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6 Additional Topics

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.


Module objectives
Upon completion of this module, you should be able to:
Compare HxPA+ to LTE
Compare CDMA/EvDO to LTE
Compare WiMAX to LTE
Describe basic interworking of LTE with 3GPP and non 3GPP networks

6:2
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
LTE Overview course outline
1. Overview
2. Architecture Evolution
3. eUTRAN
4. EPC overview
5. Session scenarios
6. Additional topics
Compare HxPA+ to LTE
Compare CDMA/EvDO to LTE
Compare WiMAX to LTE
Describe basic interworking of LTE with
3GPP and non-3GPP networks
Course summary

6:3
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
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CDMA/EvDO

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.


3G1X circuit voice and LTE interworking scenarios
1. LTE VoIP interworking with 3G1X Circuit Networks Call Delivery only
LTE is used for voice (IMS VoIP) and data
3G1X circuit voice used when roaming - handover not required
IMS VCC application server and 7510 MGW call anchor assure that calls are
delivered to a user regardless of the network they are in
2. LTE VoIP Interworking with 3G1X Circuit Networks Voice Call
Continuity
LTE is used for voice (IMS VoIP) and data
3G1X circuit voice used when user drops out of LTE coverage; handover is
required
Call will handover from VoIP in LTE to the 3G1X Circuit MSC
3. 3G1X Circuit Switched Fallback
LTE is used for data only
3G1X circuit voice is used for all voice calls
LTE coverage overlaps 3G1X coverage
No IMS VoIP is required

6:5
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
CDMA LTE data overlay solution
LTE data overlay allows customers to expand their data services by adding
the LTE network and interworking it with existing 2G/3G networks
AAA

LTE MME EPC HSS/EIR


eUTRAN
eNodeB

SGW PGW IMS


SGi
PDN
PSTN

Laptop with LTE/CDMA


dual-mode card PCRF Sh/LDAP
eHRPD
eBTS eRNC
User
HSGW Control

CDMA

3G1X MSC

6:6
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
LTE-CDMA interworking - VoIP using IMS

AAA

LTE MME EPC S6b


HSS/EIR
eUTRAN SWx
S6a/S13
eNodeB
S1-MME S11
S102
SGW PGW IMS
S101
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN
PSTN
MGW
Gx Mj
PCRF Sh/LDAP
MGC
CDMA eHRPD
eBTS eRNC
Gxa
HSGW S103

MGW and MGC for VoIP


S2a

3G1X MSC
User
Control

6:7
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
CDMA LTE data overlay with Circuit Switched Fallback solution

Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) allows handovers to 2G/3G networks for


circuit voice calls

AAA

LTE MME EPC


HSS
eUTRAN
eNodeB

SGW PGW
SGi
PDN
PSTN

LTE/CDMA
dual handset PCRF Sh/LDAP
eHRPD
eBTS eRNC
User
HSGW Control

CDMA

3G1X MSC

6:8
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
LTE-eHRPD/1x mobility procedures

Data mobility
Non-optimized Handover (HO)
LTE to eHRPD active mode HO
LTE to eHRPD idle mode HO
eHRPD to LTE idle mode HO
Enhanced Non-optimized HO allows limited context to be retained in
the HSGW and the UE

Voice mobility
Dual transceiver (DTR) handset
Uses circuit-switched network for voice and short message service (SMS)
Uses LTE for data connections
UE is dual registered, listens to both page channels over the air

6:9
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Non-optimized LTE-eHRPD handover example

AAA
DNS
LTE MME EPC S6b
HSS/EIR
eUTRAN SWx
S6a/S13
eNodeB S10
S1-MME S11
S102
SGW PGW IMS
S101
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN
PSTN
MGW
Dual-mode UE
(LTE-3G1X) Gx Mj
PCRF Sh/LDAP
MGC
eHRPD
eBTS eRNC
Gxa
HSGW S103

MGW and MGC for VoIP


CDMA S2a

3G1X MSC User


Control

6:10
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
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UMTS

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.


