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# CHE 246

SEPARATION PROCESS
CHAPTER 2:

DISTILLATION

Faculty of Chemical Engineering,
UiTM Johor, Pasir Gudang Campus 1
LESSON PLAN
DATE WEEK CHAPTER/CONTENT NOTES
CHAPTER 1
4-8/12/2016 1
MASS TRANSFER

## 1.1Introduction to mass transfer

1.2Ficks law and molecular diffusion
1.3 Applications of Ficks law: diffusion through
DONE
stagnant film and equimolar counter diffusion
11-15/12/2016 2
1.3Molecular diffusion in gas, liquid and solid
1.4Convective mass transfer and mass transfer
coefficient
1.6 Interphase mass transfer

18-22/12/16 3
CHAPTER 2 DISTILLATION
25-30/12/2016 4
2.1Definition and general description of the process
1-5/1/2016 5 2.2Physical concepts of distillation ASSIGNMENT 1
2.3Vapor-liquidequilibrium relationship Multi component distillation
2.4Relative volatility (MCD)
2.5Batch distillation
2.6 Continuous distillation LAB 1
8-12/1/2016 6 2.7 Multi component distillation (MCD)

2
LEARNING OUTCOME

## The student should be able to:

Define and explain the fundamental concepts of VLE & distillation.
Define and apply relative volatility, , in distillation process
Explain azeotrope and the limit imposed by system having azeotrope point
Determine the composition at equilibrium for batch distillation by using Rayleigh eq
Explain rectification and stripping process in distillation
Sketch and label appropriate diagram
Solve for continuous distillation problems :
Calculate the flowrates and mole fractions
Apply McCabe-Thiele method to :
Identify and formulate the respective operating line equations for continuous distillation
process
Determine the no. of theoretical stages
Describe assumptions made in this method
Calculate and apply the minimum reflux ratio in determining the optimized design
consideration
Calculate minimum number of stages at total reflux
Explain the concepts of total and minimum reflux ratio
Explain and apply overall plate efficiency in distillation

3
Chapter 2
Distillation
2.1 Definition and general description of the process
2.2 Physical concepts of distillation
2.3 Vapor-liquid equilibrium relationship
2.4 Relative volatility
2.5 Batch distillation
2.5.1 Rayleigh equation
2.6 Continuous distillation
2.6.1 Rectification and stripping: definition and description of process
2.6.2 Reflux ratio
2.6.3 Number of theoretical stages for binary mixtures: McCabe-Thiele
method
2.6.4 Overall plate efficiency
2.6.5 Minimum reflux ratio
2.7 Multi component distillation (MCD)
2.7.1 Boiling Point and Dew Point
2.7.2 Number of theoretical stages for multicomponent mixture

Activity: Rotary Evaporator Lab, Pilot plant visit, CDIO Activities, Asignment 1

4
2.1 DISTILLATION

## A feed of two or more components is separated into two or more

products an overhead distillate and a bottoms as a residual
The feed is a liquid or a vapor-liquid mixture
The bottoms product is almost always a liquid
The distillate may be a liquid or a vapor or both
Mixtures can be separated with distillation if the components of the
mixture have different boiling points.
The substance in the mixture with the lowest boiling point
vaporizes first, collecting the vapors and then condensing them to
attain the original components.

5
2.2 PHYSICAL CONCEPT OF DISTILLATION

6
video 7
2.3 Vapor Liquid Equilibrium(VLE)

## When sufficient amount of vapor molecules accumulated

A portion of the vapor begin to change back to its original liquid states condensation

## In sufficient time rate evaporation = rate of condensation equilibrium state

8
Vapor Liquid Equilibrium

## Rate Evaporation B = Rate condensation B

XA and YA constant

9
Vapor Liquid Equilibrium

## Vapor-liquid equilibrium data has done by experiments

and established data has been tabulated in Perrys
chemical engineers handbook

## Vapor-liquid equilibrium data also can be predict by

calculating using Roults law and Daltons law.

