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Pavement Design

Chapter 19 Part 3
Chapter 4: Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis, 5th Edition,
Author: Fred L. Mannering, Scott S. Washburn ISBN 978-1-118-12014-9.

Roadway Design
15FCVE211 - Summer 2017
Dr Taha Ahmed
Principles for Rigid Pavements
Rigid pavements distribute wheel loads by
the beam action of the Portland cement
concrete (PCC) slab,
Material has a high modulus of elasticity, on
the order of 4 to 5 million lb/in2

Beam action of a rigid pavement 2


Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
The design procedure for rigid pavements is
based on a selected reduction in serviceability
and is similar to the design procedure
followed for flexible pavements.

However, instead of measuring pavement


strength by using a structural number, the
thickness of the PCC slab is the measure of
strength.
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
Equation to determine the thickness of a rigid-pavement
PCC slab is
log 10 PSI / 3.0
log 10W18 Z R S o 7.35log 10 D 1 - 0.06

1 1.624 10 7 D 1
8.46


4.22 0.32TSI log 10

S c' C d D 0.75 1.132

215.63 J D 0.75
18 .42 E c k 0 .25


Where:
W18 = 18-kip-equivalent single-axle load,
ZR = reliability (z-statistic from the standard normal curve),
So = overall standard deviation of traffic,
D = PCC slab thickness in inches,
TSI = pavements terminal serviceability index,
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
PSI = loss in serviceability from when the pavement is new
until it reaches its TSI,
S C' = concrete modulus of rupture in lb/in2,
Cd = drainage coefficient,
J = load transfer coefficient,
Ec = concrete elastic modulus in lb/in2, and
k = modulus of subgrade reaction.
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
S C'
The concrete modulus of rupture, is a measure of the
tensile strength of the concrete and is determined by
loading a beam specimen, at the third points, to failure.
The test method is ASTM C 78, Flexural Strength of
Concrete. Because concrete gains strength with age, the
average 28-day strength is used for design purposes.
Typical values are 500 to 1200 lb/in2.
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
Cd
The drainage coefficient, Cd, is slightly different from
those used in flexible-pavement design. In rigid-pavement
design, it accounts for the drainage characteristics of the
subgrade. A value of 1.0 for a drainage coefficient
represents a material with good drainage characteristics
(such as a sandy material). Other soils, with less than ideal
drainage characteristics, will have drainage coefficients
that are less than 1.0.
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
J
The load transfer coefficient, J, is a factor that is used to
account for the ability of pavement to transfer a load from
one PCC slab to another across the slab joints. Pavements
with dowel bars at the joints are typically designed with a
J value of 3.2.
Ec
The concrete modulus of elasticity, Ec is derived from the
stress-strain curve as taken in the elastic region. Typical
values of Ec for Portland cement concrete are between 3
and 7 million lb/in2.
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
K
The modulus of subgrade reaction, k, depends upon several different factors
including the moisture content and density of the soil. Typical values for k
range from 100 to 800 lb/in3.