Packet data interworking options

Option Description

UE-based drop & Simplest option


reselect IP address is re-established and hence session continuity
is broken
R8 LTE interworking with Based on TS 23.401 Annex D
pre-R8 GPRS/WCDMA
core Uses pre-R8 interfaces (Gn/Gp) as basis for interworking
PGW is the mobility anchor for I-RAT
Handover gap < 1 sec
All-R8 approach to Based on TS 23.401 main text
interworking
Uses R8 interfaces (S3/S4) on legacy SGSNs as basis for
interworking
SGW is the mobility anchor for I-RAT
Handover gap < 500 ms

6:12
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Interworking options for the 2G/3G SGSN

Pre-R8 interworking R8 interworking

Minimizes changes on the SGSN SGSN is upgraded to support the Release 8


Uses legacy Gn/Gp interfaces on 3GPP standards
the MME and PGW Uses a new S3 interface from the SGSN to
During Handover, the EPC the MME
performs like an SGSN relocation Uses a new S4 interface from the SGSN to
and the PGW provides GGSN the SGW
functions SGW is the local anchor for the mobility
Enables Idle state Signaling Reduction (ISR)
through simultaneous TA/RA registrations
S12 direct tunneling from the UTRAN to the
SGW
Enables local breakout in visited networks
In roaming situation, inter-RAT mobility is
hidden to the HPLMN

6:13
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
UMTS/GSM and LTE interworking terminology

UMTS LTE
PDP Context EPS Bearers

Primary PDP Context Default EPS Bearer

Secondary PDP Dedicated EPS


Contexts Bearers
NSAPI EPS Bearer ID

UMTS QoS LTE QoS

GTPv1-C GTPv2-C

6:14
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Basic LTE architecture with UMTS/GSM interworking
2G or 3G SGSN

3G-MSC/VLR GMSC
NodeB
UMTS/
GSM RNC or
BSC SGSN GGSN

Gn/Gp
DNS Gn/Gp
S4
LTE MME SGs EPC HSS
eUTRAN Gn/S3
S6a/S13
eNodeB S10
S1-MME S11

SGW PGW IMS


S12
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN PSTN

Gx
Gx
PCRF Sh/LDAP

User
Control

6:15
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
UMTS/GSM and LTE interworking options
Mobility in idle mode
Cell reselections
Allows idle UE to reselect 2G, 3G, or LTE cell using cell ranking and RAT
prioritization measurements
Mobility in active mode
Cell reselections when UE is in GPRS packet transfer mode
Cell redirections
Pushes UE to, or from, LTE coverage
PS handovers
Handover packet switched services (with legacy core in Pre-Release 8 or
Release 8) when the UE is in active mode
Voice call continuity
Supports voice service continuity between 2G/3G and LTE
Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) - Push UE to 2G/3G layer for CS services
IMS-based voice services with Single Radio Voice Call Continuity (SRVCC)
CSoPS based Voice Services (or VOLGA) as an alternative to IMS (using also SRVCC)

6:16
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
UMTS LTE data overlay solution
LTE data overlay allows customers to expand their data services by adding
the LTE network and interworking it with existing 2G/3G networks
Additionally, customers can allow handovers to 2G/3G networks for circuit
voice calls (this is known as Circuit Switch Fallback)
3G-MSC/VLR GMSC
NodeB

UMTS RNC or
BSC SGSN GGSN

Gn/Gp
DNS Gn/Gp
S4
MME SGs EPC HSS/EIR
eUTRAN Gn/S3
S6a/S13
eNodeB S10
LTE S1-MME S11

SGW PGW IMS


S12
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN PSTN

Gx
Gx
PCRF Sh/LDAP User
Control

6:17
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Voice service continuity options for supporting voice over LTE