10
Table 1: Vapor liquid Table 2: Vapor liquid equilibrium data
equilibrium data for hexane- for benzene-toluene system
octane system

T(K) xA yA T(K) xA yA
371.6 1.00 1.00 353 1 1
374 0.82 0.90 358 0.78 0.9
377 0.65 0.78 363 0.581 0.777
380 0.50 0.67 368 0.411 0.632
383 0.39 0.56 373 0.258 0.456
386 0.29 0.45 375 0.26 0.38
389 0.20 0.34 376 0.27 0.3
392 0.13 0.24 377 0.150 0.28
395 0.07 0.13 378 0.13 0.260
398.8 0.00 0.00 383 0 0

11
VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM (VLE)

xA + xB = 1 ; yA + yB = 1

PT = pA + pB
bubble point yA

xA
dew point

0% A
100% B 100% A
0% B

Figure 1: Boiling point diagram for benzene (A) toluene (B) at 101.3 kPa (1 atm) total pressure

12
bubble point - when the liquid starts to boil,

## dew point - when the vapour starts to condense.

dew point

bubble point

13
VLE COMPOSITION FOR BINARY MIXTURE
1.1.1 Raoults law
pA = xA PA

Where:
pA = partial pressure of A in vapor phase
xA = mol fraction of A in liquid phase
PA = vapor pressure of pure A at certain Temp

## 1.1.2 Daltons law

pA = yA PT ; PT = pA + pB

Where:
yA = mol fraction of A in vapor phase
PT = total pressure of the system
pA/B = partial pressure of A/B in vapor phase Figure 2: Equilibrium diagram for benzene (A)
toluene (B) at 101.3 kPa (1atm) total pressure
by manipulating above equations,
composition of each component can be obtain as follows:

## xA = (PT PB) . (1) ; yA = x A PA ..(2)

(PA PB) PT
14

P PB
P
T
xA
A PB

x A PA x B PB
yA yB
PT PT Eq..2

Hence, if we know the system total pressure (PT) and the vapor
pressure of pure A (PA) and pure B (PB)at various temperature, the
equilibrium composition of the vapor (yA) and the liquid (xA) at the
temperature can be calculated.

15
2.4 RELATIVE VOLATILITY OF MIXTURE
In order to separate a binary mixture using distillation process, there must be a differences in
volatilities of the components.

The greater the difference, the easier it is to do so. A measure for this is termed the relative volatility.

## - : good separation; while : poor separation

yA yA
xA xA
AB AB x A
- yB 1 y A / 1 x A eq 3 rearrange to give yA
1 AB 1x A
xB

## - Substituting eq .2 into eq. 3

PA
AB Note:
PB
AB (ideal solution) = constant vs temp.
AB (non-ideal solution) = varies vs temp. 16
RELATIVE VOLATILITY OF MIXTURE

## both component-A and component-B are

equally volatile.

## They will vaporize together when heated.

= 1.0, we obtain: y = x.

## The larger the value - above 1.0,

the greater the degree of separation.

## From the equilibrium curve,

the greater the distance between the
equilibrium curve and the diagonal line
(where y = x), the greater the difference in liquid and vapour compositions and
therefore the easier the separation by distillation.

17
EXERCISE 2.1
A liquid mixture is formed by mixing n-heptane (A) & n-octane (B) in a closed
container at constant pressure of 1 atm (101.3kPa).
i. Calculate the equilibrium compositions of vapor & liquid
ii. Plot a boiling point diagram for the system. Determine the boiling point for a
mixture which having xA = 0.5
iii. Plot an equilibrium curve for the system
iv. Calculate the AB
v. What is the condition of the mixture? Ideal solution or Non ideal solution?
The table below shows the vapor pressure for pure n-heptane & n-octane at
various temperature.

