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ENERGY CONVERSION ONE

(Course 25741)

CHAPTER NINE .continued


DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS
DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS
Summary
1. The Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor
2. The Magnetization Curve of a DC Machine
3. Separately Excited and Shunt DC Motors
- The Terminal Characteristics of a Shunt DC Motor
- Nonlinear Analysis of a Shunt DC Motor
- Speed Control of Shunt DC Motors
- The Effect of an Open Field Circuit
4. The Permanent-Magnet DC Motor
5. The Series DC Motor
- Induced Torque in a Series DC Motor
- The Terminal Characteristic of a Series DC Motor
- Speed Control of Series DC Motors.
6. DC Motor Starters
- DC Motor Problems on Starting
- DC Motor Starting Circuits
7. Introduction to DC generators
8. Separately Excited Generator
- Terminal Characteristic of a separately Excited DC Generator
- Control of Terminal Voltage
- Nonlinear Analysis of a Separately Excited DC generator
DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS
INTRODUCTION
The same physical dc machine can operate as either motor or a
generator & it depends on direction of power flow
Introduction to DC motors:
dc motors have a significant fraction of machinery purchased
each year through 1960s
Reasons: existence of dc power system in cars, trucks and
aircraft
Another application: when wide variations in speed are needed
Before widespread use of power electronic rectifier-inverters, dc
motors were dominant means of speed control
Even without a dc power source, solid-state rectifier & chopper
circuits used to create necessary dc power & dc motors used to
provide speed control
Today induction motors with solid-state drive packages are
preferred choice over dc motors for most speed control
applications, while still in some applications dc motors preferred
DC MOTORS AND GENERATORS
INTRODUCTION
DC motors are compared by their speed regulation:
SR= [nl-fl]/fl x 100%
It is a rough measure of shape of motors torque-speed
characteristic
A positive regulation means speed drops with increasing load &
a negative speed regulation means speed increases with
increasing load
Magnitude of S.R. approximately show how steep is the slope
of torque-speed
Dc motors driven from a dc power supply (unless specified) and
input voltage assumed constant)
Five major types of dc motor:
1- separately excited dc motor 2-shunt dc motor
3-permnent-magnet dc motor 4- series dc motor
5-compounded dc motor
DC MOTOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
Figure below shows a dc motor equivalent cct.

Armature cct. represented by an ideal voltage source


EA & a resistor RA
This is thevenin equivalent of entire rotor, including
coils, interpoles & compensating windings
Brush voltage drop represented by a small battery
Vbrush opposing direction of current flow
DC MOTOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
A simplified equivalent circuit eliminating the brush
voltage drop and combining Radj with the field
resistance shown in (b)
Some of the few variations and simplifications:
1- brush drop voltage is often only a very tiny fraction
of generated voltage in the machine. where it is not
too critical, brush drop voltage may be left out or
included in the RA.
2- internal resistance of field coils is sometimes
lumped together with variable resistor and total is
called RF
3- Some generators have more than one field coil,
all of which appear on the equivalent circuit
DC MOTOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
The internal generated voltage is given by:
EA = K
and the torque induced is
ind = K IA
The Magnetization Curve of a DC Machine
- EA is directly proportional to flux and the speed
of rotation of the machine
- EA is therefore related to the field current
- field current in a dc machine produces a field
mmf given by mmf=NFIF
DC MOTOR
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
mmf produces a flux in the machine in
accordance with its magnetization curve
DC MOTOR:EQUIVALENT CCT
Since If is proportional to mmf & since EA is
proportional to flux, magnetization curve can
represented as a plot of EA vs field current for a
given speed 0
SEPARATELY EXCITED AND SHUNT
DC MOTORS
Equivalent cct. of separately excited dc motor
shown below
SEPARATELY EXCITED AND SHUNT
DC MOTORS
separately excited dc motor is a motor whose
field cct. is supplied by another constant-
voltage supply
shunt dc motor is a motor whose field circuit
gets its power directly from armature terminals
of motor
When supply voltage to a motor assumed
constant, there is no practical difference in
behavior between these two machines
Kirchhoffs voltage law KVL equation for
armature cct. of these motors is: VT=EA+IARA
TERMINAL CHARACTERISTIC of a
SHUNT DC MOTOR
Terminal characteristic of a motor is a plot of
output torque versus speed
If load on shaft of a shunt motor is increased,
then load torque Tload exceed induced torque
Tind & motor will start to slow down
& Its internal generated voltage EA=K
decrease
Then IA= (VT-EA)/ RA increases
consequently Tind=KIA increases & finally Tind
will equal Tload at a lower mechanical speed
TERMINAL CHARACTERISTIC of a
SHUNT DC MOTOR
O/P characteristic of shunt dc motor can be
derived using Tind, EA equations & KVl
Combing these three equations:
VT=EA+IARA VT=K+IARA
& IA = Tind /(K) VT=K+ Tind /(K) RA
= VT / (K) - Tind/(K)^2 RA
This equation is a straight line with a negative
slope
TERMINAL CHARACTERISTIC of a
SHUNT DC MOTOR
Torque speed characteristic of a shunt or
separately excited dc motor
TERMINAL CHARACTERISTIC of a
SHUNT DC MOTOR
Armature reaction affect the torque speed
characteristic
As shown in last slide, as load increase, flux
weakening effect reduce the flux in shunt motor
And according to speed equation, reduction in
flux will increase speed
If a motor has compensating winding, then
there would be no flux weakening & flux remain
constant