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MANUFACTURING PROCESS

EAT 227

WEEK 2
METAL CASTING

PowerPoint Slides
by Turnad Lenggo Ginta

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Fundamental of metal casting

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Typical Cast Parts

(c)

(a)

(b) (d)

Figure (a) Typical gray-iron castings used in automobiles, including the transmission valve
body (left) and the hub rotor with disk-brake cylinder (front). Source: Courtesy of Central
Foundry Division of General Motors Corporation. (b) A cast transmission housing. (c)
The Polaroid PDC-2000 digital camera with a AZ191D die-cast high-purity magnesium
case. (d) A two-piece Polaroid camera case made by the hot-chamber die-casting
process.
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Casting of an Aluminum Piston

Figure 10.16 Aluminum piston for an internal combustion engine: (a) as-
cast and (b) after machining.

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Introduction

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Casting Design and Fluidity Test

Figure 10.8 Schematic illustration of a typical riser-gated Figure 10.9 A test method for fluidity using
casting. Risers serve as reservoirs, supplying molten a spiral mold. The fluidity index is the length
metal to the casting as it shrinks during solidification. of the solidified metal in the spiral passage.
The greater the length of the solidified
metal, the greater is its fluidity.

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shrinkage

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Solidification of Pure Metals

Figure 10.1 (a) Temperature as a function of time for the solidification of pure metals. Note that the
freezing takes place at a constant temperature. (b) Density as a function of time

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Solidification volume shrinkage

Fig. 2.19 Changes in volume as a metal alloy solidifies.

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Solidification Contraction or Expansion

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Basic Types of Cast Structures

Figure 10.6 Schematic illustration of three basic types of cast structures: (a) columnar dendritic; (b)
equizxed dendritic; and (c) equiaxed nondendritic. Source: Courtesy of D. Apelian

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Chill, columnar and equaixial grains

Fig. 2.17 Sketch of solidified grain structure of an alloy: (a) chill crystals; (b) columnar
grains; and (c) region of coarse equiaxed grains in centre.

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Sand casting

SAND CASTING BENEFITS

1. Least Expensive Casting Process


2. Castings can be up to Several Tons
3. Less Expensive than Machining Shapes from Bar
Stock
4. Can Cast Intricate Shapes
5. Can be Used with Most Pourable Metals and Alloys

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HOW IT WORKS

The Sand Casting ( Green Sand ) molding process utilizes a cope ( top half ) and drag
( bottom half ) flask set-up. The mold consists of sand, ( usually silica ), clay and water.
When the water is added it develops the bonding characteristics of the clay, which
binds the sand grains together.

When applying pressure to the mold material it can be compacted around a pattern,
which is either made of metal or wood, to produce a mold having sufficient rigidity to
enable metal to be poured into it to produce a casting. The process also uses coring
to create cavities inside the casting. After the casting is poured and has cooled the
core is removed.
The material costs for the process are low and the sand casting process is
exceptionally flexible. A number of metals can be used for castings in sizes from
ounces to many thousand pounds. The mold material is reclaimable, with between 90
and 95% of the sand being recycled, although new sand and additions are required to
make up for the discarded loss. These features, combined with the relative ease of
mold production, have ensured that the green sand molding process has remained as
the principal method by which castings are produced.

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The sand casting processes

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Mold making

FIGURE 2-9 Steps in making a green


sand mold using a semi-automatic
molding process. (D. L. Zalensas, ed.,
Aluminum Casting Technology, 2nd
ed., 1997, p. 187). Reprinted with
permission from American Foundry

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Design for Ease of Removal from Mold

Figure Taper on patterns for ease of removal from the sand mold

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THE SAND

The sand used for green sand molding is critical and determines the favorable or
unfavorable outcome of the casting. It controls the tolerances, surface finish and
the repeatability while in production. Remembering that the tolerances on sand
castings are usually wider than the other casting methods.

The sand must exhibit the following characteristics:

1. FLOWABILITY: The ability to pack tightly around the pattern.


2. PLASTIC DEFORMATION: Have the ability to deform slightly without cracking
so that the pattern can be withdrawn.
3. GREEN STRENGTH: Have the ability to support its own weight when stripped
from the pattern, and also withstand pressure of molten metal when the mold is
cast.
4. PERMEABILITY: This allows the gases and steam to escape from the mold
during casting.

All of these requirements are dependent on the amount of active clay present and
on the water content of the mixture.