18
PT = 101.3 kPa
xA
P P
T B
yA
x A PA
AB
PA
P P
A B PT PB

T(K) PA PB xA yA AB
371.6 101.3 - 1.00 1.00 -
374 110.8 56.9 0.82 0.90 1.95
yA yA
xA xA
377 122.6 62.3 0.65 0.78 1.97
AB
380
383
134.4
146.2
67.6
73
0.50
0.39
0.67
0.56
1.99
2.00
yB 1 y A /1 xA
386 158 78.4 0.29 0.45 2.02 xB
389 169.8 83.8 0.20 0.34 2.03
392 181.6 89.1 0.13 0.24 2.04
395 193.5 94.5 0.07 0.13 2.05
398.8 - 101.3 0.00 0.00 -

405 1.0
400 0.9
0.8
395
0.7
390
0.6
T(K)

385 0.5

yA
380 0.4
0.3
375
0.2
370 0.1
0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 0.0
xA or yA 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

xA

19
EXERCISE 2.2
A liquid mixture is formed by mixing butane (A) & pentane (B)
in a closed container at constant pressure of 1 atm
(101.3kPa). The relative volatility of butane to pentane is 2.3.
i. Calculate the equilibrium compositions of vapor & liquid
ii. Plot an equilibrium curve for the system

20
AB 2.3

AB x A
yA
1 AB 1 x A
1
pg. 15
0.8
xA yA
0 0 0.6

yA
0.1 0.20
0.2 0.37 0.4

0.3 0.50
0.4 0.61 0.2
0.5 0.70
0.6 0.78 0
0.7 0.84 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0.8 0.90 xA
0.9 0.95
1 1

21
Azeotropic Mixture

## Departures from Raoults law frequently manifest themselves in the

formation of azeotropes.
Vapor and liquid compositions are identical at the azeotropic
composition, xA =yA ; thus relative volatility AB =1, and no separation of
species can take place
Two types of azeotropes are known: positive azeotrope and negative
azeotrope

22
Positive Azeotrope

A positive azeotrope is one in which the boiling point is lower than any of its components.
Also called minimum-boiling azeotrope
An example is a water-ethanol mixture, composed of 95.63% ethanol and 4.37% water by weight.
This azeotrope boils at 78.2 C which is lower than that of water (100 C) or ethanol (78.4 C).
This azeotrope is also called a minimum boiling mixture

23
Negative Azeotrope

## azeotrope is negative, if its boiling point is higher than any of its

components. An example of this, is hydrochloric acid 20.2% and 79.8%
water (by weight). The boiling point of this azeotrope is 110 C, which is
higher than that of water as well as hydrogen chloride.
Negative azeotropes are also called maximum boiling azeotrope

24
Azeotrope Distillation Process

## azeotropic distillation usually refers to the specific technique of adding

another component to generate a new, lower-boiling azeotrope that is
heterogeneous (e.g. producing two, immiscible liquid phases), such as the
example below with the addition of benzene to water and ethanol.

## To split up the azeotrope, a material separation agent or entrainer is added,

which basically 'breaks' the azeotrope.

25
Example ;

Water and ethanol form a binary, minimum-boiling azeotrope containing 95.6 wt%
ethanol, 4.6 wt% water and boiling at 78.2 C at 101.3 kPa.

## The addition of benzene to ethanol-water mixture results in the formation of

minimum boiling, heterogeneous ternary, azeotrope containing by weight 18.5%
ethanol, 74.1% benzene, 7.4% water boiling at 68.45C

Upon condensation, the ternary azeotrope separates into two liquid layer

## Bottom layer - 53% ethanol, 11% benzene, 36% water

The benzene rich layer is return as reflux and other layer sent to a second
distillation column for recovery and recycling
26
DISTILLATION Involves the returning of a portion of the condensate
to the still. The vapor rise through a series of stages/
trays , and part of the condensate flow downward
Involves the production of a vapor by boiling the liquid through the series of stages/ trays countercurrent to
mixture to be separated in a single stage and the vapors
the single-stage still to contact the rising vapors.
Fractional Continuous
Distillation or Rectification

