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Session 4:

Finding Answers through


Data Collection
SHS Mass Training of Teachers, Practical Research 2
Finding Answers through Data Collection
Standards and Competencies
Content Standards: The learner Learning Competencies
demonstrates understanding of: The learner
(1) data collection procedures and 1. Collects data using appropriate
skills using varied instruments; (2) instruments
data processing, organizing, and
analysis. 2. Presents and interprets data in
tabular and graphical forms
Performance Standards: The
learner is able to gather and 3. Use statistical techniques to analyze
analyze data with intellectual data study of differences and
honesty, using suitable techniques relationships limited for bivariate
analysis
This slideshow presentation will be made available through the trainers website:
mathbychua.weebly.com.
Download the document to use it as reference.
Chapter
Content Chapter IV
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
OF DATA

In reporting the results, the researcher stays close to


the statistical findings without drawing broader
implications or meaning from them. Further, this
section includes summaries of the data rather than
the raw data (e.g., the actual scores for individuals). A
results section include tables, figures, and detailed
explanations about the statistical results
Before writing this section,
Rewrite Chapters 1-3 before or after data
analysis and before writing Chapter 4.
Rewrite Chapters in past tense, wherever
applicable, and make corrections for actual data
collection and data analysis procedures.
Rewriting
Initial
Chapters
Score the data (Coding)
Select a statistical program
(e.g. SPSS).
Input the data
Clean and account for missing
data.
Assigning a
numeric score
Preparing to each
response
Data for category for
each question in
Analysis the instrument
used
Describe trends in the data to a single
variable or question on your instrument.
Compare two or more groups on the
independent variable in terms of the
dependent variable.
Relate two or more variables.
Test hypothesis about the differences in the
How to
groups or the relationships of variables.
Analyze
Quantitative
Data
In writing this chapter,
Label section headings based on research
questions and follow their sequence
Determine parts of the data you collected that
focused on each of the variables. One subsection
should be devoted to presenting data relevant to
each variable. Use tables and graphs in
presenting statistical data.
Put greater emphasis on significant results.
How to Results that are sidelights should not receive
equal weight.
State
Results
Do not state any differences were present
between groups unless a significant p-value is
attached.
Do not comment on results.
Select statistics and place them in the most
reasonable order
Include
tables, graphs, figures for quantitative study
statistical results of hypotheses tested
How to possible explanations of unexpected results
Implications of results to existing situation
State
Results
Quantitative data are organized & summarized in
tables and figures.
Information shown in tables and figures is
elaborated in the text.
Present results of hypothesis test in tables using
statistical format, e.g., t value and level of
significance (p-value).

Tables and
Figures
Distribution of Grade 4 Students
Level of Reading Skill

To compare 9
proportions and 14

relative amounts
(How big?), use a pie
chart, a horizontal
bar chart, or a table
27

Choosing
Frustration Instructional Independent
Graph
Types
Distribution of Learners by Reading Level over the course of the
Intervention Program

27
26
25 25

19

16
14
13
12

9
8
6

Choosing START OF THE PROGRAM WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3

Graph
Frustration Instructional Independent

Types To show trends (How do things change over time?), use


a column chart or line graph
Grade 4 Learners Reading Test Scores and Hours
Spent on Reading per Week
14

Hours Spent on Reading per Week


12

10

Choosing 0 5 10 15
Reading Test Score
20 25 30

Graph To show correlations (how well does one thing predict


Types another?), use a scatterplot or multiplot chart.
Enrich and support quantitative analysis
with qualitative data analysis using selected
quotes/utterances & observed behavior of
subjects.

Results of
Hypothesis
Testing
Compare results of present study with
related studies, as follows:
This result
is consistent with or similar to that of (related
study)
Results of
contradicts/opposes that of (related study)
Related
Studies
Needed especially when results are not those
expected by researcher.
Cite all things that happened that may have
affected findings.
Look at limitations of the study, e.g., in
sampling, instrumentation, intervention, and
Possible data collection.
Explanation
s
Was the conduct of research not implemented
as planned? Were there deviations from planned
procedure?
Was dosage or duration of experiment of
intervention sufficient?
Was there a contamination of comparison
group?
Are there characteristics of sample that affected
the results?
Possible Were there issues with the instruments validity
Explanation and reliability? in test administration?
s Was there any instance of resistance of sample
to intervention?
If some or all findings are different from
expected, have a section on re-
conceptualized framework at end of Chapter
4 and make diagram of re-conceptualized
framework.
Starting with text, cite figure (diagram) of re-
conceptualized framework. Explain changes
Re-
vis--vis Conceptual Framework of the
conceptualized Study.
Framework
WORKSHOP, CHAPTER FOUR

PRESENTATION AND
ANALYSIS OF DATA
Come up with a fabricated data for your research
based on your Statement of the Problem and write
briefly this chapter