CBR Value k Value, lb/in3


2 100
Relationship Between California Bearing Ratio 10 200
(CBR) and Modulus of Subgrade Reaction, k 20 250
25 290
40 420
50 500
75 680
100 800
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure
Axle
Axle-Load Equivalency Factors Load
Slab Thickness, D (inches)
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
for Rigid Pavements, Single 2 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002
Axles, and TSI = 2.5 4 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002
6 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.010
0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
8 0.039 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
10 0.097 0.089 0.084 0.082 0.081 0.080 0.080 0.080 0.080
12 0.203 0.189 0.181 0.176 0.175 0.174 0.174 0.174 0.173
14 0.376 0.360 0.347 0.341 0.338 0.337 0.336 0.336 0.336
16 0.634 0.623 0.610 0.604 0.601 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.598
18 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
20 1.51 1.52 1.55 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.59 1.59 1.59
22 2.21 2.20 2.28 2.34 2.38 2.40 2.41 2.41 2.41
24 3.16 3.10 3.22 3.36 3.45 3.50 3.53 3.54 3.55
26 4.41 4.26 4.42 4.67 4.85 4.95 5.01 5.04 5.05
28 6.05 5.76 5.92 6.29 6.61 6.81 6.92 6.98 7.01
30 8.16 7.67 7.79 8.28 8.79 9.14 9.35 9.46 9.52
32 10.8 10.1 10.1 10.7 11.4 12.0 12.3 12.6 12.7
34 14.1 13.0 12.9 13.6 14.6 15.4 16.0 16.4 16.5
36 18.2 16.7 16.4 17.1 18.3 19.5 20.4 21.0 21.3
38 23.1 21.1 20.6 21.3 22.7 24.3 25.6 26.4 27.0
40 29.1 26.5 25.7 26.3 27.9 29.9 31.6 32.9 33.7
42 36.2 32.9 31.7 32.2 34.0 36.3 38.7 40.4 41.6
44 44.6 40.4 38.8 39.2 41.0 43.8 46.7 49.1 50.8
46 54.5 49.3 47.1 47.3 49.2 52.3 55.9 59.0 61.4
48 66.1 59.7 56.9 56.8 58.7 62.1 66.3 70.3 73.4
50 79.4 71.7 68.2 67.8 69.6 73.3 78.1 83.0 87.1
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure Axle
Slab Thickness, D (inches)
Load
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
4 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005
Axle-Load Equivalency Factors 6 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
8 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
0.002
0.005
0.002
0.005
10 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012
for Rigid Pavements, Tandem 12 0.031 0.028 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.025
14 0.057 0.052 0.049 0.048 0.047 0.047 0.047
0.025
0.047
0.025
0.047
Axles, and TSI = 2.5 16 0.097 0.089 0.084 0.082 0.081 0.081 0.080
18 0.155 0.143 0.136 0.133 0.132 0.131 0.131
0.080
0.131
0.080
0.131
20 0.234 0.220 0.211 0.206 0.204 0.203 0.203 0.203 0.203
22 0.340 0.325 0.313 0.308 0.305 0.304 0.303 0.303 0.303
24 0.475 0.462 0.450 0.444 0.441 0.440 0.439 0.439 0.439
26 0.644 0.637 0.627 0.622 0.620 0.619 0.618 0.618 0.618
28 0.855 0.854 0.852 0.850 0.850 0.850 0.849 0.849 0.849
30 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14
32 1.43 1.44 1.47 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.51 1.51 1.51
34 1.82 1.82 1.87 1.92 1.95 1.96 1.97 1.97 1.97
36 2.29 2.27 2.35 2.43 2.48 2.51 2.52 2.52 2.53
38 2.85 2.80 2.91 3.03 3.12 3.16 3.18 3.20 3.20
40 3.52 3.42 3.55 3.74 3.87 3.94 3.98 4.00 4.01
42 4.32 4.16 4.30 4.55 4.74 4.86 4.91 4.95 4.96
44 5.26 5.01 5.16 5.48 5.75 5.92 6.01 6.06 6.09
46 6.36 6.01 6.14 6.53 6.90 7.14 7.28 7.36 7.40
48 7.64 7.16 7.27 7.73 8.21 8.55 8.75 8.86 8.92
50 9.11 8.50 8.55 9.07 9.68 10.14 10.42 10.58 10.66
