.

But some materials like magnesia magma (1-10%)

shows deviation from suggested behavior.

The down curve falls to the right of up-curve and it

continuously thickened and finally reached

equilibrium at which the up and down curves overlap

each other.

After reaching equilibrium, the system was found

to have gel-like property and showing greater

suspendability.

When allowed to stand, however, the material

returned to its sol-like properties.

It is believed that antithixotropy results from an increased

collision frequency of dispersed particles or polymer molecules

in suspension, resulting in increased interparticle bonding with

time.

This changes an original state consisting of a large number of

individual particles and small floccules to an eventual

equilibrium state consisting of a small number of relatively

large floccules.

At rest, the large floccules break up and gradually return to the

original state of small floccules and individual particles.

Rheopexy

Rheopexy is:

a phenomenon in which a sol forms a gel more readily when gently shaken or

sheared.

which exists in sol form.

Magnesia magma and clay suspensions may show a negative rheopexy,

analogous to negative thixotropy.

Thixotropy in formulations

Various pharmaceutical dosage forms like suspensions, emulsions,

creams, gels show thixotropic behavior, which helps in easy

spreadability and pourability from containers.

Example:

Gel preparation stored in a tube; gel from the tube does not start

flowing on opening the cap or inverting the tube. It only flows with

application of pressure. The reason behind is nothing but

thixotropy (i.e. shear thinning)

Same principle also apply for suspensions.

At rest high viscosity, with well suspended particles.

Upon shaking viscosity gets reduced which supports easy pouring from

the container.

breakdown occurs when it passes through the needle results in

easy flowability. After injection, it restores its consistency and

forms a depot at the site of injection which helps in maintaining the

sustain levels of drug in the body.

Determination of rheological properties

Viscometer is an instrument used to measure the viscosity of a fluid.

The selection of an appropriate viscometer is necessary for successful

determination of viscosity.

This selection depends upon the type of system whose viscosity is to be

determined.

Viscometers can be broadly classified as:

1) Single point viscometers

2) Multi point viscometers

1) Single point viscometers:

In case of Newtonian systems, where F is directly proportional to G, a

single point viscometer can be used.

These equipment work at single rate of shear

These viscometers provide a single point on rheogram; extrapolation of which

gives a complete rheogram.

It includes:

a) Capillary viscometer b) Falling sphere viscometer

In case of non-Newtonian systems, these types of viscometers are used.

(may be used for Newtonian systems as well).

These viscometers act at different shear rates to get the entire rheogram.

These include:

a) Cup and bob viscometer b) Cone and plate viscometer

Single point viscometers:

a) Capillary viscometer

Viscosity determination by

measuring Time required by the

liquid to pass between 2 marks

under the influence of gravity

through a vertical capillary tube

known as an Ostwald viscometer.

Principle:

The liquid is made to flow between two points X and Y.

The time of flow of liquid under test is noted and compared with the time of

flow of known liquid (usually water).

The equation that governs the flow of liquid through capillary tube is based

on law known as Poiseuilles law:

Where,

r = radius of the inside of the capillary (cm)

t = time of flow,

P = pressure head (dyne/cm2)

l = length of the capillary

V = volume of liquid flowing

The absolute viscosity of unknown liquid is obtained by using following

equation:

Where,

1 = viscosity of the unknown liquid

2 = viscosity of standard liquid

1 and 2 = respective densities of the liquids

t1 and t2 = respective flow times (sec)

Single point viscometers:

b) Falling sphere viscometer

an almost vertical glass tube containing the test liquid at a

known constant temperature.

Rate at which a ball falls 1/ Viscosity of the sample

Example:

Hoeppler viscometer

Principle:

It consists of glass tube, which is positioned vertically.

The glass tube is filled with test sample.

A ball (steel or glass) is dropped in the tube as soon as temperature equilibrium

is achieved (between inner tube and outer jacket).

The tube and jacket assembly is then inverted, which places the ball at the top

of inner tube.

The time for the ball to fall between 2 marks is accurately measured.

The viscosity is then calculated as:

Where,

t = time interval taken by ball to fall between the two points (sec)

Sb and Sf = specific gravities of the ball and fluid, respectively.

B = constant for a particular ball

For best results, a ball whose t > 30 seconds should be used.

Multi point viscometers:

a) Cup and bob viscometer

In cup-and-bob viscometers, the sample is sheared in the

space between the outer wall of a bob and the inner wall

of a cup into which the bob fits.

viscometer)

If the bob is rotated Searle type (Example: Rotovisco

viscometer, Stormer viscometer, Brookfield viscometer)

Principle:

In operation, the test system is placed in the space between the cup and the

bob and allowed to reach temperature equilibrium.

A weight is placed on the hanger, and the time required for the bob to make

100 revolutions is recorded. These data are then converted to revolutions

per minute (rpm).

The weight is increased and the whole procedure repeated.

In this way, a rheogram can be constructed by plotting rpm versus weight

added.