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DEFINITIONS
1. POURING CUP: This is where the metal is poured into the mold.
2. SPRUE: The vertical channel from the top of the mold to the gating and riser system. Also, a generic term
used to cover all gates, runners and risers.
3. RUNNER: The portion of the gate assembly that connects the sprue to the casting in gate or riser.
4. GATE: The end of the runner in a mold where molten metal enters the mold cavity.
5. RISER: A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for the contraction of the metal as it
solidifies.
6. MOLD CAVITY: The impression in a mold produced by the removal of the pattern. When filled with
molten metal it forms a casting.
7. COPE: Upper or top most section of a flask, mold or pattern.
8. PARTING LINE: A line on a pattern or casting corresponding to the separation between the parts of a
mold.
9. DRAG: Lower or bottom section of a flask, mold or pattern.
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Production Steps in Sand-Casting

Figure Outline of production steps in a typical sand-casting operation.

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Sequence of Operations for Sand-Casting

Figure Schematic illustration of the sequence of operations for sand casting. (a) A mechanical drawing of the part is
used to generate a design for the pattern. Considerations such as part shrinkage and draft must be built into the
drawing. (b-c) Patterns have been mounted on plates equipped with pins for alignment. Note the presence of core
prints designed to hold the core in place. (d-e) Core boxes produce core halves, which are pasted together. The
cores will be used to produce the hollow area of the part shown in (a). (f) The cope half of the mold is assembled
by securing the cope pattern plate to the flask with aligning pins and attaching inserts to form the sprue and risers.
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Continued on next slide. 27
Sequence of Operations for Sand-Casting, Cont.

(g) The flask is rammed with sand and rthe plate and inserts are removed. (h) The drag half is produced in a
similar manner with the pattern inserted. A bottom board is placed below the drag and aligned with pins. (i)
The pattern , flask, and bottom board are inverted; and the pattern is withdrawn, leaving the appropriate
imprint. (j) The core is set in place within the drag cavity. (k) The mold is closed by placing the cope on top
of the drag and securing the assembly with pins. The flasks the are subjected to pressure to counteract
buoyant forces in the liquid, which might lift the cope. (l) After the metal solidifies, the casting is removed
from the mold. (m) The sprue and risers are cut off and recycled, and the casting is cleaned, inspected, and
heat treated (when necessary).
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METAL CASTING
Permanent Mould Casting

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Gravity die casting in a permanent mold.

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Shell molding

FIGURE 2-12 Shell-molding process


that uses a fine base sand mixed with
a thermosetting binder. The mixture
partially cures and forms a hard shell
upon contact with a hot match plate
(which forms the cover of the
dumpbox
containing the sand mixture). (E. P.
DeGarmo, J. T. Black, R. A. Kohser,
and B. E. Klanecki, Materials and
Processes in Manufacturing, 9th ed.,
Wiley, New York, 2003, p. 308).

The molding aggregate in shell-molding is a mixture of a fine base sand and a thermosetting binder. A
metal match plate is used as a pattern and forms the cover of a dump box that is filled with the molding
aggregate. The match plate is heated to about 150-230 ~ and the dump box is inverted to allow the resin-
bonded sand to physically contact the hot pattern. The thermosetting plastic begins to cure and harden,
forming a solid sand shell around the pattern. The dump box is then brought back to its normal uptight
position, and excess (uncured) sand mixture is removed. The partially cured shell is stripped from the
match plate with the help of ejector pins, and the curing is completed in an oven. The steps are repeated
to make the matching half of the shell mold. After curing, the two mold halves are assembled, clamped,
and readied for the pour (metal shot or sand is used as a physical support for the mold halves). Some of
the resin evaporates during the pour and represents an unreclaimable material loss. Very tight
dimensional control (tolerances of 0.002-0.005 inch) and excellent surface finish are achieved using shell-
molds. This reduces the need for machining, but very precise patterns are needed to start with. The
process is amenable to automation for mass production of parts. Figure 2-12 shows the basic steps
involved in shell molding.
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Investment Casting Process

Figure Schematic illustration of investment casting (lost-wax) process. Castings


by this method can be made with very fine detail and from a variety of metals.
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Low-pressure permanent mold casting

FIGURE 2-16 Low-pressure permanent mold casting in which an inert gas is used to pressurize the molten metal counter to
gravity through a feed tube and into the permanent mold that is placed on top of the pressure vessel. The solidification
path is designed to enable the shrinkage to be fed by the pressurized molten metal. (Courtesy of Amsted Industries).