Simple Distillation

Flash
Distillation

## e.g: flash, simple batch(differential and steam) 27

2.5 BATCH DISTILLATION
FLASH/ EQUILIBRIUM DISTILLATION

## - Occurs in single stage , where a liquid mixture is partially vaporized.

- The vapor is allowed to come to equilibrium with the liquid , and then
the vapor and liquid phases are separated.
- It can be done either by batch or continuous.
V
y* F = feed (mol/h)
xF = initial mol fraction of A in feed
V = equilibrium vapor (mol/h)
Vapor region y* = equilibrium mol fraction of A in the vapor
FEED STREAM SEPARATOR
F L = equilibrium residual liquid (mol/h)
xF Liquid region
x* = equilibrium mol fraction of A in the residual liquid
HEAT EXCHANGER
= diagrams boundary
L
x*

## Schematic diagram of flash/ equilibrium distillation.

28
PREDICTION OF AN EQUILIBRIUM COMPOSITION FOR BINARY MXTURE
- When the system has attained its equilibrium, the material balance for the diagrams boundary can be
written as:-

## Overall mass balance : F = V + L

Mass balance on more volatile comp. i.e A : FxF = Vy* + Lx*
xF = y*V + x*L (4)
F F
Remarks: * denote at the state of equilibrium
Assumption: f denote to the fraction of feed which has been vaporized where f = V/F
Substitute f into overall m/balance : 1 = V/F + L/F
L/F = 1 - f (5)
V
y* xF = y*f + x*(1-f) Substitute (5) into (4)
y* = (f-1)x* + xF (6)
f f
Vapor region
FEED STREAM SEPARATOR
F
Liquid region
xF OPERATING LINE
HEAT EXCHANGER
y = m x + c
L
x* 29
EQUILIBRIUM CURVE
45O DIAGNOL LINE
OPERATING LINE
y* = (f-1)x* + xF
y*
f f

Where: xF = y*

xF
x*

## Determination of equilibrium composition in flash distillation by graphical method

30
Exercise 2.3
A liquid mixture containing 70 mol% n-heptane (A) and 30 mol % n-
octane at 30oC is to be continuously flash at the standard atmospheric
pressure vaporized 60 mol% of the feed. What will be the
compositions of vapor and liquid and the temperature of the separator
for an equilibrium stage? The table below shows the vapor pressure
for pure n-heptane & n-octane at various temperature.

31
x AF = 0.7 PT = 101.3 kPa
xA
P
T

PB
yA
x A PA
f= 0.6 P
A
P
B PT
y* = (f-1)x* + xF
f f T(K) PA PB xA yA
y = -0.67 x + 1.167 371.6 101.3 - 1.00 1.00
374 110.8 56.9 0.82 0.90
x y 377 122.6 62.3 0.65 0.78
0.7 0.7 380 134.4 67.6 0.50 0.67
0.4 0.9 383 146.2 73 0.39 0.56
386 158 78.4 0.29 0.45
389 169.8 83.8 0.20 0.34
392 181.6 89.1 0.13 0.24
395 193.5 94.5 0.07 0.13
398.8 - 101.3 0.00 0.00

405 1.0
0.9
400
0.8
395 0.75
0.7
390 0.6
T(K)

0.5

yA
385
0.4
380 377.5 K
0.3
375 0.2
370 0.61 0.1
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 0.0
0.61
xA or yA 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

xA
32
SIMPLE BATCH DISTILLATION
- Also known as differential distillation which only one vaporization stage involved.
- It is done by boiling a liquid mixture in a steam jacketed kettle/ pot and the vapor
generated is withdrawn and condensed as fast as it formed so that the vapor and
liquid do not have sufficient time to reach its equilibrium.
CONDENSE
CONDENSE R
R DISTILLATE
DISTILLATE

## Change infinitesimal time lapse (t) STEAM

STEAM y
L x t2 = t1 + t JACKET
JACKET

L L - L
x x - x
STEAM IN STEAM IN

## L = number of moles of liquid mixture in the pot

x = mol fraction of more volatile component i.e. A
L = infinitesimal change number of moles in liquid mixture
x = infinitesimal change of mol fraction A 33
L1 L2,
yav