Here,

Number of revolutions (rpm) = rate of shear

Torque (weights added) = shear stress

For pseudoplastic systems:

Where,

Kv is a constant for the instrument

W = weight placed on hanger (g)

V = rpm or shear rate

U = plastic viscosity (poise)

Wf = yield value intercept (g)

Plug flow

In a viscometer of the Searle type:

Shear stress close to the rotating bob = sufficiently high so as to exceed the yield

value.

Shear stress at the inner wall of the cup = lie below the yield value.

Material in this zone would therefore remain as a solid plug and the measured

viscosity would be in error.

Major contributing factor the gap between the cup and the bob.

(use largest bob possible with a cup of a definite circumference)

Multi point viscometers:

b) Cone and plate viscometer

the center of the plate, which is then raised into

position under the cone.

Example:

FerrantiShirley viscometer,

Brookfield viscometer

Principle:

the sample is sheared in the narrow gap between

the stationary plate and the rotating cone.

The speed of cone can be varied using variable -

speed motor.

The rate of shear in rpm is increased and decreased

by a selector dial and the viscous traction or torque

(shearing stress) produced on the cone is read on

the indicator scale.

A plot of rpm (rate of shear) versus scale reading

(shearing stress) can thus be constructed.

For Newtonian liquids:

Where,

C = instrumental constant,

T = torque reading,

v = speed of the cone in rpm

Where,

Tf = torque at the shearing stress axis (extrapolated from the linear portion of the curve)

Cf = instrumental constant.

f = Yield value =

Types of Viscosity

Absolute Viscosity (Shear/ Dynamic Viscosity)

= F/G

The cgs units for poise= dyne . sec/cm2 or g/cm . sec

Poise the shearing force required to produce a velocity of 1 cm/sec between

two parallel planes of liquid each 1 cm2 in area and separated by a distance of 1

cm.

Kinematic Viscosity

When Newtonian (absolute) viscosity is divided by density, it gives kinematic viscosity.

= /

Relative Viscosity

It is the ratio of viscosity of dispersion to that of solvent.

r = / o

Temperature dependence and the

theory of Viscosity

A fluid's viscosity strongly depends on its

temperature. Along with the shear rate,

temperature really is the dominating influence.

Viscosity of a liquid decreases as temperature

is raised, and the fluidity of a liquid (the

reciprocal of viscosity) increases with

temperature.

behavior

For some fluids a decrease of 1C causes a 10 % increase

in viscosity.

The dependence of the viscosity of a liquid on

temperature is expressed by an equation analogous to the

Arrhenius equation of chemical kinetics:

-1C in temperature => +10 % in

viscosity

Where,

A = constant depending on the molecular weight and molar

volume of the liquid

Ev = activation energy required to initiate flow between

molecules.

R = Gas constant

T = Temperature (K)

RHEOLOGY OF SUSPENSIONS

characters

The rheological properties of suspension decide the pourability, easy

of injection, sedimentation, its redispersibility.

The viscosity of flocculated suspension is greater than deflocculated

particles in same suspension.

The flocculated suspension has yield value and behave like a plastic or

pseudo plastic system.

Example: conc.parenteral suspension contain 40- 70 % w/v of procain

pencillin G

RHEOLOGY OF EMULSIONS

Dilute emulsions Newtonian type flow

Highly concentrated emulsions Plastic flow

Aggregation of particles

Viscosity of continuous phase

Globule size and size distribution

Nature and proportion of emulsifying agent

Applications of Rheology

Understanding the fundamental nature of a system (basic science)

Quality control (raw materials and products, processes)

Tuning rheological properties of a system has many applications in

every day's life

Pharmaceutics

Cosmetics

Chemical industry

Oil-drilling

etc

SUMMARY

Rheology

Shear stress (F/A)

Shear rate (dv/dx)

Viscosity (= F/G)

Types of Viscometers

viscometer viscometer

viscometer viscometer

sphere plate

viscometer viscometer

Interesting Fact

(Rheology)

Worlds Longest Running Laboratory

Experiment The Pitch Drop Experiment

1927 Prof Parnell in University of

Queensland Australia heated a sample of

pitch and poured it into a glass funnel with a

sealed stem. Three years where allowed for it

to settle, after which the stem was cut.

Examine the viscosity of the pitch by the

speed at which it flows from a funnel into a

jar.

Only eight drops has fallen in 80 years.

The viscosity is approximated as 100 billion

times that of water.

REFERENCES

Martins Physical Pharmacy And Pharmaceutical Sciences, (6th

Edition)

Cooper and Gunns Tutorial Pharmacy (6th Edition)

World of Rheology (http://www.world-of-rheology.com)

Viscopedia (http://www.viscopedia.com)