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Vacuum permanent mold casting

FIGURE 2-17 Vacuum permanent mold casting in which a vacuum is appfied through vents in
the mold to raise the molten metal via a feed tube into the mold. (E. P. DeGarmo, J. T. Black, R.
A. Kohser, and B. E. Klanecki, Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 9th ed., Wiley, 2003,
Lastp. 328).July 2017
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Die Casting
Process:
molten metal is injected into a closed metal die under high
pressure.
pressure is maintained during solidification.
Die is separated and casting ejected

Two types of die casting


Hot chamber
Cold chamber

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Hot-Chamber Die-Casting

Figure Schematic illustration of the hot-chamber die-casting process.

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An injection system forces molten metal out of the
gooseneck into the die cavity where the metal rapidly
solidifies
To improve die life and aid in the rapid cooling, dies are
usually cooled by circulating water/oil through
passageways in the die block
Application: primary used with zinc, tin and lead based
alloys

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Advantages
No transfer process of the molten metal, as it is melted in the
chamber from which it is injected into the die cavity
Offer fast cycling times
Good strength product
Excellent dimensional precision and surface finish

Disadvantages:
Expensive as the dies are made from hardened hot-worked tool
steels
Requires high production rates to justify the usage
Cannot be used for high melting point metals

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Cold-Chamber Die-Casting

Figure Schematic illustration of the cold-chamber die-casting process. These


machines are large compared to the size of the casting, because high forces are
required to keep the two halves of the
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dies closed under pressure.
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Employed for die casting of materials that are not suitable for hot
chamber design.
E.g. Al, Mg, Cu
Process:
Metal is melted in a separate furnace and is transported to the die
casting machine.
Molten metal is fed into an unheated chamber.
A mechanical plunger forces the molten metal into die cavity
where the metal solidifies.

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Advantages:
Good strength product
Excellent dimensional accuracy
Excellent surface finish

Disadvantages:
Expensive dies
Requires high production rate to justify the usage
The need to transport molten metals

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Types of Cavities in Die-Casting Die

Figure Various types of cavities in a die-casting die.

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Hot Tears in Castings

Figure 10.12 Examples of hot tears in castings. These defects occur because the casting
cannot shrink freely during cooling, owing to constraints in various portions of the molds
and cores. Exothermic (heat-producing) compounds may be used (as exothermic padding)
to control cooling at critical sections to avoid hot tearing
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Centrifugal casting

Utilize inertial force caused by rotation to distribute molten metal into


mold cavities
Process:
Pour molten metal into rotating mould
Metal is held against the mould wall by centrifugal force until it is
solidified
3 types of centrifugal casting
True centrifugal casting
Semi-centrifugal casting
centrifuging

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True centrifugal casting

Mould normally made of steel, iron, or graphite and may be coated with a
refractory lining to increase mould life
Mould surfaces can be shaped so that pipes with various outer shapes
including square or polygonal can be cast
Inner surface of casting remains cylindrical because the molten metal is
uniformly distributed by centrifugal forces
Produces hollows cylindrical parts:
Pipes, gun barrels, streetlamp posts, etc.

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characteristics:
Good quality
Dimensional accuracy
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Semi centrifugal casting
In this method, centrifugal force is
used to produce solid castings rather
than tubular parts. Density of the
metal in the final casting is greater in
the outer sections than at the center
of rotation. The process is used on
parts in which the center of the
casting is machined away, such as
wheels and pulleys.

used to cast parts with rotational symmetry


Wheels

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Centrifuging

Mould cavities of any shape are placed at a certain distance from


the axis of rotation.
Molten metal is poured from the centre and is forced into the mould
by centrifugal forces.

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Advantages
Able to produce a wide range of cylindrical parts
Good dimensional accuracy

Disadvantages
Shape is limited
Expensive spinning equipment required

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Continuous Casting

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Continuous casting (right, red arrows) is a method of working steel that conveys steel from
its molten state to blooms, ingots, or slabs. The white-hot metal is poured into open-ended
molds and continues on through rollers cooled by water. A series of guide rollers further
shapes the steel into the desired form. However, hot rolling (left, blue arrows) is still the
primary means of milling steel. This process begins with pre-shaped steel slabs, which are
reheated in a soaking pit. The steel passes through a series of mills: the blooming mill, the
roughing mill, and the finishing mill, which make it progressively thinner. Finally, the steel is
wound into coils and transported elsewhere for further processing.
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Continuous casting

Continuous casting accounts for about 95% of the world cast steel
These castings take the form of blooms, slabs, and billets
Replaced ingot casting which is still used in some steel plants or for certain
grades of steel
Concept is over 150 years old but continuous casting became widespread in
Europe especially in the 1970s
Perfectly suited to the mini mill concept with electric steel making facilities
and a continuous caster.

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Casting shapes and sizes

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Continuous casting schematic

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Continuous casting process

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Question??

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