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Guide for the design and

production of LV compensation
cubicles
Design rules and critical parameters

In addition to the general design rules applicable for electrical panels,


specific recommendations have to be followed for capacitor
assembling and installation
capacitor units installation
power factor relay settings
contactor specification
reactors characteristics and location
air cooling system efficiency
capacitor bank protection
capacitor bank - routine test
preventive - corrective - maintenance

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Capacitor units installation

The capacitor units must be installed in a position so that natural air


cooling is efficient. In addition, a minimum 25mm distance is required
between two capacitor units

wrong position correct position

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Capacitor bank drawing

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Varplus and temperature class
The capacitor units are designed in order to withstand ambient
temperatures according to IEC 831 standard
Ambient air temperature C (1)
Symbol Maximum Highest average over all periods of
24 hours 1 year
A 40 30 20
B 45 35 25
C 50 40 30
D 55 45 35

(1) Ambient air temperature : temperature around capacitor only (not


in the electrical room)
Assembling can modify the temperature category of the capacitor
units
temperature ambient air temperature (C) reactive power (kvar)
class max highest average
over all periods of
24 hours 1 year 230/240V 400/415V 440/470V 480/525V 550/590V 600/690V
-25/D 55 45 35 up to 40 up to 65 up to 76 up to 85 up to 100 up to 100
-25/C 50 40 30 41 to 50 67.5 to 90 77 to 100 86 to 100
-25/B 45 35 25 51 to 60 92.5 to 100

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Power factor relay setting

The power factor relay supplies automatic settings


insensitive to CT direction
insensitive to phase rotation polarities
automatic search of C/K
The power factor relay requires several settings
time delay : 50 sec minimum (compulsory)
sequence : n, CA, CB, S
CK : depends on the power of the smallest step and CT ratio
cos phi targeted

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Physical steps - Electrical steps : Explanations

Due to the switching programs of the regulator ( 1.1.1 , 1.1.2 , 1.2.2 ,


1.2.4 ...... ) the number of electrical steps may be higher than the
apparent number of capacitors
CA : All the steps have the same power (1.1.1)
CB : Steps 2, 3 ..6 power = Twice step 1 power (1.2.2)
n : Step 2 power = Step 1 power (1.1.2)
all others steps = Twice step 1 power
n : Step 2 power = Twice step 1 power (1.2.4)
all others steps = Four time step 1 power

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How to find the number of electrical steps ?

1.1.1.1.1.1 = 1+1+1+1+1+1 = 6 electrical steps with 6 outputs of the


regulator used
1.2.2.2.2.2 =1+2+2+2+2+2 = 11 electrical steps with 6 outputs of the
regulator used
1.1.2.2.2.2 = 1+1+2+2+2+2 = 10 electrical steps with 6 outputs of the
regulator used
1.2.4.4.4.4 = 1+2+4+4+4+4 = 19 electrical steps with 6 outputs of the
regulator used

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Physical steps - Electrical steps : example

Rectimat 2 : 105 kvar


electrical steps : 7*15 kvar
physical steps : 15+30+60 kvar
switching programs : 1.2.4= 1+2+4 = 7 electrical steps

Output power Physical steps


kvar 15 kvar 30 kvar 60 kvar
15 1 0 0
30 0 1 0
45 1 1 0
60 0 0 1
75 1 0 1
90 0 1 1
105 1 1 1

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Contactor specification

Capacitor switching is followed Tlmcanique LC1-D.K


by transient phenomena contactors have been designed
resulting from capacitor charging for capacitor switching

Network
voltage

Capacitor
voltage

Peak closing
current
Capacitor
current
Oscillation
frequency

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Contactor solution

Standard contactor
Inrush current > 200 In main contacts damaged
capacitor destruction
Tlmcanique LC1-D.K contactor
pre-insertion block (inrush current reduction)
long life : 300 000 switching cycles -400V

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Reactors characteristics and location

detuned type capacitor bank :


overrated capacitor unit + detuned reactor
standard tuning level 215 Hz or 5.4%
As the detuned reactors generates heat,
particular attention must be paid to :
the location of these reactors
separate compartments if possible (1)
and the air cooling system
a forced air cooling system is required

(1) If not, the reactors must be fitted above the


capacitors

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Air cooling system efficiency