- Ali Datwani, Review of Lost Circulation Mechanisms With the Focus on Loss to Natural and Drilling Induced FracturesTransféré parHulk Holk
- Alkaloids 3Transféré parNandya Nandiia
- deepstar_chevron-multiphase-design-guide-pt-1Transféré parSmile M
- oobleck-non-newtonianfluidlabTransféré parapi-274973785
- Viscous Liquids and PumpsTransféré parSARATH KRISHNAKUMAR
- RN9Transféré partanveer054
- fm exp1.docxTransféré parnasuha
- Assignment 1Transféré parVictor Andrés Díaz
- Rheological Properties of Banana Puree at High Temperatures.pdfTransféré parNungki Widya Savitri
- 00093536.pdfTransféré parmsmsoft90
- Capillary_Viscometers_Flyer_E_web.pdfTransféré parKristel Thomas
- Koehler CatalogoTransféré parMisael Morales Colunga
- 01 ViscosityTransféré parTarek Mohamed
- 4.Fluid Flow PhenomenaTransféré parIsaiah Abalos De Leon
- 13 - Saldarriaga - Rheological Characterization of Sorbet Using Pipe Rheometry During the Freezing Process 2013Transféré parLuiz Saldarriaga Castillo
- PSA Overview AppsTransféré parIrvingDavalos
- FluiPak for Mining OverviewTransféré parwaldo_astudillo
- 10.0000@Www.jstage.jst.Go.jp@Generic 3FEC80807E9CTransféré parAracely Jurado Castro
- BerisCMAME98_2Transféré parmekyno32
- 8-En 5650-D(Dig) - Stack Valves CETOP 03Transféré parabuzer1981
- EAPA-RejuvenatorsTransféré parplaton7
- Snyder Supertainer LrTransféré parHector Aguilar Cordero
- a953138.pdfTransféré parMuhammad Laraib
- Fluid PropertiesTransféré parParasu Ram
- Kosmetik (kombinasi)Transféré parIra Yunrarz
- Equalization TankTransféré parnataliepoison8917
- In a Quality Control TestTransféré parHarry Frianota ID
- 8 Lindborg JakobsenTransféré parCarlos Manuel Romero Luna
- EjectorTransféré parHmd Mokhtari
- tut09.pdfTransféré parAnonymous K48Tgvi

- StabilityTransféré pars.sabapathy
- 1 ExperienceTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- P-Value and Level of SignificanceTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- AWPTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Synopsis Edited PrintTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- PracticalsTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Copyr1.docxTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- List Prof WiseTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- CV formatTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- 505Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- 86-47Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- mcqs (2)Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- S2 (2)Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Exam Duties (1)Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- List of ParticipantsTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- dtl testTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- assessmnet 2Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- testTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Courses of MscTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- 21_pharmacokinetics_pharmacodynamicsTransféré parSUTHAN
- Weekly PlannerTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- TEST PerfomaTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- chapter 18Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- solid dosageTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- ENT.pdfTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- pressurized dosage formsTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Dosage Form Sciences notesTransféré parHuma Hameed Dogar
- Diabetes t 2Transféré parHuma Hameed Dogar

- Neu TrasesTransféré parFlorpen Worpensen
- Electrical MaintenanceTransféré parKUNALJAY
- DGS-MU-017 - Rev 2Transféré parsandeep
- 2009 Sarcopenia Proceedings Book Nutritional Intervention.pdfTransféré parkimchiuniversity
- abyc.P-01.1993Transféré partoncip
- SAIC-W-2038Transféré parhamidjoyia
- 02 Semi Continuous DeodorizingTransféré parMaicon Espindola Dos Santos
- 18Transféré parEzhilan Sundaram
- Kinam PARK MakalesiTransféré parbstnr_k
- ALS Geochemistry Fee Schedule USD (1)Transféré parFray Luis Yanapa Huaquisto
- Catalysts and Catalytic Reactors, Catalytic Reactor Models_ Fixed Bed ReactorsTransféré parCharles
- Adole Condensation PPTTransféré parAtif Ahmad Abbasi
- Mexico- FRP ProjectTransféré parninju1
- Key Applications of Molykote® Products in Zinc SmelterTransféré parProject Sales Corp
- ES-X56901Transféré parPongsan
- 119 Wu Selective Localization of Multi Walled CNTTransféré parRodolfo Angulo Olais
- 6th EXAMPLE Article Summary for Mod 2_With LinksTransféré parpyrobrooks
- FlowMon Catalogue 2Transféré pardhanu_aqua
- NL Corporation M3600-M3640-M3800-M3840-M3610-M3650-M3810-M3850 100 & 175w MV R40 Cylinder & Square spec sheet 10-75Transféré parAlan Masters
- Organic ChemistryTransféré parRushab Shah
- RAC Tute Unit 2vcdfesdTransféré parSushant Mishra
- Mobil Comparison 2010Transféré paralexander
- New treatment of the black liquor produced from pulping of rice strawTransféré parMohamed Desoky
- Care and Feeding of Living HingesTransféré parclaudioandrevalverde
- Herbal Lotions and PotionsTransféré parLesley-Anne Brewster
- Salcare SC 96_TITransféré parrenatoquim01
- 1_introduction to Phase EquilibriumTransféré paraa
- _01_ GT 113 Glass Engg. Mat-ITransféré parRicardo Veloz
- Case for Intravenous EDTA Chelation TherapyTransféré pardaswa_rauf
- Corrosion by Other GasesTransféré parVinay Haridas

## Bien plus que des documents.

Découvrez tout ce que Scribd a à offrir, dont les livres et les livres audio des principaux éditeurs.

Annulez à tout moment.