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Chapter 2 1

Chapter 2 2
Example

Chapter 2 3
Chapter 2 4
EXAMPLE

Chapter 2 5
Solution

Chapter 2 6
Chapter 2 7
Chapter 2 8
Method
Method for
for solving
solving First
First Order
Order

Differential
Differential Equations
Equations

Chapter 2 9
Methods

Variable
Variable Separable
Separable
Reducible
Reducible to
to variable
variable separable
separable
Exact
Exact Differential
Differential Equation
Equation
Integrating
Integrating Factor
Factor
Separable Variable
Chapter 2
Differential Equation

x is independent variable and y is dependent variable

or or

are separable forms of the differential equation


Variable Separable

General solution can be solved by directly integrating both the sides

Where c is constant of integration


+c

DO YOU REMEMBER INTEGRATION


FORMULA? Chapter 2 11
Separation of Variables
Chapter 2

Definition A differential equation of the type y = f(x)g(y) is separable.


Differential Equation

x
Example = xy and y
y = are separable
y
x+y
=
but y is not separable.
x-y
Separable differential equations can often be solved with direct integration. This
may lead to an equation which defines the solution implicitly rather than directly.
Variable Separable

x
ydy =
xdx
Example =
y
y
y 2 x2
= + C1 y 2 = x 2 + C
2 2
Variable Separable Differential Equation Chapter 2

EXAMPLE:

Chapter 2
13
Variable Separable Differential Equation Chapter 2
EXAMPLE:

Chapter 2
14
Chapter 2

To find the particular solution, we apply the given initial


condition, when x =1, y = 3
Differential Equation
Variable Separable

is solution of initial value problem

Chapter 2 15
Variable Separable Differential Equation Chapter 2

Chapter 2
16
Variable Separable Differential Equation Chapter 2

Chapter 2
17
Note1: If we have 2 y - ln y dy = 2 xdx
2 y - ln y dy = 2 xdx ln ydy = y ln y - y
Integrating by parts

y 2 - y ln y - y = x 2 + c

2 y - ye dy = 2 xdx

y
Integrating by parts
ye dy = ye - e
y y y

2 y - ye dy = 2 xdx
Note.2. If we have y

y - ye - e = x + c
2 y y 2

2 y - sin y dy = 2 xdx
Note.3. If we have
-1

2 y - sin y dy = 2 xdx
-1 sin -1 ydy = y sin -1 y + 1 - y 2


y 2 - y sin -1 y + 1 - y 2 = x 2 + c
Chapter 2 18
Variable Separable Differential Equation Chapter 2

Chapter 2
19
Chapter 2 20
Chapter 2 21