Option Description Notes

CSFB (Circuit- UE is registered in LTE and is Two deployment scenarios are


switched paged on MT in LTE but takes possible:
fallback) call in CS (GSM or WCDMA) Camp on 3G and handover to
LTE during active data
sessions
Camp on LTE and use CSFB to
handle voice services
Voice over IMS Uses a standard 3GPP IMS Two deployment scenarios are
(VoIMS) coupled with SRVCC (Single possible:
Radio VCC) when using circuit IMS over LTE only and use
switched voice over legacy SRVCC to handover to UMTS
GSM/UMTS access and GSM
IMS over LTE and UMTS and
use SRVCC only for GSM
coverage

6:18
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
UMTS LTE data overlay with Circuit Switched Fallback solution

Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) allows handovers to 2G/3G networks for


circuit voice calls

3G-MSC/VLR GMSC
NodeB

UMTS RNC or
BSC SGSN GGSN

Gn/Gp
DNS Gn/Gp
S4
MME SGs EPC HSS/EIR
eUTRAN Gn/S3
S6a/S13
eNodeB S10
LTE S1-MME S11

SGW PGW IMS


S12
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN PSTN

Gx
Gx
PCRF Sh/LDAP User
Control

6:19
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
LTE-UMTS/GSM mobility procedures
Cell redirection and reselection
eUTRAN to UTRAN IRAT Handover (idle or connected)
Packet switch handover (with cell measurements)
UTRAN to eUTRAN IRAT Handover
Circuit Switched Fallback (CSFB) (idle or connected)
Enhanced redirection to UTRAN
Support for Release 8 or Pre-Release 8 SGSN
SMS delivery in idle or active mode
eUTRAN to GERAN NACC
Non-optimized Handover

6:20
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
CSFB mobile terminating call in idle mode
UE eNodeB MME MSC/VLR GMSC

2 1
MME receives Paging Message sent to GMSC gets an IAM message from the
Request from MSC MSC/VLR network that a voice call is incoming

3
MME sends Paging
message to each
eNodeB
4

eNodeB pages UE

5
UE responds with
Extended Service
Request

6
MME sends a
request message

7
MME sends message
to eNodeB to move
UE to UTRAN
8
UE responds to the
eNodeB. IRAT mobility begins at this point.
6:21
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Gn-based mobility example (for Pre-Rel. 8 SGSN)

3G-MSC/VLR GMSC
NodeB

UMTS RNC or
BSC SGSN GGSN

Gn/Gp
DNS Gn/Gp
S4
MME SGs EPC HSS/EIR
eUTRAN Gn/S3 Gn
S6a/S13
eNodeB S10
LTE S1-MME S11

SGW PGW IMS


S12
S1-U S5 SGi
PDN PSTN

Gx
Gx
PCRF Sh/LDAP User
Control

Gn Allows
MME to handover
to UMTS/GSM

6:22
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
IRAT Packet Switch Handover from eUTRAN to UTRAN (1 of 2)
UE eNodeB RNC MME SGSN SGW PGW

UE in ECM-
CONNECTED
state with
traffic 1
flowing in
both uplink eNodeB sends Handover
and downlink Required message to the MME
directions
2
MME initiates
resource allocation

3
SGSN makes resource
allocation request

4
RNC allocates
resources

5
SGSN returns the Forward Relocation
Response message to MME

MME sends PSHO command to the eNodeB

6:23
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
IRAT Packet Switch Handover from eUTRAN to UTRAN (2 of 2)
eNodeB RNC MME SGSN SGW PGW
UE

eNodeB requests the UE handover

UE detaches from the


eNodeB

8
eNodeB requests the handover to the
target UTRAN

Relocation complete message.

10

Relocation complete message.

11

Relocation complete acknowledgment.