52 10.8 10.0 10.0 10.6 11.3 11.9 12.3 12.5 12.7
54 12.8 11.8 11.7 12.3 13.2 13.9 14.5 14.8 14.9
56 15.0 13.8 13.6 14.2 15.2 16.2 16.8 17.3 17.5
58 17.5 16.0 15.7 16.3 17.5 18.6 19.5 20.1 20.4
60 20.3 18.5 18.1 18.7 20.0 21.4 22.5 23.2 23.6
63 23.5 21.4 20.8 21.4 22.8 24.4 25.7 26.7 27.3
64 27.0 24.6 23.8 24.4 25.8 27.7 29.3 30.5 31.3
66 31.0 28.1 27.1 27.6 29.2 31.3 33.2 34.7 35.7
68 35.4 32.1 30.9 31.3 32.9 35.2 37.5 39.3 40.5
70 40.3 36.5 35.0 35.3 37.0 39.5 42.1 44.3 45.9
72 45.7 41.4 39.6 39.8 41.5 44.2 47.2 49.8 51.7
74 51.7 46.7 44.6 44.7 46.4 49.3 52.7 55.7 58.0
76 58.3 52.6 50.2 50.1 51.8 54.9 58.6 62.1 64.8
78 65.5 59.1 56.3 56.1 57.7 60.9 65.0 69.0 72.3
80 73.4 66.2 62.9 62.5 64.2 67.5 71.9 76.4 80.2
82 82.0 73.9 70.2 69.6 71.2 74.7 79.4 84.4 88.8
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure Axle
Slab Thickness, D (inches)
Load
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
4 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003
Axle-Load Equivalency Factors 6
8
0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
0.001
0.002
0.001
0.002
10 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
for Rigid Pavements, Triple 12
14
0.011 0.010 0.010 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009
0.020 0.018 0.017 0.017 0.016 0.016 0.016
0.009
0.016
0.009
0.016
Axles, and TSI = 2.5 16
18
0.033 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.027
0.053 0.048 0.045 0.044 0.044 0.043 0.043
0.027
0.043
0.027
0.043
20 0.080 0.073 0.069 0.067 0.066 0.066 0.066 0.066 0.066
22 0.116 0.107 0.101 0.099 0.098 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.097
24 0.163 0.151 0.144 0.141 0.139 0.139 0.138 0.138 0.138
26 0.222 0.209 0.200 0.195 0.194 0.193 0.192 0.192 0.192
28 0.295 0.281 0.271 0.265 0.263 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262
30 0.384 0.371 0.359 0.354 0.351 0.350 0.349 0.349 0.349
32 0.490 0.480 0.468 0.463 0.460 0.459 0.458 0.458 0.458
34 0.616 0.609 0.601 0.596 0.594 0.593 0.592 0.592 0.592
36 0.765 0.762 0.759 0.757 0.756 0.755 0.755 0.755 0.755
38 0.939 0.941 0.946 0.948 0.950 0.951 0.951 0.951 0.951
40 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18
42 1.38 1.38 1.41 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46
44 1.65 1.65 1.70 1.74 1.77 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.78
46 1.97 1.96 2.03 2.09 2.13 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.16
48 2.34 2.31 2.40 2.49 2.55 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.60
50 2.76 2.71 2.81 2.94 3.02 3.07 3.09 3.10 3.11
52 3.24 3.15 3.27 3.44 3.56 3.62 3.66 3.68 3.68
54 3.79 3.66 3.79 4.00 4.16 4.26 4.30 4.33 4.34
56 4.41 4.23 4.37 4.63 4.84 4.97 5.03 5.07 5.09
58 5.12 4.87 5.00 5.32 5.59 5.76 5.85 5.90 5.93
60 5.91 5.59 5.71 6.08 6.42 6.64 6.77 6.84 6.87
62 6.80 6.39 6.50 6.91 7.33 7.62 7.79 7.88 7.93
64 7.79 7.29 7.37 7.82 8.33 8.70 8.92 9.04 9.11
66 8.90 8.28 8.33 8.83 9.42 9.88 10.17 10.33 10.42
68 10.1 9.4 9.4 9.9 10.6 11.2 11.5 11.7 11.9
70 11.5 10.6 10.6 11.1 11.9 12.6 13.0 13.3 13.5
72 13.0 12.0 11.8 12.4 13.3 14.1 14.7 15.0 15.2
74 14.6 13.5 13.2 13.8 14.8 15.8 16.5 16.9 17.1
76 16.5 15.1 14.8 15.4 16.5 17.6 18.4 18.9 19.2
78 18.5 16.9 16.5 17.1 18.2 19.5 20.5 21.1 21.5
80 20.6 18.8 18.3 18.9 20.2 21.6 22.7 23.5 24.0
82 23.0 21.0 20.3 20.9 22.2 23.8 25.2 26.1 26.7
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure

