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Rabbits Radio

Mate Microwaves

In Infra-Red

Very Visible light

Unusual Ultra-violet

eXpensive X-rays

Gardens Gamma rays

Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation can be characterized by any one
of three parameters; energy, frequency and wavelength
The only electromagnetic radiation that we can sense
directly is visible light
Light has dual nature: wave as well as particle
Visible light extend from approximately 400 nm (blue) to
700 nm (Red)
Diagnostic x-rays range from approximately 20 keV to 150
The electromagnetic radiation produced by the oscillator is
called a radiofrequency
RFs extend over range from 3 kHz to 3 GHz
Electromagnetic radiation

A resting electric charge radiates an electric field

When the charge is in motion, a magnetic field
is generated
When moving electric charge slows down
(decelerates), a photon of EM radiation is
An imaging window is a range within the
electromagnetic spectrum used to produce
Electromagnetic radiation
The visible window: visible light interacts with
matter more like a wave than a particle
Diffraction, refraction, reflection and
interference are all properties of wavelike
Imaging with visible light occurs by sensing
the reflection of light from patient
The image of patient is a surface image and an
image of interior structures
Electromagnetic radiation
The X ray window: X rays are produced by
changing of KE of fast moving electrons.
The energy of photons used for x ray imaging
ranges from 20 to 150 keV
The MRI window: EM radiation with frequencies
of 10 to 200 MHz is used in MRI.
This radiation is in the RF portion of the EM
RF is used extensively in communications (TV,
radio and microwave)
Electromagnetic radiation
The AM RF band ranges from 540 to 1640 kHz
and the FM RF band ranges from 88 to 108 MHz.
TV broadcast ranges from 54 to 806 MHz, which
includes both VHF and UHF
Magnetic resonance images are made with RF in
the range from approximately 10 to 200 MHz
For a visible image, radiation is reflected from the
For an x-ray image, radiation is transmitted
through the body
MR image
For an MR image, the patient is stimulated so that
electromagnetic radiation is emitted from the body
Through the use of some clever methods, the emitted
signal is then detected, interpreted and used to produce
an image.
When the abdomen is imaged with conventional
radiographic techniques, the image is created directly on
the film image receptor and is low in contrast principally
of scatter radiation.
The image is also degraded because of superposition of
all the anatomic structures in the abdomen.

For better visualization of an abdominal structure, such as

the kidneys, conventional tomography can be used. The
contrast of the in-focus structures can be enhanced. Yet,
the image is still rather dull and blurred.
Contrast Resolution:
If such an image is unsatisfactory, what else can be done?
A computed tomography can be requested.
The principal advantage of CT imaging over radiographic
imaging is superior contrast resolution, the ability to image
differences among low contrast tissues.
Contrast resolution allows visualization of soft tissue with
similar characteristics such as liver spleen or white matter
gray matter.
Contrast Resolution:
The spatial resolution of CT image is worse
than that of radiographic imaging because it is
digital and limited by pixel size.
The spatial resolution of MRI is worse than
that of radiography. However, the contrast
resolution is even better with MRI than with
Contrast resolution is the principal advantage
of MRI
Spatial Resolution
Spatial resolution refers to the ability to identify
an object, usually a small, dense object like a
metal fragment or microcalcification, as
separate and distinct from another object.
CT has superior contrast resolution because it
uses a finely collimated x ray beam, which
results in reduced scatter radiation.
Basis of X-ray and MR imaging
In x- ray imaging, the x-ray attenuation coefficient ()
determines the differential x-ray absorption in body tissues.
In turn, the x-ray attenuation coefficient depends on the
energy of x-ray beam and atomic number of tissue being
The basis of MR image is different. It is a function of several
intrinsic NMR characteristics of the tissue being imaged.
The three most important characteristics are proton
density, spin lattice relaxation time T1, and spin - spin
relaxation time T2.
Secondary characteristics are flow, magnetic susceptibility,
paramagnetism and chemical shift.
Basis of X-ray and MR imaging
There are two principal parameters to select in the
production of a radiographic image: kVp and mAs.
By careful selecting the kVp and mAs,
radiographers can optimize the contrast resolution
of an image without compromising the spatial
There are many parameters to select in the
production of an MR image. The time sequence of
RF -pulses, and gradient magnetic fields
determines the contrast resolution.
Multiplanar Imaging
An additional advantage to MRI is the ability to obtain
direct transverse, sagittal, coronal and oblique plane images.
Conventional radiographs show superimposed anatomy
regardless of the plane of the image.
Except for CT images, most x-ray images are parallel to
long axis of the body.
MRI has excellent sensitivity. MR spectroscopy could
provide increased specificity
Sensitivity describes how well an imaging system can
detect subtle differences in anatomy.
Specificity refers to the ability to precisely identify the
nature of such differences.
MRI does not require ionizing radiation