L1,,X1 L2,,X2
34
2.5.1 RALEIGH EQUATION FOR IDEAL/ NON IDEAL BINARY MIXTURE
- Consider a binary mixture to be separated by a flash distillation as shown in Fig. 5.
- A material balance on A can be made, where:-
ORIGINAL AMOUNT = AMOUNT OF RESIDUAL LIQUID + AMOUNT OF VAPOR
Mass balance on more volatile comp. i.e A will yield:-
xL = (x - x)(L L) + y (L) Where:
xL = xL - xL - Lx + xL + yL L1 = number of moles of liquid at t1
negligible L2 = number of moles of liquid at t2
Lx = - xL + yL x1 = mol fraction of A in liquid at t1
Lx = ( y - x )L x2 = mol fraction of A in liquid at t2
L = x .
L (y- x)
Integrating both sides within limits initial (t1) to final (t2):-
x1
x
L1
L 2
L =
L
ln L1
L2
=
2
1 x
(y- x)
(7)
RAYLEIGH EQUATION
x1
The term x2
1 x must be evaluated graphically by determining an area under the graph of
(y x)
1
(y x) vs x between the limit x1 and x2.
The average composition of total material distilled, yav can be obtained:

L1 x1 L2 x2 L1 L2 yav
35
EXERCISE 2.4
A liquid mixture of acetone-water containing 50 mol% acetone is distilled under differential batch condition at
atmospheric pressure, until 10 mol% of acetone remained in the still-pot. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data for
the acetone-water mixture is given below :

## Determine the fraction of acetone in the distillate, yav.

36
xA 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.95
yA 0.64 0.73 0.77 0.79 0.81 0.83 0.84 0.85 0.87 0.89 0.93 0.96
1/(y-x) 1.69 1.59 1.61 1.69 1.96 2.33 2.94 4.00 5.88 11.11 33.33 100.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00
1/(y-x)

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

xA

## Area under the graph = 0.81

ln(L1/L2) = 0.81
Assume L1 = 100 mol
L2 = 44.5 mol
L1 x1 L2 x2 L1 L2 yav
37
yav = 0.82
Exercise 2.5
A mixture of 100 mol containing 50 mol% n-pentane and 50 mol% n-heptane is
distilled under differential condition at 101.3 kPa until 40 mol is distilled. What
is the average composition of the total vapor distilled and the composition of
the liquid left? The equilibrium data are as follows:

## xA 0 0.059 0.145 0.254 0.398 0.594 0.867 1.000

yA 0 0.271 0.521 0.701 0.836 0.925 0.984 1.000

## 1/3 Simpson Rule

f x A1 4 f x Ai f x A2
1. Guess xAi and xA2, calculate the A. A x A1 x A2
2. If the A is smaller than the A should be, change the 6
xA2.
3. If the A is larger than the A should be, change both xAi
and xA2.
4. Do try and error to obtain the A is same as A should
be.
38
xA 0 0.059 0.145 0.254 0.398 0.594 0.867 1
yA 0 0.271 0.521 0.701 0.836 0.925 0.984 1
1/(y-x) - 4.72 2.66 2.24 2.28 3.02 8.55 -

## L1 = 100 mol 5.00

L2 = 60 mol 4.50
x A1 = 0.5 4.00
3.50
ln (L1/L2)= 0.511 3.00

1/(y-x)
First Trial 2.50
x A1 = 0.5 f(x A1) = 2.6 2.00

## Assume x Ai = 0.4 f(x Ai) = 2.3 1.50

1.00
x A2 = 0.3 f(x A2) = 2.2
0.50
f x A1 4 f x Ai f x A 2
A x A1 x A 2 0.00
6
A= 0.467 (compare with ln (L1/L2)) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7

xA
Second Trial
x A2 = 0.25 f(x A2) = 2.3
A= 0.588

Third Trial
x A2 = 0.28 f(x A2) = 2.2
A= 0.513 (same with ln(L1/L2))

x A2 = 0.28

L1 x1 L2 x2 L1 L2 yav

yav = 0.83
39
2.5 FRACTIONAL/ CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION
- In a multi stage fractional distillation process, the vapor and liquid are brought into
continuous and counter-current contact inside the a column as shown in Figure 6.