User traffic is flowing in both uplink and downlink directions

6:24
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
PEAK THROUGHPUT
DOWNLINK RATE COMPARISON

MC= Multi Carrier


100 SIMO = Single Input Multiple Output
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output

10
Mbps10

MIMO STBC+SM, 2x2 1/1 32:15 (FL:RL)*


MIMO STBC, 2x2 1/1 32:15 (FL:RL)
MIMO 4x2 BF 1/1 32:15 (FL:RL)*
1
Evolved EDGE Phase A
Evolved EDGE Phase B

1xEV-DO Rev. A (MC)


1xEV-DO Rev. B (MC)

R7 (64QAM 1x2 MC)


R7 (46QAM 1x2)
1xEV-DO Rev. B

R7 (16QAM 2x2)
1xEV-DO Rev. A
1xEV-DO Rev. 0

MIMO, 2x2
MIMO, 4x2
MIMO, 2x2
SIMO, 1x2

SIMO, 1x2
R5 (1X1)
EDGE
GPRS

R99
1X

0.1
GSM CDMA* UMTS HSDPA LTE FDD LTE TDD WiMAX
Notes: Peak rates are for sector, Terminal rates may be less
*Capacities for CDMA2000 are for 7 carrier in contiguous 10 MHz

6:25
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
6:26
Mbps10

100

10

0.1
1

LTE Solution Overview


GPRS

Notes:
EDGE

GSM
Evolved EDGE Phase A
Evolved EDGE Phase B

1X
1xEV-DO Rev. 0
1xEV-DO Rev. A
1xEV-DO Rev. B

CDMA*
1xEV-DO Rev. A (MC)
1xEV-DO Rev. B (MC)
PEAK THROUGHPUT

R99

UMTS
UPLINK RATE COMPARISON

R5
R6 (10msTTI)

Peak rates are for sector, Terminal rates may be less


R6 (2msTTI)

HSUPA
R7 (2msTTI)
R7 (16QAM)

*Capacities for CDMA2000 are for 7 carrier in contiguous 10 MHz


SIMO, 1x2 (16QAM)
SIMO, 1x2 (64QAM)
SIMO, 1x4 (16QAM)

LTE FDD

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.


SIMO, 1x4 (64QAM)

SIMO, 1x2 (16QAM)


SIMO, 1x2 (64QAM)
SIMO, 1x4 (16QAM)
LTE TDD

SIMO, 1x4 (64QAM)


MC= Multi Carrier

SIMO, 1x2 1/1 35:15 (FL:RL)


MIMO 2x2 1/1 35:15 (FL:RL)
SIMO MMSE, 1x4 1/1 35:15 (FL:RL)
WiMAX
SIMO = Single Input Multiple Output
MIMO = Multiple Input Multiple Output
SPECTRAL EFFICIENCY
UPLINK MOBILITY CHANNEL

0.7

RLIC=reverse link interference cancellation

0.6

Dual Carrier provides


Spectral Efficiency (bits/Hz)

0.5
similar spectral efficiency

0.4

0.3

0.2
E-DCH (10 Ms TTI)
Rev. B (SW only)

E-DCH (2 ms TTI)
Rev. A+(RLIC)
Rev. B+(RLIC)

0.1
Rev. A
Rev. 0

16QAM

PUSC
Rel-5

AMC
RLIC
1X

0 CDMA2000 HSPA/HSPA+ LTE FDD TD-LTE WiMAX

Notes: All results for frequency reuse 1. Frequency reuse < 1/1 can be used in any OFDMA technology to tradeoff spectral efficiency for user
experience

6:27
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
Knowledge check: LTE interworking

Which group of elements provide the interfaces to allow


mobility to non-LTE wireless networks?

A. eUTRAN
B. EPC
C. PDN
D. APN

B.

6:28
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
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Module summary

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.


Module summary

LTE is designed to interwork with other mobile networks


EPC provides interface to other networks
LTE provides mobile access to services such as IMS
It does not provide VoIP, IMS does
LTE is more efficient and faster than GSM, CDMA, UMTS and WiMAX

6:30
LTE Solution Overview Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.
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End of Course

Copyright 2012 Alcatel-Lucent. All rights reserved.