Segment 1
Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement
Design Procedure

Segment 2
Example 1
You have been asked to design the pavement for an access highway to a major
truck terminal. The design daily truck traffic consists of the following: 80 single
axles at 22,500 lb each, 570 tandem axles at 25,000 lb each, 50 tandem axles
at 39,000 lb each, and 80 triple axles at 48,000 lb each. The highway is to be
designed with rigid pavement having a modulus of rupture of 600 lb/in2 and a
modulus of elasticity of 5 million lb/in2. The reliability is to be 95%, the overall
standard deviation is 0.4, the drainage coefficient is 0.9, PSI is 1.7 (with a TSI
of 2.5), and the load transfer coefficient is 3.2. The modulus of subgrade
reaction is 200 lb/in3. If a 20-year design life is to be used, determine the
required slab thickness.
Example 1 Solution
Assume D=11 inches

W18 Calculations Axle


Slab Thickness, D (inches)
Load
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Axle loads factor: 2 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002
4 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
Single 22.5 kip = 2.675 6 0.012 0.011 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
8 0.039 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032 0.032
10 0.097 0.089 0.084 0.082 0.081 0.080 0.080 0.080 0.080
12 0.203 0.189 0.181 0.176 0.175 0.174 0.174 0.174 0.173
14 0.376 0.360 0.347 0.341 0.338 0.337 0.336 0.336 0.336
16 0.634 0.623 0.610 0.604 0.601 0.599 0.599 0.599 0.598
18 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
20 1.51 1.52 1.55 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.59 1.59 1.59
22 2.21 2.20 2.28 2.34 2.38 2.40 2.41 2.41 2.41
24 3.16 3.10 3.22 3.36 3.45 3.50 3.53 3.54 3.55
26 4.41 4.26 4.42 4.67 4.85 4.95 5.01 5.04 5.05
28 6.05 5.76 5.92 6.29 6.61 6.81 6.92 6.98 7.01
30 8.16 7.67 7.79 8.28 8.79 9.14 9.35 9.46 9.52
32 10.8 10.1 10.1 10.7 11.4 12.0 12.3 12.6 12.7
34 14.1 13.0 12.9 13.6 14.6 15.4 16.0 16.4 16.5
36 18.2 16.7 16.4 17.1 18.3 19.5 20.4 21.0 21.3
38 23.1 21.1 20.6 21.3 22.7 24.3 25.6 26.4 27.0
40 29.1 26.5 25.7 26.3 27.9 29.9 31.6 32.9 33.7
42 36.2 32.9 31.7 32.2 34.0 36.3 38.7 40.4 41.6
44 44.6 40.4 38.8 39.2 41.0 43.8 46.7 49.1 50.8
46 54.5 49.3 47.1 47.3 49.2 52.3 55.9 59.0 61.4
48 66.1 59.7 56.9 56.8 58.7 62.1 66.3 70.3 73.4
50 79.4 71.7 68.2 67.8 69.6 73.3 78.1 83.0 87.1
Example 1 Solution
Assume D=11 inches
Axle
Slab Thickness, D (inches)
W18 Calculations Load
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
Tandem Axle loads factor 4 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005
6 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
for 25 kip = 0.5295 8 0.007 0.006 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
10 0.015 0.014 0.013 0.013 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012 0.012
12 0.031 0.028 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025
14 0.057 0.052 0.049 0.048 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047 0.047
Tandem Axle loads factor 16 0.097 0.089 0.084 0.082 0.081 0.081 0.080 0.080 0.080
for 39 kip = 3.55 18 0.155 0.143 0.136 0.133 0.132 0.131 0.131 0.131 0.131
20 0.234 0.220 0.211 0.206 0.204 0.203 0.203 0.203 0.203
22 0.340 0.325 0.313 0.308 0.305 0.304 0.303 0.303 0.303
24 0.475 0.462 0.450 0.444 0.441 0.440 0.439 0.439 0.439
26 0.644 0.637 0.627 0.622 0.620 0.619 0.618 0.618 0.618
28 0.855 0.854 0.852 0.850 0.850 0.850 0.849 0.849 0.849
30 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14
32 1.43 1.44 1.47 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.51 1.51 1.51
34 1.82 1.82 1.87 1.92 1.95 1.96 1.97 1.97 1.97
36 2.29 2.27 2.35 2.43 2.48 2.51 2.52 2.52 2.53
38 2.85 2.80 2.91 3.03 3.12 3.16 3.18 3.20 3.20
40 3.52 3.42 3.55 3.74 3.87 3.94 3.98 4.00 4.01
42 4.32 4.16 4.30 4.55 4.74 4.86 4.91 4.95 4.96
44 5.26 5.01 5.16 5.48 5.75 5.92 6.01 6.06 6.09
46 6.36 6.01 6.14 6.53 6.90 7.14 7.28 7.36 7.40
Example 1 Solution
Axle
Slab Thickness, D (inches)
Assume D=11 inches Load
(kips) 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
2 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001 0.0001
4 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003
W18 Calculations 6 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.001
8 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002 0.002
10 0.006 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005 0.005
Triple Axle loads factor 12
14
0.011 0.010 0.010 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009
0.020 0.018 0.017 0.017 0.016 0.016 0.016
0.009
0.016
0.009
0.016
for 48 kip = 2.58 16 0.033 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027
18 0.053 0.048 0.045 0.044 0.044 0.043 0.043 0.043 0.043
20 0.080 0.073 0.069 0.067 0.066 0.066 0.066 0.066 0.066
22 0.116 0.107 0.101 0.099 0.098 0.097 0.097 0.097 0.097
24 0.163 0.151 0.144 0.141 0.139 0.139 0.138 0.138 0.138
26 0.222 0.209 0.200 0.195 0.194 0.193 0.192 0.192 0.192
28 0.295 0.281 0.271 0.265 0.263 0.262 0.262 0.262 0.262
30 0.384 0.371 0.359 0.354 0.351 0.350 0.349 0.349 0.349
32 0.490 0.480 0.468 0.463 0.460 0.459 0.458 0.458 0.458
34 0.616 0.609 0.601 0.596 0.594 0.593 0.592 0.592 0.592
36 0.765 0.762 0.759 0.757 0.756 0.755 0.755 0.755 0.755
38 0.939 0.941 0.946 0.948 0.950 0.951 0.951 0.951 0.951
40 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18
42 1.38 1.38 1.41 1.44 1.45 1.46 1.46 1.46 1.46
44 1.65 1.65 1.70 1.74 1.77 1.78 1.78 1.78 1.78
46 1.97 1.96 2.03 2.09 2.13 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.16
48 2.34 2.31 2.40 2.49 2.55 2.58 2.59 2.60 2.60
50 2.76 2.71 2.81 2.94 3.02 3.07 3.09 3.10 3.11
52 3.24 3.15 3.27 3.44 3.56 3.62 3.66 3.68 3.68
Example 1 Solution
Assume D=11 inches
W18 = 2.675 x 80 + 0.5295 x 570 + 3.55 x 50 + 2.58 x 80 = 899.715/day
W18 = 899.715 x 365 x 20 = 6,567,920 EALs
Example 1 Solution
Equation to determine the thickness of a rigid-pavement PCC slab is