VAPOR

## FEED LIQUID DISTILLATE

(F, xF) (D, xD)

BOTTOM
(B, xB)
Schematic diagram of a fractionating distillation.
40
41
42
- The feed enters somewhere in in the middle of the column (Fig. 6). The portion
above the feed stream is known as enriching section, while the bottom is known as
stripping section.
- If the feed is liquid, it flows down to a stage/tray. Vapor enters the tray and bubbles
through the liquid on this tray as the entering liquid flows across.
- The vapor and liquid leaving the tray are essentially in equilibrium.
- The vapors continues up to the next tray, where it is again contacted with the down-
flowing liquid. In this case the concentration of more volatile component i.e A is
being increased in the vapor from each stage going upward and decreased in the
liquid from each tray going downward.
- The final vapor product coming overhead is condensed in a condenser and a
portion of the liquid product (distillate) is removed, which contains a high
concentration of A. The remaining liquid from the condenser is refluxed (returned)
as a liquid to the top tray.
- The liquid leaving the bottom tray enters the reboiler, where it is partially vaporized
and the remaining liquid, which is rich in B is withdrawn as bottom liquid product.
The vapor from the reboiler is sent back to the bottom tray.

43
McCABE THIELE METHOD: CALCULATION FO THEORITICAL STAGES/ TRAYS
EQUATIONS FOR ENRICHING SECTION

1
y 2
n
Figure 7: Material 2

## balance and operating

line for enriching
section.
n-1 xD
xD
n
Vn+1, yn+1 L n,
n+1 xn

x
1

- The upper part of the column above the feed entrance is called enriching section. Since the
entering feed of binary components A and B is enriched in this section, so that the distillate
is richer in A than B.
- Assumption: i. column operates at steady state condition
ii. constant molal overflow in the column 44
- The material balance for the diagrams boundary in Fig 6 can be written as:-

## Overall mass balance : F = D + B (8)

Mass balance on comp. A : FxF = DxD + BxB (9)

## The m/balance over the red dashed line section in Fig 7,

Overall mass balance : Vn+1 = Ln + D (10)
Mass balance on comp. A : Vn+1yn+1 = Lnxn + DxD (11)
Solving for yn+1, the enriching operating line is:-

## yn+1 = Ln x + DxD (12)

n
Vn+1 Vn+1

45
Since
Vn+1 = Ln + D; R=L/D

yn+1 = Ln x + DxD
n
Vn+1 Vn+1

yn+1 = Ln x + DxD
n
Ln +D Ln +D

## yn+1 = Ln/D xn + D/D xD

Ln/D +D/D Ln/D +D/D

yn+1 = R x + xD
n ENRICHING
R+1 R+1 OPERATING
LINE
Where R = Ln/D = reflux ratio = constant value
46
EQUATIONS FOR STRIPPING SECTION

m
Vm+1, ym+1 Lm, xm
m+1

N
m
m+1
BOILER
yM+1
N SLOPE = Lm/ Vm+1
yB

BOTTOM
xM ( B, xB )

xB

## Figure 8: Material balance and operating line for stripping section.

47
The m/balance over the red dashed line section in Fig 8 for the stripping section of the column below the
feed entrance
Overall mass balance : Vm+1 = Lm - B (14)
Mass balance on comp. A : Vm+1ym+1 = Lmxm - BxB (15)

## ym+1 = Lm x - BxB (16)

m STRIPPING OPERATING LINE
Vm+1 Vm+1

- Since equimolar flow is assumed, Lm = LN = constant & Vm+1 = VN = constant; eq. 16 is a straight line
when plotted as y vs. x in Fig. 8, with a slope of Lm/Vm+1.
- It intersects the y = x line at x = xB. The intercept at x = 0 is y = -BxB/ Vm+1.
- Again the theoretical trays for the stripping section are determined by starting at xB going up
to yB, and then across to the operating line and so on.

