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Rural Research Methods (RRM)

0.5 Credit
Pre-Mid Term I

Evaluation Components

Quizzes/Tests: 20 %

Group Assignment: 25 %

Final Exam: 45 %

Class Participation: 10%


PRA (21-22 July)

Stages of Research
What is Research?
What is Research?

Finding answers of your questions!

But this cant be a research .unless..

It contributes to a body of knowledge
It follows scientific method(s)

Then Research is :
A systematic process to find answers of your questions
Social Research follows three basic criteria:
Follows a set of philosophies
Use valid and reliable methods, tools and techniques
Shouldnt be biased
Two Caveats!!!!
Doing social research may differ.
From one discipline to another, because of different philosophies
From one individual to another, because of different educational
background, skills and experiences, academic orientation, personal
beliefs, etc.
Types of Research
On the basis of application
1. Pure Research: Developing theories and methods, less effective in
solving immediate problems of day to day life.
2. Applied Research: Solving practical problems policies,
administration, industries, market etc

On the basis of mode of enquiry

1. Structured: Processes are predetermined; extent of a phenomenon;
focus much on measurement and quantitative details
2. Unstructured: Flexible processes; nature of a phenomenon, based
qualitative data and information
On the basis of objectives

1. Exploratory: Investigation of a social issue where very little

information/knowledge is available

2. Correlational: Relationship between two or more aspects/situation

3. Explanatory: Explain cause and effect or clarify why and how

4. Descriptive: Describe a social phenomenon, issue, problem etc.


Quality of basic services is declining and we want to know why.

What have been the trends in organisational downsizing over the past ten years?

Has the average merger rate for financial institutions increased in the past decade?

How important is organisational downsizing as a strategy?

Did last years product recall have an impact on our companys share price?

What are the reasons of yellow fever in Africa?

Why skill development of youth is more effective for generating employment?

Would people be interested in our new product idea?

Is students academic performance related with their family income?

Stages of Research

Stage 1

Deciding Step 1: Formulate a research problem


Stage 2 Step 2: Conceptualize a research design

Planning Step 3: Finalize Instruments of data collection
HOW Step 4: Select a sample population
Step 5: Write research proposal/synopsis

Stage 3 Step 6: Data collection

Actually Step 7: Data Analysis
Step 8: Final report