log 10 PSI / 3.0


log 10W18 Z R S o 7.35log 10 D 1 - 0.06

1 1.624 10 7 D 1
8.46


4.22 0.32TSI log 10

S c' C d D 0.75 1.132

215.63 J D 0.75
18 .42 E c k 0 .25


With:
W18 = 899.715 365 20 = 6,567,920
Sc = 600
Ec = 5,000,000
So =0.4
Cd = 0.9
J = 3.2
k =200
PSI = 1.7
R = 95%
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example 1 Solution
Example Solution
Traffic Distribution Among Lanes
Traffic tends to concentrate in the right lane (particularly heavy vehicles), so
the distribution of axle loads is not as simple as dividing the W18 by the
number of lanes.

In equation form,
design-lane W18 = PDL(directional W18)
Where:

W18 = 18-kip equivalent single axle loads (ESALs) and,

PDL = proportion of directional W18 assumed to be in the design lane.


Traffic Distribution Among Lanes
AASHTO-recommended values for PDL are given in Table 4.10.
Proportion of Directional W18 Assumed to Be in the Design Lane

Number of Proportion of Directional W18


Directional Lanes in the Design Lane (PDL)
1 1.00
2 0.80-1.00
3 0.60-0.80
4 0.50-0.75
Example 2
A rigid pavement is designed with an 11-inch slab thickness, 90% reliability, Ec
= 4 million lb/in2, modulus of rupture of 600 lb/in2, 2.8 load transfer
coefficient, initial PSI = 4.8, final PSI = 2.5, overall standard deviation of
0.35, and a drainage coefficient of 0.8. The pavement has a 20-year design life.
The pavement has three lanes and is conservatively designed for trucks that have
one 20,000 lb single axle, one 26,000 lb tandem axle, and one 34k triple axle.
What is the daily estimated truck traffic on the three lanes?
Example 2 Solution
Solution:
D = 11
Sc = 600
Ec = 4,000,00
So =0.35
Cd = 0.8
J = 2.8
k =150
PSI = 2.3 (4.8 2.5)
R = 90%
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Example 2 Solution
Gives: W18 = 11,162,000
Axle loads: Single 20kip = 1.58
Example 2 Solution
Gives: W18 = 11,162,000
Axle loads: Tandem 26kip = 0.619
Example 2 Solution
Gives: W18 = 11,162,000
Axle loads: Triple 34kip = 0.593
Example 2 Solution
Gives: W18 = 11,162,000
Single 20kip = 1.58
Tandem 26kip = 0.619
Triple 34kip = 0.593
or
1 x 1.58 + 1 x 0.619 + 1 x 0.593 = 2.792 per truck

Design lane traffic = W18 / (365 x 20 x 2.792) = 570.2 trucks/day


But with 3 lanes, it is assumed that 80% of trucks are in the design lane, so
570.2 / 0.80 = 712.8 trucks per day over all 3 lanes.
Example 2 Solution
When this pavement was designed, directional W18 for the road was 713 per day. So:

design-lane W18 = PDL x (directional W18)

Number of Proportion of Directional W18


Directional Lanes in the Design Lane (PDL)
1 1.00
2 0.80-1.00
3 0.60-0.80
4 0.50-0.75