48
EFFECT OF FEED CONDITIONS
The condition of the feed stream (F) entering the column determines the relation
between the vapor Vm in the stripping section and Vn in the enriching section as
well as between Lm and Ln.
q represents fraction of liquid in the feed flowing down the stream.
The condition of the feed is representing by q, which
defined as:-

## q = heat needed to vaporise 1 mol of feed at entering conditions

Molar latent heat of vaporization of feed
q = HV - HF (18)
H v - HL

Where:
HV = enthalpy of the feed at dew point
q = L/F
HL = enthalpy of the feed at the boiling point
HF = enthalpy of the feed at its entrance conditions
49
Refer to Figure 11.4-6 page 711
q OPERATION LINE
Vn Vm 1 q F
Vm Vn (q 1) F 1

Lm Ln qF
Lm Ln qF 2

Vn y Ln x Dx D 3
Vm y Lm x Bx B 4
3 4
Vn y Vm y Ln x Lm x Dx D Bx B
Vm Vn y Lm Ln Dx D Bx B 5

FxF Dx D Bx B 6
Subsitute 1, 2 and 6 into 5
( 1-q)Fy qFx-FxF
(1 q ) y qx xF
q 1
y x xF 50
1 q 1 q
- The q operating line is given by:-
q xF
y = x - (19)
q OPERATING LINE
q-1 q-1

## - It is locus of the intersection of the 2 operating lines.

- Setting y = x in eq. 19, the intersection of the q-line equation with the 45o line is y = x = xF, where
xF is the overall composition of the feed. The q-line is plotted for various feed condition in Fig. 9.

Where:-
q<0 : superheated vapor
q=0 : saturated vapor (DEW POINT)
0<q<1: mixture of liquid + vapor
q=1 : saturated liquid (BUBBLE/BOILING POINT)
q>1 : cold liquid

## Location of the q-line for various feed conditions. 51

q op. line enriching Equilibrium curve
1.2
operating line

1
Stripping op. line
0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

XB XF XD

52
STEP 1
Draw the equilibrium curve from equilibrium data (xA , yA)

STEP 2
Find the value of XF, XD, XB

STEP 3
Draw the enriching operating line, start from the XD yn+1 = R x + xD
n
R+1 R+1

STEP 4
q xF
Draw the q operating line, start from the XF y = x -
q-1 q-1
STEP 5
Draw the stripping line, start from the XB to the intersection of (q line-----enriching line)
54
FEED
FIRST OPPORTUNITY AFTER PASSING
THE OPERATING LINE INTERSECTION

55
OVERALL TRAY EFFICIENCY
Define as the ratio of the number of
theoretical or ideal trays needed in an
entire tower to the number of actual trays
used:
Number of ideal trays
EO
Number of actual trays

56
Exercise 5
A continuous rectifiying column handles a mixture consisting of 40 mol% of benzene
and 60 mol% of toluene at a rate of 150 kmol/h and separates it into a top product
containing 97 mol% of benzene and a bottom product containing 98 mol% toluene.
Give the q value is 0.6.

## Table 1 Vapor-liquid equilibrium data for benzene-toluene mixture

xA 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

## a) Draw the schematic diagram for this system.

b) Determine the molar flow rate of distillate and bottom.
Ans; D=60 kmol/h; B=90 kmol/h
c) Determine the number of theoretical plates if the reflux ratio is 3.0.
Ans; 14 steps, 13 plates/stages
d) Determine the position of the feed plates.
Ans; 7 from the top
e) Determine the actual plates number if the efficiency is 82%
Ans; 15.85 plates/stages

57
Exercise 6
A liquid of benzene-toluene mixture is to be distilled in fractionating tower at 101.3 kPa. The feed of
100 kg-mol/h liquid contains of 45 mol% benzene and 55 mol% toluene enters at 327.6 K. A distillate
contains 95 mol% benzene and a bottoms containing 10 mol% benzene are to be obtained. The reflux ratio
is 4:1. The average heat capacity of the feed is 159 kJ/kg-molK and the average latent heat 32099 kJ/kg-
mol. The boiling point of the feed is 366.7 K. The equilibrium data for this mixture is given below.

Determine:
a) The distillate and bottom product in kg-mol/h.
b) The q value.
c) The number of theoretical tray.
e) The position of feed tray.
f) The number of actual tray if the overall efficiency is 73%.