Typical heating
loose capacitors : 0.7 W/kvar
standard and overrated range : 2.5 W/kvar
detuning range : 7 W/kvar
Joule losses for reactors
DR : 12.5 kvar = 80 W
DR : 25 kvar = 160 W
DR : 50 kvar = 300 W
DR : 100 kvar = 400 W

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Ventilation calculation

Standard and overrated types


maximum temperature : 40C
average temperature over 24 hours (electrical room) : 35C
average annual temperature : 25C
cubicle dimension : 2000 (H) x 400 (D) x 800 (L)
system voltage : 400V 50Hz, IP=3X
Q ventilation air inlet
(kvar) type air flow
90 natural 200 cm
180 natural 300 cm
210 natural 400 cm
> 210 forced fan (m3/h)=Q/2
(1) air inlet : Xcm => air outlet = X x 1.1 cm
example : air inlet : 200 cm => air outlet : 220cm

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Ventilation calculation

Standard and overrated types : example


maximum temperature : 40C
average temperature over 24 hours (electrical room) : 35C
average annual temperature : 25C
cubicle dimension : 2000 (H) x 400 (D)
system voltage : 400V 50Hz, IP=3X
Q = 600 kvar
Fan calculation (m3/h) = Q/2 => fan needed = 300 m3/h

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Ventilation calculation

detuned type
maximum temperature : 40C
average temperature over 24 hours (electrical room) : 35C
average annual temperature : 25C
cubicle dimension : 2000 (H) x 400 (D) x 800 (L)
system voltage : 400V 50Hz, IP=3X
detuned capacitor bank must be ventilated
reactors have to be located either separate compartment or other
cubicle
ventilation of capacitor cubicle : same rules as standard and
overrated type
ventilation of reactor cubicle
air flow calculation => AF = 0,3 x DP
DP : dissipated power (W)

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Ventilation calculation

Detuned type : example


maximum temperature : 40C
average temperature over 24 hours (electrical room) : 35C
average annual temperature : 25C
cubicle dimension : 2000 (H) x 400 (D) x 800 (L)
system voltage : 400V 50Hz, IP=3X
Q = 300 kvar (50+50+2x100 kvar)
ventilation of capacitor cubicle : 150 m3/h
ventilation of reactor cubicle
AF= 0.3 x DP
DP = (300x2) + (450x2) = 1500 W
AF= 450 m3/h

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Capacitor bank protection
Circuit breaker rating Fuse HRC rating

Standard type 1.36 IN 1.6 IN

Overrated type 1.5 IN 1.6 IN

DR type (6.9%) 1.19 IN


tuning 3.8
1.5 IN
DR type 1.31 IN
tuning 4.3 (5.4%)

IN = Q/3/U
IN = 60 kvar/3/400V = 86.6 A
When set of fuses protects two steps => coefficient : 1.41IN
Ith : 10IN

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Capacitor bank - Routine test

Dielectric test : 2500V 50Hz 1min


Test done between 3 phases short circuit and earth (insulation
measurement can be done under 500V with R>1000 ohms/V
Conformity (drawing, list of components)
Visual aspect (wiring, IP, panels)
Control wiring test (eventually)
test report

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Preventive / Corrective - Maintenance

General information
activity of the plant
capacitor bank description and pictures/drawing
Ambient conditions
temperature (room and capacitor bank)
harmonic pollution
Power factor relay checking
time delay
C/K
contactors used (specifics, loop of cables)
auto/ON/OFF selector

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Harmonic pollution - Assessment and solutions

GH : total power (kvar) of harmonic generator


SN : nominal power of the transformer (kvar)
S : apparent power consumed during measurement

calculation measurement

GH S
Standard range ------ 15% Thd (A) x ------- < 5%
SN SN
GH S
Overrated range 15% < ----- 25% 5% < Thd (A) x------ 10%
SN SN
GH S
Detuned range 25% < ------ 60% 10% < Thd (A) x----- < 20%
SN SN

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Capacitor bank assembling - Best practices

Respect of discharge of capacitor (fix and automatic)


Temperature (capacitor, electrical room)
Reactors and capacitor location
Harmonic pollution
Capacitor switching

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Capacitor bank installation - Best practices

CT location
Temperature
Regulator setting
CB

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