58
xA 1 0.78 0.58 0.41 0.26 0.13 0
yA 1 0.9 0.78 0.63 0.46 0.26 0

F= 100 kgmol/h 1 1
x AF = 0.45
0.9 2
0.8 Feed tray
x AB = 0.1 4
R= 4 0.7
Cp = 159 kJ/kgmol.K 0.6
5
HV - HL = 32099 kJ/kgmol
Tin = 327.6 K
0.5
0.4 6
Tb = 366.7 K
F=D+B 0.3
7
Fx AF = Dx AD + Bx AB 0.2
7.3
0.1
D+B= 100
D= 100 - B 0
45 = (100 - B)0.95 + 0.1B 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
45 = 95 - 0.95B + 0.1 B
0.85B = 50
B= 58.82353 kgmol/h Enriching Operating Line: Number of ideal trays
D= 41.17647 kgmol/h
yn+1 =
R
xn + xD EO
q = HV - HF
R+1 R+1 Number of actual trays
y= 0.8 x + 0.19
Hv - HL x y
HV - HF = (HV - HL) + (HL - HF)
HL - HF = Cp (TB - TF)
0.95
0.3
0.95
0.43
0.73 = 6.3/Actual trays
q = (HV - HL) + Cp (TB - TF) No. of Actual trays is 8.63
Hv - HL q Operating Line:
q = 32099 + 159 (366.7 - 327.6) q xF
plus a reboiler.
y = x -
32099
q= 1.194 q- 1 q- 1
y= 6.163184 x - 2.323433
x y
0.45 0.45
0.5 0.758159

## The number of theoretical tray is 6.3 plus a reboiler.

The feed is introduced on tray 4 from the top.
59
TOTAL REFLUX
R = , yn+1 = R x + xD
n
Enriching operating line, R+1 R+1
the slope will become 1.0 and both section operating lines coincide with the 45
diagonal line.
Minimum number of trays
Required infinite sizes of condenser, reboiler and tower diameter for a given feed
rate.
The minimum number of theoretical steps, Nm when a total condenser is used:

60
Minimum Reflux Ratio, Rm
Require an infinite number of trays for the given desired separation.

Minimum vapor flow in the tower, minimum reboiler and condenser sizes.

R is decreased, the slope of the enriching operating line is decreased and the
intersection of this line and the stripping line with the q line moves farther from the
45 line and closer to the equilibrium line, a pinch point happen when two
operating lines touch the equilibrium line.

Rm xD
y
Rm 1 Rm 1

x
slope D c ( int er sec tion)
Rm 1
Rm xD y '

Rm 1 x D x '
61
Operating & Optimum Reflux Ratio
Total reflux: minimum number of plates but tower diameter
is infinite.

## Actual operating reflux ratio lies between these two limits

The optimum reflux ratio to use for lowest total cost per
year is between Rm and total reflux.
Design
consideration
Operating reflux ratio between 1.2 Rm and 1.5 Rm
62
EXERCISE
A saturated liquid feed of 200 mol/h at the boiling point containing 42 mol% heptanes and 58
mol% ethyl benzene is to be fractionated at 101.32 kPa abs to give a distillate containing 97
mol% heptanes and a bottoms containing 10 mol% heptanes. The equilibrium data are given
below at 101.32 kPa abs pressure for the mole fraction n-heptane.

## Mol fraction of n-heptane in liquid

0 0.08 0.25 0.485 0.79 1
phase (xA)
Mol fraction of n-heptane in vapor
0 0.23 0.514 0.73 0.904 1
phase (yA)

## a) Determine the minimum reflux ratio, Rm.

Ans 1.115
a) Determine the number of theoretical plates at minimum reflux ration.
Ans infinite
a) Determine the minimum number of theoretical plates at total reflux.
Ans 5.5 steps and 4.5 trays/stages
a) The reflux ratio used is 2.27Rm, determine:
i. The distillate and bottoms flow rate in mol/h.
Ans D=73.56 mol/h B=126.44 mol/h
i. The theoretical number of trays.
Ans y=0.7167x +0.27 ; 8.5 steps and 7.5 stages/trays
b) Determine the feed tray number
Ans 6 from the top

63